Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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Spurious or Apocryphal writings. § 285
Opinions of early Christians respecting
human learning. Christian seminaries.
Philosophy adopted by the Fathers. § 286
Biblical writings. Versions of Bible ;
Origen's Hexapla. Harmonies. Com-
mentaries. § 287 Controversial writings,
Irenaeus, Justin Martyr, Tatian, Athena-
goras. § 288 Historical writings. Euse-
bius. § 289 Doctrinal. Origen. Atha-
nasius. § 290 Homiletical. Character of
the ancient homily. Few remains of early
sacred oratory. § 291 Homilies of Origen.
§292 Distinguished Christian orators just
after the time of Constantine. Basil, Gre-
gory, and Chrysostom. § 293 References
to works giving information respecting the
Fathers.

ROMAN LITERATURE.
Introduction, p. 549-554.
§§ 294-302. =§ 294 Rank of the Ro-
mans in literature. § 295 Utility of stu-
dying their language. § 296 The four
ages commonly assigned to it. Works on
its origin and "history. § 297 Pronuncia-
tion of Latin. § 298 Methods and exer-
cises in studying. § 299 Various works
useful as helps. § 300 Plan followed in
this treatise. § 301 Five periods of the
history of Roman literature. § 302 Classes
of authors.

I. Foets, p. 554-586.

§§ 303-389. = § 303 Eariiest poetry uf
the Romans. § 304 Hymns of the Fratres
Arvales and Salic Priests. Fescennine
verses. § 305 Tuscan Histriones. Atel-
lane Fables. § 306 Early national ballads



CONTENTS.



<^ 307, 308 Introduction of regular dramatic
forms. § 309-312 Tragedy. § 313-317
Comedy. § 318 Atellaiie Fables. § 319
Mimes. § 319 b. Pantomime. § 320 Ori-
gin of modern dramatic exliibitions. Plays
at fairs. Holy farces. Mysteries and Mo-
ralities. ^ 321-325 Epic Poetry. § 326-
329Lvric. S> 330, 331 Bucolic. §332,
333 Elegiac. § 334-336 Didactic. § 337
The Fable. '^ 338-3-41 Ihe Epigram.
§ 342 Anthologies. § 343-347 Satire.
^ 348 General references. Collections of
Roman Poets. § 349 Livius Andronicus.
"S 350 Naevius. § 351 Ennius. "5> 352
Plautus. § 353 Pacuvius. <& 354 Accius
or Attius. § 355 Terence. § 356 Luci-
lius. § 357 Lucretius. § 358 Catullus.
§ 359 CorneUus Gallus. § 360 Tibullus.
§ 361 Propertius. § 362 Virgil. § 363
Horace. "5, 364 Ovid. § 365 Cornelius
Severus. ^ 366 Pedo Albinovanus. § 367
Gratius Faliscus. § 368 Publius Svrus.
§ 369 Marcus Manilius. § 370 Caesar
Germanicus. §371 ^milius Macer. §372
Phaedrus. § 373 Persius. § 374 L. An-
naeus Seneca. § 375 Lucan. § 376 Va-
lerius Flaccus. § 377 Silius Italicus. § 378
Statius. § 379 Martial. § 380 Juvenal.
§ 381 Flavius Avianus. Festus Avienus.
§ 382 Dionysius Cato. § 383 Nemesian.
§384 Calpurnius. § 385 Ausonius. Proba
Falconia. § 386 Claudian. § 387 Pru-
dentius. § 388 Sedulius. §389Rutilius
Numatianus.

n. Orators, p. 586-592.
§§ 390-406. = § 390 Eloquence in the
earliest ages. § 391 Influence of Greek
teachers. § 392 Civil honors acqiiired by
oratory. §393 Eloquence of the Gracchi.
§ 394 Increase of speakers. Eminence
of Crassus and Antony the Orator. § 395
Study of the art of speaking. Schools.
§ 396 Two eminent orators. Sulpiiius and
Cotfa. § 397 The two great rivals, Hor-
tensius and Cicero. § 398 The kinds of
oratorv. § 399 Decline of Roman elo-
quence. § 400, 401 Principal orators in
the later ages. § 402 Panegyrical oratory
of the Romans. § 403 General references.
§ 404 Cicero. § 405 Pliny the youneer
(Caius Caecilius Secundus). § 406 The
Panegyrists; Claudius Mamertinus, Eu-
menius. Nazarius, Pacatus, Symmachus.

HI. Rhetoricians, p. 592-595.
§§ 407-415. = § 407 Distinction between
Rhetoricians and Grammarians. § 408
First rhetoricians at Rome. Opposition to
the Grecian teachers. § 409 Schools of
Roman freedmen. § 410, 411 Principal
authors in this department. § 412 General
references. § 413 Cicero. § 414 Marcus
Annteus Seneca. RutiUus Lupus. § 415
Quintilian.

IV. Grammarians, p. 595-600.
§§ 416-434. = §416 Studies and influ-
ence of the Grammarian. § 417 The an-
cient grammarian and modern philologist.



§418 Principal grammarians down to the
death of Augustus. § 419 Chief gram-
marians of the next period. § 420 High
rank enjoyed by grammarians in later
times. § 421 Name.sof the more eminent.
§ 422 General references. § 423 Varro.
§ 424 Asconius Pedianus. § 425 Aulus
Gellius. § 426 Censorinus. § 427 No-
nius Marcellus. § 428 Pomponius Festus.
§ 429 iEliirs Donatus. § 430 Macrobius.
§ 431 Charisius. § 432 Diomedes. § 433
Priscianus. § 434 Isidore.

V. Epistolizers and Romancers, p. 600-
604.

§§ 435-445. = § 435 Number and value
of Roman epistles extant. The earhest
specimens. § 436-438 The principal au-
thors. § 439 Romance scarcely found in
Roman literature. § 440 Cicero. § 441
Pliny the younger (C. Cagcilius Secun-
dus). § 442 Lucius Annaeus Seneca.
§ 443 Fronto. § 444 Symmachus. § 445
Sidonius Apollinaris.

VI. Philosophers, p. 604-614.
§§ 446-474. = § 446 Origin of Roman
philosophy. § 447 Numa a philosopher.
§ 448 Philosophers introduced by Paulus
vEmihus and Scipio Africanus. § 449 Dale
of the rise of philosophy at Rome. § 450
Difference between Greeks and Romans
in respect to philosophical studies. § 451
Comparative number of Roman philoso-
phers. § 452 Patronage of LucuUus.
§ 453 Philosophy in the time of the em-
perors. Introduction of oriental views.
§ 454 Example of Marcus Aurelius. In-
fluence of Christianity. § 455 Sects of
philosophy at Rome. § 456 Academic.
§ 457 Stoic. § 458 Peripatetic. § 459
Cvnic. § 460 Epicurean. § 461 Skeptic.
§ 462 Pythagorean. § 463 New Pytha-
gorean. § 464 New Platonists. § 465
Eclectics. § 466 Philosophy of Christian
Fathers. § 467 General references. §468
Cicero. § 469 Lucius Annaeus Seneca.
§ 470 Pliny the elder (Caius Secundus).
§471 Apuleius. § 472 Petronius Arbiter.
§ 473 Capella. § 474 Boethius.

VII. Mathematicians , Geographers, and
(Economists, p. 614-622.

§§ 475-501. = § 475, 476 Merh of the
Romans in mathematical science. § 477-
479 Principal writers in this department.
§ 480 Knowledge of geography among the
Romans. Survey of the Empire. §481,
482 Principal writers and works. § 483
Class of writers termed (Economists.
Greek and Roman agriculture. §484, 485
Roman writers on husbandry. § 486 The
Culinary art. § 487 Surveying of land.
§ 488 Treatises on the art of the agrimen-
sores or land-surveyors. § 489 General
references. § 490 Vitruvius. §491 Fron-
tinus. §492 Vegetius. § 493 Juhus Fir-
micus. § 494 Pomponius Mela. § 495
Solinus. § 496 Vibius Sequester. § 497
The Roman Itineraries. § 498 Marcus



CONTENTS.



Porcius Cato. ^ 499 Varro. 500 a. Colu-
mella. § 500 b. Palladius. Mariialis Gar-
giiius. § 501 Ccelius Apicius.

VIII. 3Iijthographers, p. 622-624.
<5>§ 502-509 =^ '^ 502 'I'he tales of Roman
mvtholo^y similar to thot=e of the Grecian. ;
S 503 '1 he writers few. CoUeciions. ^ 504 ;
Hvginus. § 505 Fulgentius. Albricus. '
S' 506 Lactantius Placidas.

IX. Historians and Biographers, p. G24-
638.

§'5. .507-542 = § 507 Metrical annals.
^ 508 I'he Pontifical Commentaries and
other early records. § 509 Legal docu-
ments. Family memoirs. Funeral eul j-
gies. '5> 510 Loss of early historical re-
cords. Dispute respecting the authenti-
city of the common history of Roine.
§ 511-513 The Annalists. '^ 514, 515 Prin-
cipal writers in the third period of Roman
Literature. ^516 Official documents in
this period, i 517-522 Historical writers
after the time of Augustus. § 523-526
Roman biography. Several classes of bio-
graphical works. "5) 527 General references.
^ 528 Julius CEesar. ^ 529 Sallust. ^ 530
Cornelius Nepos. § 531 Titus Livius.
^ 532 Velleius Paterculus. 'i 533 Vale-
rius Maximus. ^ 534 Tacitus. ^ 535
Quintus Curtius. ^ 536 Florus. "ji 537
Suetonius. § 538 Justin. § 539 Sextus
Aurelius Victor. § 540 Eutropius. § 541
Amnnanus Marcel linus. '$> 542 Authors
of the Augustan History.

X. Writers on Medicine and Natural
Science, p. 638-642.

^§ 543-557 = '5' 543 Science of Medicine
in low estimation at Rome. *^ 544 Early
notions respecting the nature of diseases.
§ 545 Greek slaves the first physicians.
<>546 Pv.egard paid to the Greek physicians,
i 547 a. Cato's book of medicine. § 547 b.
Roman medical authors, from the time of
Augustus to that of the Antonines. § 548
IMedical writers in later times. ^ 549
Rank of physicians under the emperors.
^ 550 Opportunities for advancing natural
science enjoyed by the Romans. § 551
Principal authors in physics. § 552 Ge-
neral references. § 553 Aulus Cornehus
Celsus. § 554 Scribonius Largus. § 555



Serenus Sammonicus. ^ 550 Theodorus
Pnscianus. ^ 557 Marcellus Empiricus.

XI. Writers on Law and Jurisprudence,
p. 643-647.

•^§558-771. = '^ 558 Number of works
in this department lost. Reason tor it.
^ 559 Various classes of works. % 560
Design of the notice heie to be taken.
V 561 Earliest collections. I'he Jus Pa-
pirianum ; Twelve Tables ; Jus Fiavia-
n ,m ; Jus /Elianum. S^ 562 Writers in
the second period of Roman literature;
Manilius, Mucins Scsvola. S^ 563 Emi-
nent writers of the next period ; Sulpicius
Rufus; Cicero; Alfenus Varus ; Cascel-
lius; iElias Tubero, &c. S> .564. 565
Chief civilians and authors in the period
between Augustus and the Antonines;
. Masurius Sabinus. and Sempronius Pro-
culus ; Cocceius Nerva, Juventius Celsus;
Neratius Priscus ; Salvius Juhanus ,
Gains, &c. § 566 Rank of the legal pro-
fession in the time between the Antonines
and Constantine. Encouragement under
the system of Constantine. Law- School
of Berytus. § 567 Papinian ; Ulpian ;
Julius Paulus. "^ 568 Codex Hermogenia-
nus. Codex Theodosianus. Code of
Theodoric. Breviary of Alaric. 'i' 569
Arrangements of Theodosius for reducing
to order the Roman law. Labors of Tri-
bonian. Constituent parts of the Body of
Roman Law. § 570 Influence of the
system of Justinian. Revival and sway
of Roman Jurisprudence. % 571 General
references.



Christian Writings in the Latin Lan-
guage, p. 647.

§ 572 Names of some of the autho.^s.
References on the subject.



Appendix to the History of Greek and
Roman Literature, p. 649-652.

§*i 573-575. = •§ 573 Editions of the
Classics in regular sets. <j> 574 Collections
of Translations. § 575 History of classi-
cal studies. ^ 576, 577 Biography of the
most eminent classical scholars. ^ 5/8
Progress of classical learning in the United
States.



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.



1. Frontispiece. View of Delphi and the [
Heiahls of Parnassus, as given by Socage in
Bartheleiiiy's Aiiacharsis. See the volume of
Plates, p. 71, as cited P. V. $ 153. 3.— cf. P. I.
$97.

2. Reverse of Title. (Facing Page v.)
Representation of the Oracle of Apollo. Cf. P.
III. H 72, 73.

3. Map of Ancient World. (Page 2.) TTie
World according- to Ptolemy, as given in Mur-
ray's Encyclopteilia of Geography. Cf P. I. $ 3.

4. Plate I. (Page 14.) Plans of Athens and
Rome. See P. I. jj 51-71, 104-116.

5. Plate II. (Page 16.) The Tiber, and the
City of Rome, symbolized. Cf. P. II. $ 90; P. IV.
$ 226. 1.

6. Plate III. (Page 18.) The Pantheon. Cf.
P. I. $ 59.

7. Plate IV. (Page 23.) Plain and Acropo-
lis of Philippi. CfP. I. $bO.

6. Plate IV «. (Page 30 ) Ruins at Athens
of the Temple of Neptune and that of Minerva
Pandrosos. Cf P. 1. $ 107 ; P. III. $ 96.

9. Plate IV ft. (Page 35.) Ruins at Corinth.
Cf. P. I $ 120.

10. Plate IV c. (Page 37.) Village of Mis-
tra; near the ancient Sparta. Cf. P. I. $ 126-
129.

11. Plate V. (Page 39.) Cabirian Temple
at Thessalonica. Cf P. I. $ 80; P. II. $ 129. 2.

12. Plate VI. (Page 42.) Colossal Statue
of the Sun. Cf. P. 1. $ 147 ; P. II. $ 72; P. IV.
$ ISO. 1.

13. Plate Via. (Pace 45.) Valley of the
ancient Thebarma. Ct'. P. I. $ 154 6.

14. Plate VI &. (Page 49.) View of Broosa,
the ancient Brusa. Cf. P. I. J 160.

15. Plate Vll. (Page 50.) Temple of Jantis
at Rome, and that of the Sun at Heliopolis. Cf.
P. I. J 166, }60; P. IV. <J234. 3.

1(5. Plate VIII. (Page 55.) The Ecryptian
Sphinx, &c. Cf P. I. $ 177 ; P. II. J 117, $ 96.

17. Plate Villa. (Page 58.) A Portion of the
Peutingerian Table. Cf. P. V. $ 4^7. It is pre-
sented here as given in H. Murray's Encvclo-
paRdia of Geography (Phil. 1838, 3 vols. 4), from
which is taken the following explanation of the
figures and letters on the Plate; with no change
isiept that of adding in parentheses the com-
mon Latin form of some of the names.



North Part.



Citia.
Siscia.
Sardona,

Aquinco (Aquincum).
Briiautio (Bre^elio).
Jadera.

Rajadone (Ragondo).
Sabarie.

( arnunto (CamuDtum),
Celeja.
ViodnlKina.
Tarsatica.
^luona.

Pala.

Silvo (Silvium).

Pareiitio (P.renlium).

Fnnte-Tuaiaia.

Aquileia.

Ovilia.

Al!no(AItinum).

Rezino (Regina).

Tiiden'e (Tridcnium).

P.acemia.

Aquse Populoniae.

Fiorentia Tuscorum.

.Sena Julia.



Manlua.

Niutina.

Cnsa

Aiirelio (Arretium),



Cities.

32. Bononia.

33. Clusio (Clusiuni).

34. Volsini (Vulsinii).

35. Aquas-Passaris.

36. Ravenna.

37. Ariminum.
3><. Granisca.

39. Cenlum Cellae.

40. Aquas-Tuari.

41. Ancone (Ancona).

42. Castro-Novo(CaslrumNo-

43. Aquas-Apollinaris.

44. Snleto.

45. Pollentia.

46. Reate.

47. Castello Firmani (Castrum

Firnianiim).

48. Ad Seui. Petriim.

49. Roma.

60. H.)5tis (OstiaV

51. Chartaii.ie (Carthago).

52. Utica Coloiiii.

53. Aquis.

54. Ippniite Diarito.

55. Capsa Colonia.
66 Ad Medera.
57. Thele.ite Col.
5*. Thenes'e.

60. Ad Aquas Caesirii



Rivers.

a. Danubius.

b. Unuum.

c. Sav uui.

d. Arsia.

e. Frigido.

f. Liceiina.

g. Afesia.
h. Cleusia.
i. Uii.atia.
j. Fad us.
k. Paala.
I. Auinio.
m. Isex.

South

Cities.

1. Ad Pretoruni (Prjetorium

in Pinnonia).

2. Servi'ium.

3. Ad Preiorum (Pratorium

in Da inalia).

4. Mursa Major.

5. liidenea.

6. Tiitoburgo.

7. Rasurio.

8. Siclis.

9. Salona.

to. Epetio (Epetium).
tl. Marona.

12. Sirniium.

13. Narona.

14. Tauruno (Tanrunum).

15. Ad Ma'.ricem.

16. Singiduna (Sinjidunum).

17. Epitauro (Epidaurus).
IS. Stanedi.

19. Lis>us.

20. Viniinatio.

21. Dvrraiio (Dvrrachium).

22. Aulnnia (ApoUonia).

23. Osa Col.

24. Sabrala.

25. Rejio(RhegiumorRegium).

26. Caulon.

27. Lacenium.

28. Castra Minervae.

29. Vibona Valentia.
30 Tenisa (Tempsa).

31. Tarento iTarentum).

32. Brindisi (Brundusium).

33. Grade.

34. Nerulos (Nerulum).
33. Salerno (Salernum).

37. Oiilontis.

38. Benevento (Beneventum).

39. Veriusia.

40. Neapnii (Neapolis).

41. Capua.

42. Cumas (Cum^).

43. Sylla.

44. A eras.

45. Prelonium Laucrianum.

46. Sipon'o (Sipontum).

47. Esernie.

48. Teano Scedicino(Teanum

Sidicinuni).

49. Sinuessa.

50. Mimurnis (Mintarnae).

51. Fundis (Fundi).

52. Terracina.



Rivers.
n. Unibro.
o. Pallia.
p. A.-menila.
q. Marta.
r. Tiberis.
B. Rubicon.
t. Nelurum*
u. Malana,
V. Misc.
w. Flosis.
X. Tuma.
y. Neruinum.
z. Anio.

Part.

Cities.

54. Febraterie.

55. Istonum.

56. Corfinio (Corfinium)

57. Marrubio (Marrubiuiq .

58. Tres Tabernae.

59. Carsulis (Carseoli?).

60. Oslia .£terni.

61. Pinna.

62 Castro-NoTO (Castram N>
vum.on the Hadriatic).

63. Praenesle.

64. Roma.

65. Hostis ((Jstia).

66. Chartaeine (Carthago).

67. MaiulT.

68. Ad Aquas.
6y. Misua Clipeis.

70. Gurra.

71. Ad Horrea.

72. Lepteminus(LeplisMinor)

73. Thiforo Col.

74. Ad Aquas.

75. Taparura (Taphrura).

76. T.icape.

77. Drepanis (Drepanum).

78. Lilybeo(Lil>boEum).

79. Agrigento (Agrisentua



(Syr
8' a;tna Mons.
82. Messana.
Rivers.
i. Danubius.

b. Urinum.

c. Savuni.

d. .Margum.

e. Genesis (Genusus).

f. Hapsum (Apsus).

g. Taono.
h. Crater.
i. Silarum.
j. Color.

k. Aveldium.
1. Aufidenus.
m. Larinum.
n. Clocoris.
o. Sannum.
p. Cremera,
q. Nernum.
r. Arno.
s. Tiberis.
t. Safo.
u. Vulturnus.
V. Hiraera.
w. Niranus.
X. Ausere.



53. Ferentinum. y. Geiin.

18. Plate IX. (Page 62.) Symbolic Repre-
sentations of the Seasons. Cf. P. I. $ 191 a ; P
IV. $ 188.2; P. II. $ 105.

19. Plate IX a. (Page 80.) View of Athens,
from the foot of Mt. Anchesmus ; reduced from
Hobhonses Albania. Cf. P. I. $ 105.

20. Plate X. (Page 82.) Mythological lllus
trations. —FiS. 1- r'aturn; cf P. II. $ 14-17.—
Fig.2. Cybele; cf P. II. $ 19-21.— Fis. 3. Pluto;
cf P. II. $ 32-34.— Fig. 4. Vulcan ; cf P II.
? 51-.14.— Fig. 5. Neptune : cf. P. 11. i 29-31.—
Fig. 6. Venus, with attendants ; cf P. II. $ 47-
49.— Fig. 7. Diana ; cf P. II. $ 38-40.— Fig. 8.
Bacchus; cf. P. II. $ 57-60.

21. Plate XI. (Page 92.) Mythological 11-
histratiovs.—F\g. 1. Juno; cf P. II. ? "26-28.—
Fis. 2. Mercury; cf. P. II ? 55. 56.— Fig. 3 Ju-
piter; cf P II. $22-25.— Fig. 4. Apollo; cf. P

XXV



XXVI



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.



IT. $ 35-37.— Fi?. 5. Ceres ; cf. P. II. ? 61-64 —
fig 6 Minerva; cf. P. II.Hl-43.— Fig. 7. Mai-s;
cf P. II. J 44-46 —Fig. 8. Jamis ; cf. P. II. $ 18.
-Fig. 9. Cupid ; cf. P. II } 50.— Fig. 19. Vesta;
cf. P. II. i 65-67.

22. Platk XII. (Page 97.) The Hindoo
Triad. Cf. P. II. $ 25. 4.

2:!. Plate Xlll. (Page 103.) The Avatars
of Vishnu. Cf. P. II. J 25. 4 ; $ 37. 2.

24. Plate Xlll a. (Page ill.) Festival of
Juggernaut. Cf. P. II. $ 59. 4.

25. Plate XIV. (Page 121.) Mythological
Illutstratinns.- F\s. 1. Sol, as represented on a
coinofliieRliodians; cf. P. 11. $ 71-72.— Fig. 2.
Ni).\, as rnpresenled on a gem; cf. P. II. J 76.
-Fig. 3. Luna; cf. P. II. $ 73.— Fig. 4. Hebe;
P. IL $ 27.— Fig. 5. Flora ; cf P. II. $ 90. 4m.—
Fig. 6. .^r;cula[)ius; cf. P. II. i 84.— Fig. 7.
Pan; cf. P. 11. $ 79.— Fig. 8. Spes, or Hope;
cf. P. II. $ 95.- Fig. 9. Forluna; cf. P. II.
$ 86.— Fig. 10. Victoria ; cf. P. 11. $ 93 —Fig. 11.
Concordia; cf. P. II. $ 95.— Fig. 12. Pa.\, or
Peace; cf. P. II. $ 95.

26. Plate XV. (Page 124.) Representations
from the hicic Table. Cf. P. II. $ 96.

27. Plate XV a. (Page 13b.) Table of Greek
and Roman Deities dassifitd Cf. P. II. $ 9, 10.

28. Plate XVI. (Page 140 ) Crowns, Gar-
lands, J^-c— Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Roman crowns or
wreatlis, bestowed as military rewards. Fig.

6. Imperial crown. Cf. P. 111. $ 264. 1.— Figs.

7, 8, 9, 10. Crowns or garlands received by vic-
tors in the games; ct. P. 111. $ b4-87, $ 2.33.—
Fig. A. Plan of a Gymnasium or Palaestra after
Viiruvius, as given in Barthelemifs Anachar-
.'is : cf. P. IV. $ 236.— Fig. B. Victorious cha-
rioteer; cf. P. 111. $ 233.- Fig C. A golden
crown found in Ireland ; cf. P. 111. ? 34.

29. Plate XVII. (Page 155.) jViWary Wea-
pons, &,-c. For particulars, see P. III. $$ 45, 137,
2&3.

30. Plate XVIII. (Page 161.) Tombs and
Sepulchral Rtmoins.—Tig^. 1,2, 3. Tomb of Cy-
rus, Absalom's pillar, and Pyramid of Cestius ;
cf. P. III. $ 187. 5.— Fig. 4. Gates of a tomb; cf.
P. 111. $ 187. 5.— Figs, a and dd. Lachrymatory
and nngneniary va.ves; cf. P. III. $ 341. 7.—
Fig. B. Egv!>tian Psychosiasy, or weighing of
the soul; cf. P. II. $ 34b. 4.— Fig. e. Funeral
couch ; cf. P. 111. $ 340. 1.- Fig. hh. Cotfin and
urns, &c.; cf P. 111. J 3^1- 6.

31. Plate XIX. (Page 165.) Oracle of Tro-
phonius. Cf. P. 111. $ 74.

32. Plate XX. (Page 168.) Representa-
tions of Priests and Priestesses presenting Liba-
tions and Sacnfces. Cf. P. 111. $ 24, $ 221.

33. Platb: XXI. (Page 179.) Tempies.—
Fig. 1. Parthenon; cf. P. 111. $ 96, P. IV.
J 234. 3, P. 1. $ 107.~Fig. 2. Temple of the
Winds; cf. P. 111. $ 96. P. I. } 110.— Fig. 3.
Tem[)le of Theseus; cf P. III. $ 96, P. I. § 109.
— Figs, a, b, c, d, e.f,g, h. Ground-plans of the
different kinds of temples; cf. P. IV. $ 234. 2.

34. Plate XXII. (Page 195.) Various A rti-
tlef of Armor.^Figs. a, b, c, &c. Helmets; cf.
P. 111. i 45.— Figs, r, s. Mail and breastplate;
cf P. 111. $ 45, I39.-Fig. M. Greaves; ff. P.
HI. $ 44, 45.— Figs. 1, 2, 7. Grecian warriors;
cf P. 111. i 45.— Fig. 3. Persian warrior; cf
P. 111. i 45.— Fig. 4. Trophy; cf. P. 111. $ 150.—
Fig. 5. Warrior in mail, with an armor-bearer;
cf. P. 111. $ 283.— Fig. 6. Egyptian archer; cf.
P. III. { 45, $ 288. 1.— Fig. 8. Soldier in com-
plete mail; cf. P. 111. $283.

35. Plate XXlll. (Page 201.) J^aval Illus-
trations. —Fin. 1. Pinnace or light boat for rapid
moving; cf. P. 111. $301.— Fig. 2. Vessel from a
painting at Pompeii; cf. P. HI. $ 304.— Fig. 3.
Liburnian galley; cf. P. HI. $ 304.— Fig. 4.
Merchant vessel; cf. P. HI. $ 155 —Fig. 5.
\Var-galley; cf. P. HI. $ 155.— Fig. A. He\i-
tv.me as explained by Holwell ; cf. P. 111. $ 155,
i;,0.— Fig. B. Views of the relative position of
the rowers, according to the explanations of



some; cf. P. HI. $ 156.— Fig', a, b, c. Different
forms of prows : cf. P. HI $ 155 3, 4.

36. Plate XXIV. (Page 205.) Pertaining
to Household Jiffuirs. — Fig. 1. Plan of a Grecian
house; cf. P. III. $171. 1.— Fig. 2. A Grecian
key; cf. P. III. $ 171. 2.— Fig. 3. Young man
wearing the petasus ; cf. P. 111. 169. 3.^Fig. 4.
A bride sitting with a n-irror held before lier;
cf. P. 111. $ 169. 6. $ 171. 2.-Figs. 5 and 10.
Grecian sofas; cf. P. 111. $ 171. 2.— Fig. 6. Pe-
culiar head-ornament, worn in oriental coun-
tries; cf. P. HI. $ 34.— Fig. 7. Grecian ladv,
from Boyd's Potter; cf. P. III. $ 169. 5 ; $ 171. 2.
-Figs. 8, 9. Chairs; cf. P. 111. $ 171. 2. $ 52.—
Figs, a, 6, c, &c. Various forms of coverings for
the feet; cf. P. HI. $ 169. 2; $ 336.

37. Plate XXV. (Page 211.) Costume.—
Figs, a, b, c, d, Modern Egyptian and oriental
dresses; e, /, Greek Bacchantes, ^, an Egyp-
tian spinner; A, i, Grecian female fluters; k,
Grecian lady in the more ancient costume; m,
peculiar head-dress; v, o, Egyptian princess
and priestess in transparent garments ; y, w,
veils and head-dresses. 8ee P. HI. $ 169. 5. —
Fig. 1. A box w-orn on the neck ; cf. P. HI.
$ 337.— Fig. 2. A lady's purse, from Egyptian
monuments ; figs. 3, 4, toilet-table and mirror;
cf. P. III. $ 338.

38. Plate XXV a. (Page 215.) Tables of
Grecian Moneys, &c. Cf. P. HI. $$ 173-177.

39. Plate XXVI. (Page 219.) Musical In-
struments. For particulars see P. 111. $ 180.

40. Plate XXVI d. (Page 224.) Tabular
view of Ciinl Institutions of Athens. Cf. P. HI.
$$97-116.

41. Plate XXVII. (Page 231.) Altars and
Sacrificial Apparatus. — Figs, a, b. c, &c. Various
articles as given in Montfancon; fig. A. including
1, 2, &c., articles drawn from sculfiture at Pom-
peii ; fig. B, representation of a sacrifice, from
the same source ; cf. P. HI. $ 206.— Fig. C. Sa-
crifice to Bacchus ; cf. P. HI. $ 205. 1 ; $ 67.—
Fig. D. Sacred utensils from Egyptian re-
mains ; cf. P. III. $ 206. 2.— Figs. E, tl, Altars ;
cf. P. HI. $205. 1.

42. Plate XXVHI. (Page 236.) Priests and
Priestes.^es. Cf. P. HI. $ 219; P. II. $ 67 m;
P. V. $ 16

43. Plate XXIX. (Page 240.) The Suore-
taurilia, from an ancient bas-relief. Cf. P. HI.
$ 224. 2.

44. Plate XXX. (Page 245.) Gladiatorial
Contests. — Fig. 1, two nndabalcE or horsemen ;
fig 2, a horseman and footman (cf. P. HI.
$ 283); figs. 3, 4, two gladiators (m foot ; fig. 5,
wounded bull; fig. 6, two secutores and two
reliarii: see P. III. $ 235. 2, 3.— Fig. 7. Plan of an
amphitheatre at Pompeii; cf. P. HI. $ 239.—
Fig. n. A Dacian horseman in scale-armor; cf.
P. III. $283.

45. Plate XXXI. (Page 255.) Pertaining
to topics noticed under the head of Roman Civil
Affairs.— Figs. 1 and 3. Roman fasces, and
Egyptian scepters; cf. P. 111. $240 1.— Figs. 2
and 9. Roman official chairs ; cf. P. HI. $ 255.
2.— Figs. 4, 5, 6. Chariots ; cf. P. III. $ 269. 3.—
Figs. 7 and 8. Steelyard and weight ; cf. P. HI.
$ 270. 1.— Fig. 10. Sedan; cf. P. HI. $ 255. 2.—
Fig. A, a kind of stocks; fig. B, the Mamerline
prison at Rome ; cf. P. HI. $ 264. 1.

46. Plate XXXH. (Page 265.) Pertaining
to Household and Agrictiltiiral Affairs. — Fig. 1,
plan of a Roman house ; figs, a and 6, a key
and bolt from Pompeii ; cf P. HI. $ 325. 6.-^
Fig. c, Egyptian door; cf P. IV. $231. 1.— Fig.
d, Couch ; fig. E (including 1, 2, 3, &c.). Lamps ;
cf P. III. $ 325. 7.— Fig fi. Roman plow; fig.
iii. Syrian plows; figs. iv. 6, 7, instruments
for threshing ; figs. 5, 8, sickle, pruning-knife,
&c. See P. HI, $ 269. 2.

47. Plate XXXlIa. (Page 269.) Tables of
Rowan Monevs, ^-c. Cf P. Ill $ 271, $ 274.

48. Plate "XXXin. (Page 273.) Armor, Mi-
litary Standards, (!j-c. -Figs. 1 and 2. Legionary



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.



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