Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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were held at the beginning of every third year (rpiE-r'jjptxot), and were attended
with the musical contests as well as those m all the athletic exercises. The
prize was originally, and also in later times again, a crown of pine ; for a
period between, it was a crown of dry parsley. The judges were at first
selected from the Corinthians, afterwards from the Sicyonians. Pindar, in his
Isthmian odes yet extant, has sung the praise of eight victors, mostly Pancra-
tiasts, who gained the prize in wrestling and boxing at the same time.

In our Plate XVI. are seen various forms of ancient crowns and garlands. Fig. 8 represents
the Isthmian crown ; fig. 9, the crown of myrtle ; fig. 10, the laurel.

Solon established by a law that every Athenian, who pained a victory at the Isthmian games,
should also receive from the public treasury {Plut. Sol. 23) a reward of one hundred drachmae. —
The triumphal odes, in which the praises of the victors were celebrated, were termed Epinihia.

See Massieu, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. v. p. 95, 2\i.—Dissen, in his edition of Pindar; cf. P. V. § 60.—Krause, Die Fythien,
Nemeen, und Islhniien. Cf. § 88. 2.

§ 88. On account of the great estimation in which Athletics were held among
the Greeks, and their intimate connection with religion and the interests of the
state, the subject deserves a few additional remarks.

1 u. In the most general sense, .the term included intellectual as v^'ell as bodily ex-
ercises, pursued with earnestness and zeal ; but it was commonly used to signify those
more frequent and violent bodily exercises, which were so much practiced in Greece,
especially at the games already described, and which were viewed as an essential part
of education, and constituted a great object of the Gymnastic system. Many of those
who had enjoyed full instruction therein, made these exercises the main business of
their life. Such were called ddXrjrdi and dyMi'tardt. The teacher of the system or art
was called yvuvaarf}? and fwrdpxj??, superintendent of a |i'o-rdf, which was a covered gal-
lery where the exercises were performed in winter, and was so called from the floor
being made smooth and level. Although the Athletae were not strictly in the service
of the state, yet they received great honor. Their whole mode of life was conducted
whh reference to augmenting their bodily strength, and they submitted to many rigid
precepts. In most of the exercises they were naked ; in casting the quoit and the jave-
lin they wore a light covering. By frequent anointing, rubbing, and bathing, they ren-
dered their bodies more strong and supple. In preparation for a com.bat, they covered
themselves with dust or sand, in order that they might take better hold of each other,
and avoid too great perspiration and exhaustion. Generally the ground, or surface of
the area, on which they exercised, was wet and slippery.

2 K. Before being permitted to enter this area, they were subjected to an examination
and a rigid preparation. For this purpose judges {dOXoOcrai, dyoivoOcTai, 'EWamSiKai)
were appointed, whose number was not always the same, who decided concerning the
prize, and excited the combatants by animated exhortations. The rewards of the con-
querors were the applause and admiration of the people, the public proclamation of
their names, the laudatory song of the poet, the crown of victory, statues, solemn pro-
cessions, banquets, and other privileges and advantages.

For additional remarks on this subject, see P. IV. § 63, § 64.-C. F. A. Hockheimer, Versuch eines Systems der Erziehun? der
Griechen, Dess. 1785. 2 vols. 8. a work very instructive ou this topic and on Grecian education generally— Cf. Jahn's Treatise on
Gymnastics. Northampt. 1828. 8.—Amer. Quart. Rev. vol. iii. p. \25.-Burette, Histoire des Athletes, in the Hist, de PAcad des
Inscr. vol. i. p. 211.— P. Faber, De Re Athletica, &c. Lugd. 1595. 4. ; also in Grmovius, vol. viii.— .ff. Mercurialis, De Arte Gym-
Baslica. Amst. 1672. 4.—P.M. Paciaudius, De Athletarum /cr/340-Tjjo-£t In Palaestra Grscorum. Rom. 1756. 4.—/. H. Krause,
Theagenes ; oder wissensch. Darstellung der Gymnastik, Agonistik, und Feslspiele der Hellenen. Halle, 1835. 8. with plates.

% 89. Dramatic representations or theatrical performances, among the Greeks, be-
longed appropriately to religious festivals; and had their origin, in fact, in religious cere-
monies, particularly in the rites connected with the worship of Bacchus at Athens ; this
circumstance is more fully noticed in the Archaeology and the History of Greek htera-
ture : see P. IV. ^ (,6. P. V. % 36, ^ 37, and 47. Some account of the structure of the
Greek theatres is given under the head of Architecture ; see P. IV. § 235. Besides


what is said in the sections referred to, a few remarlis may be added properly in this
place, respecting the machinery and the performers.

1. In their theatrical exhibhions the Greeks employed various mechanical contrivances.
Among these were the following : the Qco\oyzXov, a platform concealed by clouds and
supporting the gods in conversation ; the Mr)xavfi and the Tipavoc, instruments employed
to bring a god or other personage suddenly upon the stage, or withdraw him or lift him
into the skies ; the Aiupai, ropes to enable him to walk apparently in the air ; BpoirEioj/
and the 'K.spammKomXov , contrivances for imitating thunder and Hghtning.

2. The number of actors [moKpiral) in the whole of a play was of course various ; but
no more than three at once appeared on the stage {aKqvrf) in the part appropriated to
speakers (XoyzZov). Although the author of the piece represented was sometimes obliged
to be one of the actors, yet those who were actors by profession were, as a class, of low
character and loose morals. — In order that the voices of the speakers might be aided and
the sound spread over the whole of the theatre, artificial helps were employed ; among
these were the brazen vessels ifm'^a) resembling bells, which were placed in different
parts of the structure. — In the rude state of the art the features of the actor were con-
cealed or altered by smearing the face with wine-lees, or by some rude disguise,
^schylus (cf. P. V. "^ 39, 61) introduced the regular mask (jrpoacjnnXov , persona) ; which,
ultimately, was formed of brass or some sonorous metal, or at least had a mouth so
prepared as to increase the sound of the voice. There was a vast variety in the form,
color, and appendages of the masks, so as to represent every age, sex, character, and
condition ; no less than twenty-five classes of tragic masks are enumerated by Julius
Pollux ; six for old men ; seven for young men ; three for male slaves ; five for ft male
slaves; and four {or free women. The tragic mask often had a great elevation of the head
and hair (called oyKo^) to heighten the stature of the actor ; and for the same purpose, the
tragic actor wore a very thick-soled boot (;c69opvoj, ffi/?as). Of comic masks forty-three
varieties are specified ; nine for old men; ten for young men; seven for male slaves; three
for old womeii ; fourteen for young women. The comic mask for the oldest man was
called TraTrrf/j Trp'Zrog. Besides all these there were masks appropriate to the satyric drama.

Representations of several ancient masks maybe seen in our Plate XLIX. cf. P. IV. § 189. I. See ScMegel, on the Drama, Lect.

iii. — Mongez, sur ies masques des Anciens, in Ihe Mem. dt VInstituI, CI a s s e cPHist. tt Lit. jliic. vol. i. 256. vii. 85. — Mongez,
(on use of masks for increasing the power of the voice), in the Mem. de VInst., C I a s s e ie Lit. tt Btaux Arts, vol. v. p. 89.— See
also § 23S. 3.

3. The Choir (xopd;) was composed of performers wholly distinct from the actors ;
yet, by its leader, it often took part in the dialogue. The Chorus was maintained at
vast expense ; one source of which was in the dresses and decorations, which were of
the most splendid kind. See P. V. § 37, and the references there given.

§ 90. As the theatre was opened at sunrise, or even as soon as day-break, the spec-
tators assembled very early in order to secure good seats, which, as the edifices were
built at the public expense, were at first free for every person. In consequence of the
contest for places, which this occasioned, a law was passed at Athens, under which a
fee for admission was demanded. This was fixed, for a time at least, at two oholi. But
under the influence of Pericles, another law was also enacted requiring the proper ma-
gistrate to furnish from the pubHc treasury the amount of this fee to every one who
applied for it that he might attend a dramatic performance. The money thus used was
termed OewpiKo. xp%aro, and the magistrate, Ta^'ag Tcof Qzu^piKMv. The number of specta-
tors was often very great (cf P. IV. § 235). Barthelemy has given a vivid description
of their crowding to the theatre.

Travels of Anacharsis (as cited P. V. § 153. 2), ch. xi. Cf. also rh. \-kx.— Barthelemy, Nombre des pieces qu'on representoient en
nn jour a Athenes, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. xxxix. 172.— On Greek. theatrical Derformances, cf. V. V. §s 36-47.— Land. Quart
Rev. xii. 119.-/. Proudfit, in the Bibl. Repository, vol. i. of 2d Series, p. 4i9.—Bottiger, as cited V. V. § 88.


§ 91. After what has been already said (§§ 33, ss.) of the original circum-
stances and constitution of the Greek states, we may confine ourselves now to
their characteristics and peculiarities in later times. The account of the various
changes of their constitution and the consequences thereof belongs to history
rather than antiquities. The latter, properly considered, will treat chiefly of the
civil regulations of the most flourishing republic, Athens, without overlooking
those of the other considerable states, especially the Spartans, who were dis-
tinguished by many peculiarities from the Athenians, although they had also
many points of resemblance.

§ 92. The early political changes at Athens have been mentioned (§ 39).
After the kings, whose power was greatly circumscribed by the chiefs of noble
families, and of whom Codrus was the seventeenth and last (1068 B. C), the
chief magistrates were the Archons. "When these became despotic, Draco


(624 B. C.) introduced a code of laws, which soon occasioned new troubles by
their severity. Recourse was then had to Solon (594 B. C), who abolished
all the laws of Draco, except the one respecting murder. Solon chano-ed the
form of government in many points, diminished very much the authority and
power of the Archons, gave the people a share and voice in judicial inquiries,
and thus transformed the aristocracy previously existing into a mixed and mo-
derate democracy.

On ll,e Civil Affairs of the Athenians, cf. G. Postdlu,, De Republica Atheniensium. Lagd. Bat. 1635. A.-C. P. Levaqtu sur la
CoDs!,.ut,oD d'Alhenes, in Mem de VInHitut, C 1 asse des Science, Mor. et Pol vol. Iv.-AT. F. Hermann, Lehrbnch der Griech-
»chen StsatsalterthUmer. In English transl. entitled, Polilical Antiquities of Greece. Oxf. 1S36. 8. An improved edition of the
orig.ual publ. in \S3S.-irac/iSmuth, as cited § 13.-^. D. HUllmann, Staatsrecht d. Alterthums. Coin. IS20 8.

§ 93. Originally the people had been divided into four tribes {^v-kaC), and
also divided, according to their places of residence, into a number of boroughs
or wards (Sr^oO- Each tribe likewise was subdivided into three curix (^par-
pottt, I'^viq) according to their consanguinity, and each of the curiae into families
{ytvT, t^taxdhii). But Solon divided the citizens according to their wealth
into four classes; 1. TlivtaxoGco^ibi ixvoi, X\iose w\\o gathered from their fields
in moist and dry crops, at least 500 ^libv^vov ; 2. 'iTtnn^, those whose grounds
yielded 300 ^ih^voi, and who were able to maintain a war-horse (trtrto? 7to?ij-
/iicfrj^ptof); 3. Zivyitao, those whose lands produced 200 (or 150) ^ibti.ivoi,,
and who owned the space of one acre or ^f^yoj ; 4. 0^rf 5, those who had any
less income. All the citizens were admitted to the assembly of the people
(§ 106), but only the first three of the above classes shared in the burdens and
expenses of the state, and therefore they alone could receive oflices, and from
them alone the senate (^orXiJ, § 107) was chosen, which at that time consisted
of 400. Solon also advanced the authority of the Areopagus (§ 108), as he
gave It jurisdiction of the most important criminal cases.

§ 94. Athens remained under these regulations only about thirty-four years.
Then, even before the death of Solon, Pisistratus became sole master of the
state, and notwithstanding all opposition, continued such until his death, 528
B. L. His two sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, succeeded him. These were
soon stripped of their power; Hipparchus being slain by Harmodius, who was
offended on account of his sister {Thuc. vi. 544) and was aided by his friend
Aristogiton; and Hippias being driven into banishment by the people. After
this, the constitution received a new form under the influence of Clisthenes.

The number of the tribes {^ was now increased to ten. From each of
these, fifty senators {^ov-Kivtai) were yearly elected, so that the Senate consisted
of 500. After this the power of the people was still more increased. Aristides
effected the abolition of the law of Solon, which excluded from oflices the low-
est of the four classes of citizens. Pericles, with the assistance of Ephialtes,
deprived the Areopagus of a great portion of its power; he also occasioned many
important changes in the constitution, which were gratifyino- to the lower
classes, and by which the democracy became less guarded and'restrained, and
the way was opened for the ochlocracy that soon followed.

§ 95. After various changes in the government, Athens was taken by Ly-
sander, B. C. 404. The supreme power was then ves'.ed in the thirty tyrants,
who were, however, deprived of their authority after three years, by Thrasy-
bulus, and banished. In their stead, decemviri {h^xaboixo^) were instituted,
who likewise abused their power, and were exiled, after the former democracy
was restored. This form was retained until the death of Alexander the Great,
when It was overturned by Antipater, and the government vested in a certain
number of nobles or chiefs. After the death of Antipater, Cassander committed
the republic to a lieutenant; and under Demetrius Poliorcetes, it enjoyed aaain
freedom and popular power. With some changes, this state of thino-s con-
tinued until the time of Sylla, who in the Mithridatic war conquered Athens
and subjected her to the Romans. The final destruction of the city happened
towards the end of the fourth century by the hands of Alaric, kin^ of the
VVestgoths. ' °

% 96 t. Athens was the most beautiful and splendid citv in Greece. Its circuit was
about on^^hundred and seventy-eight stadia. Its topography is given more particularlv


in the Epitome of Classical Geography (cf. P. I. ^§ 104-116) ; here we shall only name
some of the principal buildings and works. One part of it was the citadel, which lay
upon a steep rock ; this at first constituted the whole city under the name of Cecropia,
and was afterwards termed Acropolis. The most remarkable buildings on the Acropo-
lis were the IlpoTriiXaia, Fropylcea, the napdsv.ov, or temple of Minerva with the famous
statue of this goddess by Phidias, and the joint temple of Neptune Erectheus and Mi-
nerva Pohas. In the other portion (which was called the lower city), the temples of
Vulcan, Venus Urania, Theseus, Jupiter Olympius, and the Pantheon sacred to all the
gods, were among the most remarkable. Of the numerous covered porticos, the Pee-
die (cf P. IV. § 74) was the most renowned, and adorned with the most magnificent
paintings and ornaments. The Odeum, built by Pericles, was devoted to musical and
literary exercises (cf. P. IV. § 235. 3). The name of Ceramicus was given to two
extensive spaces, one within and the other without the city, the former enriched with
beautiful edifices, the latter used as a burial ground. I'here were several market
places (dyopai), with different names according to their specific uses. The Gymnasia
also, and the Baths, the Stadium ascribed to Herodes Atiicus, the Academy, the Cyno-
sarges, the Hippodrome, and the Theatres, belong to the remarkable and interesting
works which adorned the city of Athens. The three harbors, Piraeus, Munychia,
and Phalerum, should hkewise be mentioned.

For a view of the Parthenon, see Plate XXI. fig. 1 ; in the same Plate, fig. 2, is the temple of
the Winds ; fig. 3, the temple of Theseus. — A view of tiie Parthenon in its ruins as given by Hob-
ho!ise, is seen in the Plate on page 432.— For ruins of the temple of Minerva connected with that
of Neptune Erectheus, see the Plate on page 30.— For a plan of Athens, see Plate I.

§ 97. The inhabitants of Athens and of the whole of Attica were either
7to}<2tai, free citizens ; /xstoixoi,, free commoners, resident aliens or sojourners ;
or 8ov%oi, slaves. The first class was the most respectable; the last, the most
numerous. The number of resident foreigners, however, was not insignificant.
The right of citizenship was, in the flourishing times of the republic, a high
privilege, which was conferred only upon men of honorable descent and dis-
tinguished merit, and upon such not without difficulty, since the agreement of
six thousand citizens was first requisite. Free born Athenians were those whose
parents were born at Athens, or at least one of whose parents was born there;
and those of the latter class held a lower rank, and privileges in some respects
less than the former.

1 u. By Cecrops the Athenians were divided into four tribes (cf § 93) as follows;
1. Kexpoirlg, from his own name ; 2. ' AvtoxOwv ; 3. 'Axrraia ; 4. llapaXia. To each of these
tribes belonged several districts, boroughs, or wards {cfjpot), of which there were at
length 174 in Attica, and which differed from each other in various points of manners
and customs. The names of the tribes were afterwards changed, and the number in
creased to ten (cf § 94), finally to twelve.

On the A^/toi of Attica, see IV. M. Leake, io the Transacliotis of the Rnyal Society of Literature; a full account, with a good
map. — A complete list of them is given in Pf'achsniulh'x Historical Antiquities.

2 ti. The number of citizens, TroXirai, in the time of Pericles amounted to 14,040 ;
and in the time of Demetrius Phalereus, according to a census taken by his direction,
B. C. 309, the number was 21,000.

3. From the census of Demetrius, the whole population of Attica, including aliens
(cf. *$> 99), women, children, and slaves (cf *§> 99), has been estimated at 500,000.

On the population of Attica, see BockVs Public Economy of Athens.— CZinfon'j Fasti, Appendix.— .imcr. Quart. Register, op
Populousne'S of Ancient Nations, vol. ix, p. 143. — Sainte Cro'X, Sur la population de I'Attique, in the Mem. Jlcad. Inscr. vol. xlviii.
p 147.— And Letronne, in the Mem. de Vlnetitut, C 1 a s s e d'Hist. et Lit. Jlnc. vol. vi. 165.

§ 98. The ixifoixoi were those foreigners, or persons not natives of Attica,
who became residents in the city or territory. I'hey took no part in the govern-
ment, being admitted neither to the assemblies of the people nor to public
offices, but were subject to all the laws and usages of the land. They were
obliged to select from the free citizens a patron or guardian (Ttpoatdtrji), in
whose name they could manage business and maintain actions in the civil
courts, and to whom they must tender certain services. Certain services to the
state were also required of them, besides which an annual tribute {^istouxtov)
was exacted ; ten or twelve drachms for each man ; and six for each vt-oman
without sons; mothers with sons that paid being free from the tax. Some-
times exemption from taxation (drtXfta) was conferred upon individuals as a
leward for meritorious services. Demetrius found, by his census, 10,000 of the
class of foreign residents-

The term Iti'oi wap applied to foreigners remaining in the city or country for a short
tiine only, as distinguished from the loreign residents, although it was sometimes applied




to the latter ; it was also applied reciprocally to persons who were mutually pledged,
by former acquaintance, or in any other way, to treat each other with hospitality.

If a metic neglected to pay the imposed tax, he was hable to be sold for a slave.
Diogenes Laertius was actually sold, because he had not the means of paying it; but
was redeemed by Demetrius.

Among the services required of the residents was the carrying of a vessel with water,
v5pia<popia, which the married alien women were obliged to perform to the married
females of Athens in the grand Panathenaic procession ; the daughters of aliens were
obliged on the same occasion to render to the Athenian maidens the service of carryincr
parasols {crKiacri-popta). See '^ 77. 6.

Cf. Sainte Croix, Sur les Metoeques, &c. in the Mem. de VJlcad. des Inter, vol. xlviii. p. 176.

§ 99. The slaves (gorXot) were of different sorts, those belonging to the pub-
lic (SotXot 5j7;u6(jtot), and those belonging to private citizens {dixitcu). The
latter were completely in the power of the master, and were often treated with
great severity. Yet they sometimes purchased freedom by their own earnings,
or received it by gift as a reward for merit. Public slaves also were often set at
liberty, when they had rendered the state some valuable service. Freedmen
very seldom, if ever, obtained the rights of citizens, and were still termed
SorXot. In general, the condition of the slaves in Attica, abject and miserable
as it was, appears to have been in some respects less so, than in other states
of Greece, especially in Laced aemon. The slaves of Attica amounted to
400,000 in the time of Demetrius.

The term diKern; signifies one living in the same house with any one ; 6ikov6jio;, signi-
fies one who oversees one's affairs, and is sometimes applied to designate a particular
slave, since slaves were sometimes intrusted with the office of steward ; mrripErri;, signi-
fying primarily a rov-er, and secondarily an attendant, is also sometimes applied to
slaves. Xen. Mem. ii. 10.

At Athens slaves were not allowed to imitate freemen in the fashion of their dress
or the cut of their hair ; their coats must be with one sleeve only {iTepo^iacxaXoi) and the
hair cut in the servile form (-p'f dv^pa-rrooui^rig). They could not properly bear the names
of Athenian citizens, but must be called by some foreign or low name. They were
allowed to bear arms only in extreme cases. The punishments inflicted were severe ;
for common offences they were whipped (/^oo-Tiyiaw) ; for theft or running away they
were bound to a wheel and beaten {i-rri rpoxov) ; for some crimes they were sentenced to
grind in the mills (jivXcives) ; sometimes they received, upon their forehead or some
other part, the brand with hot iron {ariyfia). In giving testimony in court they were
also subject to torture {[iaoavo;). — Yet at Athens the slaves could bring civil actions
against their masters and others for violation of chastity and for unlawful severity
Ivppsw; ciKTi and liiKiai dlKrj). When greatly oppressed, they could also flee to the temple

of Theseus, from which it was held as sacrilege to force them. Slaves carried on

the whole business of the Athenians ; even the poorer citizens depended on them.
There was a sale of slaves on the first day of every month by merchants {dvfpanoc^Ka-
nri\oi) ; usually announced by a crier standing on what was called the vender's stone
{irparripyiOos). The price varied according to their abihties. Many were skillful in the
elegant arts, and versed in letters ; while others were only qualified to toil in the mines.

See Reilemeier, Geschichte und Zustand der Sclaverey, &c. (History of Slavery and Villana^e in Greece.) Berl. 1789.— Cf
Atlitnzus, vi. (cf. P. V. § \2'i).—Benihardy, Grundriss der Griech. Lit. p. 36. — Bibl. Kepos. and Quart. Observer, No. xvii. p. 138.

§ 100. The magistrates at Athens were divided, in reference to the mode of
their appointment to office, into three classes, the ;^aipoT'oi')^rot', the x'kr^pu>toi',
and the aipstoi. The first named were chosen by the whole people raising the
hand ; the second were appointed by lot by the Thesmothetae in the temple of
Theseus ; and the last were chosen by particular portions of the people, by the

Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 38 of 153)