Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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Greek Antiquities, with illustrations taken from ancient monu-
ments, is found in Montfaucon't Antiq. Expliq. cited P. II.
§ 12. 2 (d). An abridgment of this in German, by /. F. Roth,
was published Niirnb. 1807. fol. with 130 plates.— We may men-
lion here also Caylus, Recueil des Antiquites. Par 1767. 7 vols. 4.
contaiain; Egvptian and other antiquities, with engravings.—
Also, F. S. Cavid, Antiquites Etrusques, Grecques, et Romains.
Par. 1787. 5 vols. 4.

3. Among the best Manuals and Compends on the subject
are the following :

Everh. Feithii Antiquitatum Homericarum Libri iv. (ed. El.
StSber) Argent. 1743. 8.

Fr. Rous, Attick Antiquities. 9th ed. Lond. 1685. 4.

Jo. PhiL Pfieffer, Libri iv. Antiq. Grsecarum. Lpz. 1708. 4.

Lamb. Bos, Antiq. Graecarum, prsecipue Alticarum, Descrip'
lio brevis (with obs. of Leisner and Zeunius). Lpz. 1787. 8.
(Eng. trans, by Stockdale) Lond. 1772 8.

Sis. Haxxrcamp, Antiq. Graecarum, prscipue Atticaram, De-
scriptio brevis. Lug. Bat. 1740. 8.

P. F. .i. A't'rjcA, B' schreibung des hiuslichen, gottesdienstlichen,
sittlichen, politischen, kriegerischen und wissenscliaftlichen Zu-
Btandesd.Griechen,&c (fortgesetzt von Hoffner) Erf. 1791-lSOO.
3 vols. 8. with a 4th vol. by Kiipke, Erf. 1806. Cf. Class.
Journ. V. 10.

P. F. A. Sitsch (same), Entwurf der Griech. AlterthOmer.
Altenb. 1791. 8.

i. Sc/uiaff, Anfiquitaten und Archiologie der Griechen und
tlOoM-r. (also in his Encycl. der Class. Alterthumsk). Magdeb.
1<20. 8.

/. Robinson, Archaeologia Grseca, »r the Antiquities of
Ureece, &c Lond. 1S27. &

/. Potter, Archaeologia Grseca, or the Antiquities of Greece
Oxf. 1699. 2 vols. 8 —Same work, ed. G. Dunbar. Edinb. IS20.
-with additions and corrections by Anthon. N. York, 1825. 8.
—with no'es, maps, &c. by J. Buyd. Glasg IS37. 12. valuable.-
Sanie work in German, with additions by /. /. Rambach. Halle.
I777-7S. 3 vols. 8.

A compendium of Grecian Antiquities by C. D. Clevdana.
Bost. IS31. 12.

Abriss der Griech. und Rcirn. Alterthimer, von Chr. Fried.
Haacke. Stendal, 1S2I. 12. (very brief).

4. The following are not designed for manuals, but contain
highly interesting pictures of Grecian antiquity.

J. Jac Bartheiemy, Voysge de jeune Anacharsis en Grece. ed
Stereot. Par. 1^20. 7 vols. 12 —Engl transl. by JV. Beaumont
Lond. 1806. Cf. P. V. § I53.-Id Germ, with notes by /. B.
Bitster. Berl. 1792. 7 vols, 8.

/. D. Hartmann's Versuch einer Kulturgeschichte der
vornehmsten Volkerschaften Griechenlands. Lemgo, 1796 and
1800. 2 BJe. 8,

/. D. Lochhart, Inquiry into the Civil, Moral, and Religioui
Institutions of Athens, &c. with the Tjpography, and Chorogra
phy of Attica and Athens. Translated from the German of K. 0.
ilUUer. Lond. 1S42. 8.

The Athenian Letters, cited § 9.

5. The following works also may be consulted with advan-
tage on different points :

IJ'achsmuth, Hellenische Allerthumskunde. Halle, 1826.
Trans, into Engl. (Historical Antiquities of Greece) Oif. 1837.
4 vols. 8.

HilTs Essays on the Institutions of the Greeks.

Gillies' Discourse on the Manners of the Greeks.

IV. Becker, Charicles : Bilder altgriechischer Silten. Lpz. 1840,
2 vols. 8. with plates. A work illustrating the private life of the
ancient Greeks.

C. Hermann, Antiquitatum Laconicarum libelli iv, Marb.
1841. 4.

/. MalUot, Recherches snr les Mcbut«, les Usages, religieaz,
civile, et militaires, des Anciens Peuples. Par. 1809. 3 vols. 4,

H. Bast, The Public and Private Life of the ancient Greekt.
Transl. from German. Lond. 1836. 8.

Heeren's Politics of Anc. Greece. Transl. by G. Bancroft
Bost. 1S24.

C. 0. miner's History and Antiquities of the Doric Race T>.
by H. Tufnel and G. C. Lewis. Oxf. 1830. 2 vols. 8.

Wm. Bruce, State of Society 'o the age of Corner,

p. III.



.t. BSchh, StaatshaushaltuDg der AtheDer. (Translated into
English) Public Economy of Athens. Lond. 1828. 2 vols. 8.

LardjierU Cabinet Encyclop. No. ilrii. and Ixi. (On Arts,
Manufactures, kc. of Greeks and Romans.)

Sougier, L' Apiculture Ancience des Grecs. Par. 1830. 8.

D. G. IVait, Jewish, Oriental, and Classical Antiquities ; con-
taining illustrations of the Scriptures and Classical Records, from
Oriental sources. Cannb. 1823. 8. (cf. Home, Int. to Stud. S.
Script, ii. p. 727).

RoUirvs Anc. Hist. tk. i. Best edition, New York, 1835.
2 vols, large 8.

C. F. IVther, Repertorium der classischen Alterthtunswissen-
schaft. Lpz. 1832. 8.

Encyclopedie Melhodiquc, as cited P. IL ^ 12. 2 (c).

P. Danety Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. Lond.
1700. 4.

.{. PauJy, Real-Eoeyclopidie der classischen Alterthumswis-
senschaften. Stuttg. 1S3S. commenced.

FosLroke, Encyclopasdia of Antiquities, Classical and iledije-
val. Lond. 1838. 3 vols. 4. with plates.— Also Loud. 1640.
1 vol. lai^e 8.

TV. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Romas Antiquities. Lond.
1842. large 8. very valuable.

6. Additional references on particular topics will be given,
as the topics occur in the following sections.

§ 14. The subject of antiquities cannot be treated in so strict accordance with
chronological order as the events of history, because the sources of information
are not sufficiently minute. But still in describing the antiquities of a people,
one should not lose sight of the influence which political revolutions, the pro-
gress and decline of refinement, and other circumstances, have exerted at suc-
cessive limes upon the constitution, manners, and whole national character and
social state. ]\Iost writers have not been sufficiently mindful of this, and have
also confined themselves chiefly to the most flourishing of the Grecian states,
viz. Athens, and so have described Jitic, rather than Grecian antiquities. In
order to avoid this double fault in the present sketch, the antiquities of the ear-
lier and less cultivated times will be distinguished from those of a later and
more enlightened period ; and in speaking of the latter, although Athens was
then the most important and most eminent, we shall also notice the constitution
Pad peculiarities of the other principal states.

I. — Of the earlier and less cultivated Ages.

§ 15. It has been already suggested (§ 5, §10), that Greece advanced with
very rapid step from a state of extreme rudeness in manners and morals to the
highest degree of refinement. The history of this progress divided
into three distinct periods. The first extends from the original state of barba-
rism to the time of the Trojan war; this was the period of the peopling of
Greece : the second extends from the capture of Troy to the time of Solon, the
period of the rise and formation of the Grecian constitutions and customs : the
third extends from the age of Solon, to the time when the Greeks lost their
liberty by subjection to the Macedonians (cf. P. V. § 9), the period of their
greatest perfection and glory.

Under the present head it is proposed to notice what pertains more particu-
larly to the first and second of the above-mentioned periods ; and the subject
will be considered in four general branches, viz. religious, civil, military, and
domestic affairs.


§ 16. During the rude and unsettled state of society among the Greeks, their
religion had no fixed or steady form : yet a great part of the popular belief
originated in these times, which on this account have been called the mythical
ages or fabulous period. The formation of this early popular faith was aided
by the general ignorance, the predominance of sensual ideas, and the natural
tendencies of the mind in an uncultivated state of society (P. II. § 5u). With
the progress of social and moral culture, the traditions and fables grew into a
sort of system, which was retained as a religion of the people, and augmented
and modified by additions from Egyptian and Phcenician mythology.

According to common accounts, Greece received new and better religious
notions from Thrace, by Orpheus, B. C. about 1250 (cf. P. V. § 12, § 48^
19 N


They were, however, chiefly of Egyptian origin. The worship of animals the
Greeks never adopted ; but they embraced in common with most of the ancient
nations, the worship of the stars, that early form of idolatry. They also prac-
ticed the custom of deifying and worshiping men (P. II. § 118), who were
styled heroes, having distinguished themselves by making new discoveries,
establishing useful laws, or performing renowned exploits.

On the religious affairs of Greece, we may refer to /. G. Lakemacher, Antiquitates Grsecorum sacrx. Helmst. 1744. 8. — Chr.
irliningii, Compendium Aniiq. Graec. e prcfanis sacrarum. Francof. 1758. S.—MUford, Hist. Grasc. ch. ii. sect. I. — Ftmcher, sur
n religion des Grecs, in ttie Mem. Jicnd. Iiucr. vols, xxxiv. xxxv. xxxvi. xxxviii. and s.7ix\x.—Ant. Van Dale, Diss, de Origine
ac Frogressu Idolatriae et Superslitionum. Amst. 1696. 4.

% 17 u. Religious study and instruction among the early Greeks was the business of
their wise men, lawgivers, and poets, who were mostly at the same time priests. The
matter of these was confined chiefly to the dogmas and narratives of Theogony and
Cosmogony, which were of a mixed character, fabulous and allegorical, but based upon
some real appearances in nature and man. The various operations of the powers of
nature and the movements of human passions, were the principal foundation of the
tales and doctrines of the mythology. The origin of things, their vicissitudes and trans ■
formations, their nature, tendency and efiects, were the subjects; and these were, by
a hvely fancy, changed into supposed or imaginary persons, to whom words, actions,
and appropriate attributes were ascribed. The regular combination or assemblage of
these in order was called the Theogony, or account of the origin and descent of the
gods. This constituted the whole theory of religion, which one of the most ancient of
the Greek poets, Hesiod, reduced to a sort of regular form in his poem styled the The-
ogonv, and all the principal elements of which Homer interwove in his two epic poems,
the Illiad and Odyssey. (Cf P. V. ^ 50, <& 51.)

§ 18 u. In the first ages the wise men, and especially the poets, made great exertions
to imbue the minds of the people with reverence for the gods and respect for their wor-
ship. On public solemnities, and in great assemblies of the people, they were ac-
customed to adapt their songs to this object. Even when the subject of these songs
was not the history of the gods, nor any point of direct religious instruction, they were
opened by a prayer to Jupiter, Apollo, or some inspiring deity. In this way they fixed
and strengthened a prevailing faith in the power and providence of the gods, and
formed the first ideas of right, virtue, and morality, and of future rewards and punish-
ments. The songs of these poets constituted at first the chief means and subject of
the instruction of the young. Hence arose on the one hand the great influence of their
poetry on the moral culture of the Greeks, and on the other hand the great admiration
in which the early poets were generally held.

§ 19 u. For an account of the principal Grecian deities, their names, rank, history,
attributes, and mode of worship, we refer to the portion of this work which treats of
Mythology (P. II). Here we only remark, that the number of the Grecian gods con-
stantly increased with the progress of time, yet the highest and most distinguished of
them were introduced and honored in the early ages, and it was chiefly in the class of
heroes or demigods that this augmentation took place, after the lapse of the heroic
ages, and by means of oral traditions. The more extensive the services of these heroes
were while living, the more general was the reverence for them after death, while
those, whose beneficial influence hnd been confined chiefly to a particular city or tribe,
were deified chiefly by the same, and received a less general homage and worship.

§ 20. The sacred places, which were specially dedicated to the gods in these
early ages, were in part, fields and grounds, whose produce was devoted to
uses connected with religious worship ; partly groves and particular trees, the
former being commonly planted in a circular form; and partly, at length, tem-
ples, which were viewed as the seats and habitations of their respective gods.
The temples were usually in the cities near the market or place of public busi-
ness, although they were sometimes erected in the country, and in the conse-
crated groves. The ground, on which they stood, was usually elevated either
by nature or art, and their entrance or front was commonly towards the east.
Some of them were dedicated to a single deity, others to several. It w^as not
uncommon to place the name of the god, to whom the temple was sacred, in a
brief inscription over the entrance.

§21. Originally the interior of the temple was entirely vacant, after the
Egyptian manner, even without the image or statue of its god. And in the
earliest times the image of a god (cf. P. IV. § 156. 2) was nothing but a mere
stone, which served to represent the deity, and to which offerings were brought. •
This was the primary origin of altars. By degrees, these stones came to be
formed into a human shape, after which it was more common to place statues


(ttyGX^afa) of 'the aods in their temples. The posture was sometimes stand-
ing, sometimes sitting. The material, at first employed, was of no great value,
being stone, wood, or clay. There were, however, in the heroic ages, images
of the gods of a more costly substance, such as ivory, brass, silver or gold,
although Homer never exactly describes the material.

§ 22. The care of th.e temples and holy things was intrusted to the priests
and priealeases. The number of these varied in different cases, and depended
generally upon the rank of the deity, on whose temple and worship they
attended. The marriage state was not forbidden them, although it became
afterwards customary to take priestesses mostly from persons unmarried, who
either were obliged to perpetual celibacy, or remained priestesses only until
marriage. In some instances the priesthood was hereditary ; but in others it
was adopted in free choice, or by lot. The residence of the priests was usu-
ally near the temple, or the consecrated grove, often within the limits of the
latter. They derived their subsistence from what was offered to the gods, and
were often in easy circumstances. Generally the office was highly honored in
the early ages of Greece, and was held, in part at least, by the noblest and
most distinguished personages, sometimes even by kings.

§ 23. Some of the principal rites and solemnities pertaining to the religious
worship must here be mentioned. Among these were lustrations (xahap/xoU
dyi'tcT,uo(,), which consisted in the ablution of the body, and a certain purification
of the clothes, and of sacred utensils. For this purpose salt water was used,
which was taken from the sea, or prepared by a solution of salt in common
water. Sulphur and fire were also used on these occasions. These purifica-
tions were considered as especially necessary for those who were defiled by
murder and blood, and even for the places where such crimes had happened.
They were often ordered for the propitiation of offended deities.

§ 24. But prayers and sacrifices were the most essential parts of Grecian
worship. The former were put up, especially, when some important enterprise
or undertaking was commenced ; the object of the prayer being to secure a
happy issue, in case of which very rich gifts were promised to the gods by the
supplicant. Both prayers and vows were termed ivx(^t,. In making them, the
eyes and hands were raised towards the heavens, or in the temples directed
towards the images. The posture was sometimes standing, sometimes kneel-
ing {yovvu^io^aL, yovvTistiiv) ; the latter was used especially in case of earnest
desire or peculiar distress, and often by the whole assembly in common.

1. Supplicants usually had garlands on their heads and necks, and green boughs of
olive or laurel [i^aWol or x-.Woi iK-fiptoi) in then- hands. In the boughs wool was placed
without tying, and they were hence called sometimes orf^uia-a. With these boughs the
supplicants touched the knees, sometimes the cheek, of the statue of the god addressed
in their prayers.

2 u. With the prayers were usually joined the libations, or drink offerings, c-rrov6ai,
called also Ao.^ai, xo.'u. These consisted generally of wine, part of which was poured
out in honor of the gods, and part of it drunk by the worshiper. The wine must be
pure {iiKparoi'), and offered in a i\dl cup. Sometimes there were Ubations of water
{v6p6aTTO./i':a), of honey (y-irXt'orroj/Ja), of milk (yaXa/crooTroj/t'a), and of oil {iXaida-AOi/ca).

In Plate XX. we have the representation of a priestess in the act of pouring out the libation ;
in this instance the liquid is poured upon the flame kindled on the altar; also in Plate XXVIl.
fig. C. which is taken from jMoses, Antique Vases.

§ 25. The sacrifices, ^rcrt'at, originally consisted merely of incense, ^vo?, or
some sort of fragrant fumigation, by cedar, citron wood, or the like. In very
early times, the fruits of the earth, in a crude, unprepared state, were offered;
and subsequently, cakes, oi^ai, baked of coarse barley, or meal mixed with
salt. It was not until a somewhat later period, that the slaughter of living
victims was introduced. These victims were selected with great care. At
first, bullocks, sheep, goats, and swine, were chiefly taken for the purpose.
Aftervi-ards certain animals became specially sacred as victims appropriate to
particular gods. Sometimes a single victitn was sacrificed, sometimes several
at once, which were often of the same kind of animal, and often also of differ-
ent kinds. The hecatomb (£zard,u,6;y) properly consisted of a hundred bullocks


or oxen ; yet neither the number nor kind of animals was very \ recisely re-

The origin of sacrifices is an interesting and important theme. Some flippant and superficial
writers ascribe them wholly to mere superstition and priestcraft. Oiliers attempt in a more
serious manner to explain their existence by human origin. Several theories have been pro-
posed ; one is, that they were at first gifts, a natural expedient for procuring the favor of the
gods; another, that they wete federal riles, drawn from men's eating and drinking together in
token of friendship, andhence the sacrificial banquet (cf. $ 27) ; a third, advanced by Warburton
(in his Divine Legation of Moses), is that they were symbolical actions, expressive of gratitude
in some offerings, and in others, of the acknowledgment of sin and contrition through the death
of an animal representing the death deserved by the worshiper. But a fourth account, which
refers them to a diviyie institution, is more satisfactory. The Bible represents the Hebrew sacri-
fices as typical of the death of Christ as the great atoning sacrifice for sinners. (Cf Ep. to Heb.
ix. and x.) On supposition that God, when he promised a Redeemer to Adam, instituted some
viemorial and type, in an animal sacrifice, it is easy to see how by tradition the practice of offering
sacrifices should be universal.— The subject is well discussed by IV. Magee, Dissertations on the
Scriptural Doctrine of Atonement and Sacrifice. N. York, 1813. 8.— Cf. A. A. Sykes, Essay on the
Sacrifices. Lond. 1748. 8.

§ 26. The altars (/3toao/), on which the sacrifices were presented, were erected
not only in the temples, but often in open places, as on the banks of rivers,
on mountains, in groves, and the like.

The altar seems to have preceded the temple ; and, in the opinion of some, gave rise
to the temple, as suggested in the following passage.

"Throughout the whole of the Iliad no mention occurs of a temple in Greece, except in the
second book, evidently incidental, and the interpolation of some vainly patriotic Athenian rhap-
eodist. The passage indeed might be condemned on the grounds of philolosical discussion, but
it contradicts both the history of art and of religion in that country. In Troy, the temple of
Minerva appears to have been a mere shrine, in which a statue was inclosed, and probably, in
Tenedos, a temple of Apollo is merely alluded to. During the age of Homer, then, the primeval
altar, common to both Europe and Asia, was the only sacred edifice known. Tliis diflfered little
from a common hearth ; the sacrifice being in fact a social rite, the victim, at once an offering to
heaven, and the food of man, was prepared by roasting; the first improvement on their simple
construction appears to have been the addition of a pavement, an obvious means of cleanliness
and comfort. Yet even this appears to have constituted a distinction not common, since, in par-
ticular instances, the pavement is mentioned as a peculiar ornament. Subsequently, in order
.o mark in a more conspicuous manner, and with more dignity, the sacred spot, while the rites
should be equally exposed to the spectators, an open colonnade was added, inclosing the altar
and pavement. Thus the roofless temple might be said to be finished ; but whether this prime-
val structure existed in his native country during the age of Homer does not appear. We
remark here a very striking resemblance between the ancient places of devotion in Greece and
the Druidical temple of the more northern regions. In fact, the astonishing remains at Stone-
hence present the best known, and perhaps one of the most stupendous examples ever erected
of the open temple. This species of religious erection appears to have been co-extensive with
the spread of the human race, and not, as generally supposed, limited to the northern portion
of the globe."— Jl/eme.v, Hist, of Sculpture, &c. p. 225, as cited P. IV. $ 169.

§ 27. Among the ceremonies connected with offering a sacrifice, was the pre-
vious washing of the hands (§ 67. 2) and the sprinkling, by the priests, of those
who were present, with sacred water {xh^'-'^)' Then was placed upon the
back and head of the victim, in early times, unground barley, in later times, a
number of small cakes {Ttoriava, ov-koyvta), often meal mixed with honey, wine,
or oil ; a little hair torn from the forehead of the victim was then thrown upon
the fire ; next followed the prayer and libation (§ 24. 2) ; then the priest, or the
xr.\)v^^ smote the animal on the head with an ax or club, and cut its throat with
a sacrificial knife (ry^aytj). The blood was received in an appropriate vessel
{n^(xyfiov). The victim was then flayed and cut in pieces. The next thing
was to cover the haunches or thighs (^^pot) with caul or fat {xviG6-q), and to
take small pieces from other parts of the animal and place upon them {Cj^o^i-ttlv).
Upon the portions thus prepared, wine was commonly poured, and they were
then placed on the altar and burned. The rest of the victim was usually
roasted on spits, and eaten at the sacrificial banquet. Banquets of this kind
were made especially on the sacred festivals.

§ 28. Besides the sacrifices properly so called, it was common to bring to
the gods other gifts and offerings (SJipa, dva^raana). Among these, were
crowns or garlands {Qtifpavo^, ati^o^), with which the temples, altars, and sta-
tues were often adorned, and which were formed of the leaf sacred to the par-
ticular god to whom they were offered : e. g. oiivy, for Bacchus ; of oak, for
.Tupiter. Curtains and vestments (rtfptTtfrcc'^^ata, Tt^povraara) wrought with
rich embroidery were brought and placed upon the statues or hung in the tem


pies. Vessels'of gold, silver, and brass were also offered, and tripods (rptTtoS? j)
especially to Apollo. The spoils of war were often thus consecrated, dxpo^tvLa,
with shields and arms. Frequently the articles dedicated to the gods were
marked by inscriptions stating the occasion and circumstances of their dedica-
tion. From the custom here described, arose the great riches of some of the
Grecian temples.

The temple of Apollo at Delphi, particularly, became in the course of years pos-
sessed of immense wealth.

See yiitjcrd's Hist. Greece, ch. xxxvii. sect. 1 ; ch. xxxviii. sect. 1 ; ch. xxxix. sect. 5.— Bancroft's Heeren, p. 201, as cited P. V.
§ 7. S.—De Valois, Les richesses du teoiple de Delphes, \u the Mem. Acad, hiscr. iii. 78.

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