Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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sixth as their nphjivg. They had the inspection of the gymnastic exercises, called
rrXaravKTra, because performed in a spot surrounded with plane trees ; it was their pro-
vince to decide disputes arising at the gymnasia. They had their tribunal or place of
council also in the forum. The common name for the council-halls of these and other
magistrates was apxtia.

§ 124. The Spartans had other magistrates; as the No^o^v7.axaj, who saw-
that the laws were maintained and executed ; the Ap;UO(5t;i'ot, to whom was en-
trusted the oversight of the women, to observe their lives and manners and direct
their exercises; the 'E,u7t£?.copot., who preserved order and decorum in assemblies
of the people, and attended in general to the police of the forum or market; the
Ilv^toc, four in number, appointed by the kings, and employed to consult oracles ;
the Ilpolfroi., who were also appointed by the kings, and had charge of the re-
ception of strangers ; the IlpoStxot,, who had the care of the young kings as
tutors; the IlatSovoaot, whose office was to oversee and manage the boys put
under their care at the age of 7 ; the 'Ap^to^rat, who were a sort of sheriffs in
the city and province; the noxifiap;i:ot, who under the kings superintended the
affairs of war, and also attended to some matters of police in the city ; the
'iTtTtayplrat, three officers, who commanded each a chosen band of 100 horsemen.

§ 125. The assemblies {ixxTi^niai) of the people were similar to those at
Athens. In some of them only native citizens of Sparta met; in others there
were also delegates from the towns and cities belonging to the province Laconia;
in assemblies of the latter class were discussed all affairs of common interest
and importance to the whole state. Originally the kings and senate had the
power of convening the assemblies ; it was afterwards vested in the Ephori,
who also presided in them. The votes were given by utterance of voice {j5oyj
xai ov 4'-^t9)' 2ind the majority decided by the loudest acclamation, or by a
subsequent division and counting of the two parties.

The assembly composed only of the citizens of Sparta was called puKpa tKKknaia, and
usually met once every month. Every citizen capable of bearing arms might attend,
and, if above the age of thirty, might speak. The meetings were originally in the
open air, but at a later period were held in an edifice, called cKiaq, erected for the pur-
pose. — The other assembly was called simply, or by way of eminence, cKKXriaia. It
consisted of the kings, the senators, the magistrates, and the deputies of Laconia.

§ 126. The assembly also, which was collected at the public and common
meals and termed cyu^atna, ^sLBina, and ^vu-t^a, was designed for the purpose
of speaking upon matters of public importance.

In this assembly, kings, magistrates, and certain citizens, met together in certain
halls, where a number of tables were set, for fifteen persons each. No new member
could be admitted to any table but by the unanimous consent of all belonging to the
same. Every member contributed to the provisions from his own stores ; a specified
quantity of barley meal or cakes (jua^ai), wine, cheese, and figs, and a small sum of
money for meat, was expected from each. A close union was formed between those
of the same table. The regular meal was termed oIkaov ; after this was a dessert called
hraiKMi The men only were admitted ; small children were allowed to sit on stools
near their fathers and receive a half-share without vegetables (d/?a///?(k£wra) ; the youth


and boys ate in other companies. At table they sat or redined on couches of hard
oak. The chief dish was the black broth {y.eXaq sw^ioV).' The Spartans had also another
kind of solemn feast, called Komg, to which foreigners and boys were admitted along
with the citizens.2

t The reader may be amused by the following passage from Sir Henry Blount, who traveled in Turkey, in 1634. " The Turks
have a drink called cauphe, made of a berry as big as a small bean, dried in a furnace and beat to powder, of a sooty color, in
taste a little bitterish, that they sethe and drink, hot as may be endured ; it is good at all hours of the day, but especially morning and
evening, when to that purpose they entertain themselves two or three hours in cauphe-houses, which in Turkey abound more than
inns and ale houses with us. It is thought to be the old black broth used so much by the Lactdsemonians. It drieth ill humours in
the stomach, comfcrteth the brain, never causeth drunkenness, nor any other surfeits, and is a harmless entertainment of good fellow-
ship." 2 RobinsanU Archasol. Graec. p. 139.— Ct MUUcr, ii. 289.

§ 127. Judicial actions were very summary among the Spartans. Eloquence
found no place in them; no advocates were employed; every one was obliged
to plead his own cause. There were three distinct jurisdictions, that of the
kings, the senate, and the Ephori, each of which formed a tribunal for the deci-
sion of a certain class of questions. The most important questions, and particu-
larly all of a capital nature, belonged to the senate. In minor disputes, the par-
ties were allowed to choose arbitrators for themselves.

Cf. Robiiison, bk. ii. ch. xxii.— On the authority of the Ephori, MUller, bk. iii. ch. vii. ; and bk. iii. ch. ii. § 2, on the Spartan

§ 128. The punishments were various and in part similar to those at Athens.
The most common mode of inflicting death was by strangling or suffocation. —
Stealing was punished not so much for the theft committed, as for the want of
shrewdness and dexterity betrayed by the offender in allowing himself to be

1. Stranghng was effected by means of a rope {Ppoxo;, Ppoyxo?); it was always done
in the night and in a room' in the public prison called Acku^. Death was also inflicted
by casting the malefactor into the pit^ called KanVag; this was always done likewise
by night. Aristomenes the Messenian was cast into this, but survived the fall and
effected an escape, which was considered as very wonderful. Besides the punish-
ments ZriiJ.ia, 'Arifiia, and Kvipcov or KXoidf, mentioned among Athenian penalties (cf.
•?> 113), the Spartans^ had Maoriywo-f?, whipping, which the offender received as he was
driven through the city, and KhTrjais, goading, which was a similar punishment. Ba-
nishment, ^vyn, seems not to have been a regular punishment inflicted by sentence;
but was voluntary, and chosen in order to escape death or infamy (an^i'a).

» Robinson, Arch. Grs.-. bk. ii. ch. 24. 2 Cf. Thuc. i. 134.— Paui. iv. IS. § i.—Slrab. \ni.—Mitford, Hist, of Greece, ch. ir.

sect. 4. 3 Cf. MUller, Hist, and Ant. Dor. vol. ii. p. 235.

2 u. Among the Spartans also various rewards and distinctions were bestowed on
persons of merit, both while living and after death.

3. Among the distinctions conferred on the meritorious, the Ilpofjpa, _yirs« seaf in a
public assembly, was highly honorable. Much value was attached to the olive-crown,
'EXa'iri; ars^pai'og, as a reward for bravery, and to the thongs, BettXoTrci , with which victors
in the contests were bound. But it was one of the highest honors of the city to be
elected into the number of the three hundred constituting the three chosen bands of

horsemen (§ 124), termed Aoyd'e;. To commemorate the dead, statues, cenotaphs

{KevoTaihia) , and other monuments were erected.

§ 129. The legislation of Sparta had Lycurgus chiefly for its author, and was
marked by some strong peculiarities. The form of government was distin-
guished from that of all the other states by its union of monarchical with aristo-
cratical and democratical traits. There were in Sparta no written laws; they
were transmitted orally from one generation to another; on this account Lycur-
gus styled them Ij-tj-tpai.. They were not numerous, and were chiefly designed
to promote bravery and hardihood, and hinder all luxury and voluptuousness.
Although they untierwent many alterations in minor points, they retained their
authority through a period of above 800 years.

Of. Mtaier, as before cited, vol. ii. p. 97, 2S5. —Xenophon, on the Polity of the Lacedaemonians (cf. P. V. § 186).- The works cited

§ 130. Next to the states of Athens and Sparta, the island of Crete presents a
constitution the most remarkable. It is here, as has been stated (§ 38), that
we find the origin of the institutions of Lycurgus. During the republican go-
vernment which succeeded the monarchical, it was customary to elect ten offi-
cers annually as chief m^agistrates. These were called Cosmi,x6aixo(., and were
taken only from particular families. Under them was a Senate, which was con-
sulted only on important questions; it consisted of 28 members, who for the


most part had previously held the office of Cosmi. There was also an order of
knights, who were required to keep horses at their own expense for the public
use, and to serve in lime of war. The power of popular assemblies was not
great ; ihey usually did nothing but confirm the decrees of the higher authorities.

Of. MUller, vol. ii. p. 99, \3i.—H6ck, Kreta. Getting. IS29. 3 vols. 8.

§ 131. The Cretan laws were in general wise, as appears from some traces
of them found in different writers. — Like the Spartans, the citizens of Crete had
public meals, which they called di/Spjra. — Slaves were treated with comparative

1. " Curiosity is excited," observes Mitford, "by that system of laws which, in an
age of savage ignorance, violence, and uncertainty among surrounding nations, in-
forced civil order, and secured civil freedom to the Cretan people ; wliich was not
only the particular model of the wonderful polity, so well known to us through the
fame of Lacedasmon, but appears to have been the general fountain of Grecian legis-
lation and jurisprudence ; and which continued to deserve the eulogies of the greatest
sages and politicians, in the brightest periods of literature and philosophy."

See Sainte Croix, Des Anciens gouvernements federatifs, et legislation de Crete. Par. 1776.

2. Three different classes of dependents existed in the island ; the pubHc bondmen
called by the Cretans [ivoia; the slaves of individual citizens, w^afiSiTai ; and the tribu-
taries, inrmooi. Perhaps there was no Grecian state in which the dependent classes
were so hltle oppressed as in Crete. In general, every employment and profession,
with the exception of the gymnasia and the mihtary service, were permitted to thera.
— Miiller, as cited % 118, vol. ii. 5.

3. The name av6ptZa is supposed to have been given to the public meals, because, as
at Sparta, men alone were admitted to the tables. A woman, however, had the care
of the pubhc tables at Crete. The Cretans were distinguished by their great hospi-
taUty ; whh every two tables for citizens there was one for foreigners. — Muller,
ii. 225.

The term dY^Xri was used to designate an assembly of young men, who lived toge-
ther from their eighteenth year till the time of their marriage. These young men,
called dyeXacrroi, were under the care of a person termed dysXdrr};, who superintended
their military and gymnastic exercises. — Smith, Diet, of Antiq.

§ 132. In Thebes, the principal city of Bceoita, a monarchical government
existed until the death of Xanthus, and afterwards a republican. Yet this state
did not rise to any great celebrity, at least for a long lime; the cause was per-
haps the whole national character of the Thebans. Besides a proper senate,
there were in Thebes Boeotarchs, Botorap;^at,, and Polemarchs Ilo%£i.iapxo(^', the
former had the care of the civil affairs, and the latter of the military. — Bcsotia
was divided into four grand councils, or senates, whose decrees guided all the
other magistrates. Merchants and mechanics w-ere adopted as citizens, but
never raised to any magistracy. The exposure of infants was not permitted,
but if their parents were unable to maintain them, it was done by the slate.
Pausanias has recorded in his description of Boeotia many remarkable features
of the later condition of the Theban state.

The BcEotians had a great national festival, Uaix/3oioJTia, in honor of Athena Itonia, who had
a temple near Coronea, near which the festival was held.

Cf. Mitford, ch. v. sect. l.—Rnoul-Rochttte, AdDiinistration de I'Etat Federatif des BoeotieDs, In the Mem. de rinstitui, Clisse
d'HijJ. el Lit. Anc. vol. viii. p. 214.

§ 133. Of the internal constitution of Corinth but little is known. It was
at first governed by kings, of whom the Sisyphidae and Bacchiadae were the
most distinguished. Afterwards, when an aristocratical form was introduced,
one chief magistrate uas chosen yearly called Upytavl^. He was supported by
a senate, rfpovtrta. The assembly of the people never had equal authority;
their power was often very small. The city was once called Ephyra, and en-
joyed a favorable situation upon the isthmus, which rendered it and its two
harbours so famous on account of their navigation and commerce. It was de-
stroyed by the Romans, B. C. 146, but was afterwards rebuilt by Caesar, and
became again very flourishing. — Syracuse and Corcyra were colonies of Corinth.
The last city is specially remarkable, from the fact, that a dispute between itself
and Corinth was the occasion of the Peloponnesian war. Syracuse was for a
long time governed by 600 of the oldest men, called yjco^opoi ; but afterwards
became entirely democratical until it was subjected to the Romans.

r{ Afi/Utr, a» before cited, vo'. ii. p, 156.


§ 134 Jrgos^ like the other Grecian states, had in early times its kings.
In later times it was governed by the people divided into four tribes. It h'ad
its senate, and another body of magistrates consisting of eighty members, and
a class of public officers called aptwoi,.

Cf. MUUer, vol. ii. p. 144, 147.

In the history of »^/o//a, we may mention as chiefly remarkable the league or
confederacy between the cities of that district. This confederacy was called
the Pan^tulium. It had at Thermus an annual assembly or meeting, in which
the magistrates were elected, and also a president of the confederacy, who was
called arpatrjyo^, and was at the same time chief military commander. This
officer was subject to the assembly. The council of the Apocleti (artoz7.:>;rot)
was a different body, who decided questions that arose in pressing emer-

See F. JV. Tittmann, Darslellung der Griech. Staatsverfassungen. I^ipz. 1822. 8.

The cities of Achaia also united themselves in a league, and held their com-
mon assemblies twice a year at iEgium. In these originally presided one
Tpa/i^ua-rfi)?, with two Sfpariyyot- ; and at a later period, one Srparjjyoj, besides
whom there were ten ATjutoupyot to attend to the public affairs of the con-

Cf. Breiierbauch, Geschichte der Achier und ihres Bundes. Leipz. 1782.


§ 135. That warlike spirit which, as has been observed (§ 42), was a main
trait in the national character of the early Greeks, was also conspicuous in
their descendants of a later period. This is true of the Athenians, and more
emphatically so of the Spartans, who were inured to hardship by their educa-
tion, bound by their laws and their honor to conquer or die, and inspired by
their whole national system with a love of war. These republics were ac-
cordingly the refuge and protection of the smaller states in their difficulties.
The Thebans, likewise, for a certain period, maintained the reputation of dis-
tinguished valor. Athens and Sparta, however, were always the rivals in this
respect; and although in the war with Xerxes they agreed that Athens should
command the Grecian fleet, and Sparta the land forces, yet they soon again fell
into dissension, and the Spartans stripped the Athenians, for a time, of that
naval superiority, for which the situation of Athens afforded the greatest

On Grecian military affiiirs, see Nait, KSpke, kc cited § 42.

§ 136. The armies of the Greeks consisted chiefly of free citizens, w^ho were
early trained to arms, and, after reaching a certain age, at Athens the twentieth
year, were subject to actual service in war. From this duty, they were released
only by the approaching weakness of age. At Athens the citizens were ex-
empted from military service at the age of forty, except in cases of extreme
danger. Some were also wholly exempted on account of their office or employ-
ment. Of those who were taken into service, a written list or roll was made
out, from which circumstance the levying was termed xaraA/paprj, or xatuxoyoi.
The warriors maintained themselves, and every free citizen considered it a
disgrace to serve for pay ; for which the spoils of victory were, in some degree,
a substitute. Pericles, however, introduced the payment of a stipend, which
was raised, when necessary, by means of a tax on the commonwealth.

At first foot-soldiers received two oboli a day ; afterwards four ; whence Ttrpw/JoXou
0'oi signified a soldier's life, and TZTpoifioXi^ew , to serve in war. The pay of a soldier m
the cavalry, termed KaTaaraxns, was a drachm a day ; a seaman received the same, with
an allowance for a servant.

On the melhods of raising money at Athens for extraordinary expenses, see ^§ 103, 104. On the military regulations, ct Gar-

nier, Sur les loix mililaires des Grecs, in the Mem. Acad. Inaar. vol. xlv. p. 239.— Cf. § 42.

§ 137. It has already been remarked (§ 43), that the Grecian soldiers were

of three classes ; footsoldiers or infantry, ro rti^ixov ; the cavalry, to i^' iTtrtwi-;

and such as were borne in chariots, to i^' oxrudrccv. The infantry comprised

three kinds ; the unutai, heavy armed, who carried a complete and full armor,

25 R


and were distinguished particularly by a large shield (oVtToor) ; the TiiT.'taG'tai,
targeteers, who bore light arms, particularly a small shield {rti'kTiri) ; and the
•i^iTMi, light armed, who had no shield and used only missile weapons. — The
war chariots were not much used after the introduction of cavalry.

The chariots, termed Sp€Travr](p6pot, were sometimes terriiily destructive, being armed with
sythes, with which whole ranks of soldiers were sometimes cut down.— In Plate XVII. fig. K,
oine of these chariots is presented, drawn by two horses which are protected by a covering of

mail. It may be worthy of remark here, that such chariots were used by the ancient Britons

and Belgians, and are designated in the Roman writers by the terms covini and essedm. (Lucan,
Phars. i. 426.— rac. Agric. xxxvi.— Cffs. Bell. Gall. iv. 22.— Mela, iii. 6.) "The covinus was a
terrible instrument of destruction, being armed with sharp sythes and hooks for cutting and
tearing all who were so unhappy as to come within its reach." R. Henry, History of Great
Britain, (first ed.) Lond. 1771-93. 6 vuls. 4.

§ 138. The cavalry of the Greeks was not numerous, and consisted only of
citizens of the more respectable class, and such as were able (of. § 93) to maintain
their horses. The iTtrtft^, therefore, at Athens as well as Sparta, held a high
rank. Those who wished to attain this rank were first examined in respect
to their bodily strength and other qualifications, by the senate and a Hipparch
or Phularch {iT(7tdpxrj?i ^Vkdpxr,i) appointed for the purpose. They were called
by various names according to the weapons of armor they used; as, e. g.,
axpo^oUaYat,, who threw missiles; 8opato^6poL,who carried spears or lances;
vTiTiofo^otaL, ^vato^opoi, xovto'popoL, ^vpiofopov, etc. The following articles
constituted their principal armor : a helmet, broad plated girdle, breastplate, a
large shield, cuishes, a javelin and sword.

The horsemen, as well as the infantry, were distinguished into the heavy-armed, Ka.
Ta(bpa<Toi, and lighl-armed, nn KaraippaicTot. The former not only were defended by armor
themselves, but also had their horses protected by plates of brass or other metal, which
were named, from the parts of the horse covered by them, npoiie-oiTTiiia, tr fjoa-repviha, vapa-
^irjp'u^ia, TiupairievpiSia, -apaKvr]p.i6ia, etc. The trappings of the horses were termed (pd\apa ;
various and costly ornaments, including collars, bells, and embroidered cloths were
often used. — The Aip'ixai were a sort of dragoon, instituted by Alexander, designed to
serve either on horseback or on foot. — The "A/.i(/)i:nrot were such as had two horses;
called also (Tnraywyoi, because they led one of their horses. — After the time of Alexan-
der, elephants were introduced from the east ; but they were after a short period laid
aside, as they were found too unmanageable to be relied upon with much confidence.
When used, they carried into battle large towers, containing from ten to thirty sol-
diers, who could greatly annoy the enemy with missiles, while they were themselves
in comparative safety.

SalUer and Freret, Orig. de I'equitatinn dans la Grece, in the Mem. J}cad. Insci: vii. 33, 2S6.— Ce Maizeroy, La Cavalerie Grecque,
in the same Mem. &c. xli. 242.— Larcher, L'ordre equestre chez les Grecs. in the same Menu &c. xlviii. 83.

§ 139. The chief articles of armor used by the Greeks have been already
described (§ 44, 45), and it is only necessary to remark here, that in later times
there were many changes, as to the forms of the articles, and the manner of
using them.

1. The breastplate {^''pa^ consisted of two parts, one for a defence for the back,
the other for the breast, united at the sides by a sort of buttons. When made of two
continued pieces of metal, and on that account inflexible, it was called ^''<pa^ anihog.;
when made of hide and guarded with hooks or rings, connected as in a chain, it was
called ^wpal dXwi^ojroj ; it' guarded with plates like the scales of a fish, it was called
icjpal \£TTi6u)Tdg. The rjpiOupavio'' protected only the front part of the body ; Alexander
allowed only this to his soldiers- — Within the Sojpaf, and next to the skin the Greeks
also wore often a defensive armor of brass lined with wool, which was termed iiirfrj.
Cf Horn. II. iv. 137, 187.

The thorax is seen in fig. r, of Plate XXII. ; also on the warrior, fig. 7. In fig. 5, the thorax seems to be guarded with plates lika
the scales of a fish ; also in Plate XXXIV. fij. b.

2. The shield (dcnris) when of wood was made of the lightest kind, as willow, beach,
poplar, &c. When made of hide (donUes fi'mai), there were usually several thicknesses
covered with a plate or plates of metal. Its chief parts were the outer edge or cir-
cumference, ai'T"l, irMf, kvkXo;, rrepupepsia ; the boss or prominent part in the middle,
d/i<^a\dj, fizirojx'pdXiov ; the thong of leather by which it was attached to the shoulders,
Tcia^ojv ; the rings by which it was held in the hands, TropnaKsg, for which the handle,
oxavov, consisting of tw^o small bars placed crosswise, was afterwards substituted. Lit-
tle bells were sometimes hung upon the shields to increase the terror occasioned by
shaking them. YdYiJta was the name of a covering, designed to protect the shield from
injury when not in actual use , the word also designates a packsaddle. Various epi-
thets are applied to shields ; dy^^i/ipdros, dt/iponfiKT^;, m&invr\Khi, indicative of size ; IvkvkXoi,



iravrore 'cat, of shape. The Ti^pov was in the shape of a rhombus, and first used by
the Persians ; the Ot'pjof was oblong and bent inward ; the Aaafiiov was composed of
hides with the hair on, and was very light ; the ZIeXd? was small and hght, and, ac-
cording to some, shaped hke a half- moon.

In Plale XXII. are several forms of shields ; see fig. 3, fig. 4, fig. 7. See also Plate XXX. fig. 1, fig. 4 ; and Plate XXXIIL fig. 1,
fig. 2.

3. Besides the offensive weapons which have already been named (see $45, and Plate XVII.),
we may mention the poniard, caWed frapa^tcpijioi', lj-x£ipi<5«oi', and ijdxaifia; it answered the
purpose of a knife. In later ages, the dKii/dKTji was borrowed from the Persians. This has gene-
rally been considered as curved, and has usually been translated cimiter ; in Sinitli's Dictionary
it is contended, that it was straight like the dacger; the writer quotes Josephus (jSnt. Jud. xx.
7-10) as saying of the assassins who infested Judea before the destruction of Jerusalem, that
"they used daggers in size resembling the Persian acinaces, but curved, and like those
which the Romans called sicce, and from which robbers and murderers are called sicarii ;'' the

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