Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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acinaces seems to have been worn on the right side. The kowIs or falchion {ensis falcalvs) was
also used in battle; as was likewise the battle-ax, al'ivr}, awA the TreXeKvs. The Mitcedonians
had a peculiar kind of long spear, called adpicraa. The club of wood or iron, khovvti, was a wea-
pon of early times. — We may mention among the offensive weapons the rrvpof^oXui Xidoi, fire-
balls ; one kind {(jKvrdXia) were made of wood and armed with spikes of iron, under which were
fixed hemp, pilch, and other combustibles; these, being set on fire, were hurled into the ranks
of the enemy.

In Plate XVII. fig. C, is the ;i<i>fatpa ; in Plate XXXIII. fig. 4, we see hanging at the right thigh the weapon which the writer
mentioned above considers as the UKivaKT]; ; the same is seen in the hand of Mitbraj, in the Sup. Plate 9 ; cf. also fig. B, in Plate

On the various articles of armor, see Foshroke'i Encyclopaedia.— S. Jt. Meyrick, Critical Inquir>' into Ancient Armor, &c. with a
Glossary of Names of the Arms of the Middle Ages. Lond. 1824. 3 vols. 4 ; a work which may be recommended to the student
desirous of full information on this subject.

§ 140. The commanders of the armies were in early times the kings them-
selves, although at the same time certain men, eminently brave, were appointed
to be polemarchs or generals. Subsequently each tribe chose its own com-
mander, who was called o-fparj^yoj. At Athens it became customary to appoint
ten, who had equal power, and who held the chief command one day each in
regular rotation, when they took the field together. Over these was a pole-
march, whose opinion was decisive in the war-council, when th-ere was an
equal division amonar them ; at a later period, however, this officer {rio7.tfxap%oi)
had no share in military affairs (§ 101). — There were also ten taxiarchs,
Ta^iapxoi", subordinate to the atpa-tTjyoi ; their duty was to put the army in array
for battle, mark out the camp, regulate the order of march, and in general
attend to the preservation of discipline. Subordinate also to the S/rategi were
the two generals of the horse, tn:rtap;^ot, who had under them ten ^v%apxoii one
nominated by each tribe. There were also inferior officers, as ^.o^ayot, %l7^ap-
xoi, £a:aroi^rap;xo£., 6£xa6ap;^ot, rdixTtuSapxoh t'he names being derived from the
number of men commanded by them.

§ 141. The whole army was called otpantx; the front, |U£ru7tor or Ttpwroj-
^vybi ; the wings, xapara; the rear, oipa or £(j;taT'05 ^vyd^. The smallest divi-
sion, consisting of five men, was called a Tti^rtd^ ; a "Koxo^ contained from ten
to a hundred men, according to different circumstances ; and a rd^t j, a hundred,
or a hundred and twenty-eight.

The ra^(f was also called tKaTovraoxia. Each division of this sort had five attendants,
who (iKTaKTOi) did not serve in the ranks ; viz. the aTparoxfipv^, who reported the officer's
commands to the soldiers ; the anpao(j)dpos, who conveyed the ensigns, signals, or
watchwords ; the aaXmyKTrig, a trumpeter ; the inrnptrrig, who supplied the members of
the division with necessaries ; and the ovpayds, whose business was to see that none
of the number were left behind.

Some of the larger divisions ; cvvrayfta, consisting of two rdltii, or 256 men ; rnvra'
Koaiapxia, two ovvraypara, or 512 men ; X'^'«PX'a, two of the last, or 1024 men ; ^lepapxia,
or TiXoj, twice the preceding, or 2048 men; <^a\ayya(>xia, or Irpar-nyta sometimes,

twice the TfXof , or 4096 men ; the commander of the latter was called crparriydi;.

The term <Pd'Xay^ signifies sometimes a body of twenty-eight soldiers ; some-
times a body of 4000, as just mentioned ; and sometimes any number of troops in
general. Yet it is said, that a full or complete Phalanx contained foicr times the num-
ber included in the (paXayyapx^a, above named, i. e. 16,384 men.

§ 142. While the term ^a'y^yl is often used in a general sense for any num-
ber of soldiers, it is employed also to signify a peculiar order of arrangement
in a rectangular form, which gave the body strength to resist a great shock;
the Macedonians were especially celebrated for using it to advantage. — The
iM/5oXov the same with the Roman cuneus, an arrangement in the form of a


wedge, in order to force a way more easily and further into the midst ol -dii
enemy. — Wheeling, turning, or facing, was called xTa'cc^; to the right, iTti 6opu,
the spear being in the right hand; to the left, J7t' acTttSa, the shield being
held in the left. Turning completely about was termed ix£ta3o%rj. — The Greeks
possessed great skill and readiness in manreuvres, and had teachers of the art,
faxtLxbi^ who instructed the youth in the practice.

1. Various forms were given to the 9iaAay.J, some of which were not rectangular ; as
the iniKaiJL-h; (/>.'Aayr, which presented the form of a half-moon, and was also called
KvpTri and foiX/j ; poixiJoucrig (pdXay^, which was in the figure of a diamond. In the pha-
lanx, ^"yoi signified the ranks, taken according to its length, ixrjKOi ; drixoi (also \6xoi)
the files taken according to its depth, PaOo;. — Another order of array for battle was the
rtXivQiov, brick, a rectangular presenting its length to the enemy. — The -rrvpyog, tower,
was the same form, with its width or the end of the rectangle towards the enemy. —
The -Xaiaioi' seems to have been an exact square or nearly so. — The Koi\tp.iio\ov was a
figure like the letter V, with the open part toward the enemy. — The i'Xi? was in the
form of an egg, according to which the Thessalians usually arranged their cavalrv.— •
Of the various terms applied to manoeuvring or evolutions we add only the followi'no^ ;
£feX(y//oj, a countermarch, by which every soldier, one marching after another, changed
the front for the rear, or one flank for another; 6nT\aaiaa}ioi, an enlarging of the body,
ehher by adding men or by extending the same number over a great space.

2. The term (A?;, sometimes applied as above mentioned, to designate a certain order of array,
was generally used to signify a body of cavalry; a troop sometimes consisting of 64 horsemen.
Two such troops constituted the tT:i\a()xiii, containing 128 men ; eight of them formed the
'nrnapxia, containing 512 men ; four of the last named formed the TIAoj of the cavalry, including
2048 men ; and two tIXt] marie the 'ETriTrty/ia, comprising 4096 men.

3. It may be remarked that among the Lacedaemonians, the whole army was divided into iiopai
which contained originally only 400 men each, but afterwards a larger number, and variable.
Each popa consisted of four \6xoi-. The izevrriKoaTvi was one-half of the Ad^oj ; and one-half
of the nevTTiKocTvi was termed EvwuoTia, including 25 men; the latter body is said by some to
have contained thirty-two or thirty-six men.

The earliest ancient works which treat expressly of Grecian tactics are those of Arrian and Lilian ; of. P. V. § 250, § 233.

§ 143. The declaration of war usually began with a demand made by the
injured or offended party through deputies for reparation or satisfaction. Un-
expected hostile invasion was viewed as unrighteous warfare; it was justified
only by great and wanton injuries. The most respectable men were selected
for the ambassadors and heralds, and their persons were regarded as sacred
and inviolable.

1 u. The heralds {KfipvKeg) carried a staff wound with two serpents (KrjpvKsiov) , and
were usually charged only \\'ith messages of peace, while the ambassadors or deputies
(■apzrj^tii) were accustomed also to threaten and to announce war. The power of ambas-
sadors was limited in different degrees at different times (cf § 102). The leagues or

agreem.ents entered into were either (1) (TKovifi, a treaty of peace or mutual cessation
from injuries, called also trwOfiKn, dpnvr]; (2) ETrifiaxia, a treaty of mutual defence ; or
(3) (Trn;mx,ia, an alliance both defensive and offensive, in which the parties engaged to
aid each other, not only when attacked, but also when they themselves cominenced
the war. Such treaties were confirmed by the most solemn oaths, written upon
tablets and placed in public view. Sometimes the parties exchanged certain tokens
or evidences (oTJ/z/JoXa) of the compact.

2 u. Before actually declaring war, it was customary to consult an oracle. The war
was commenced with sacrifices and vows. Scrupulous attention was also paid by the
Greeks to omens and seasons.

3. An eclipse of the moon was a fatal sign ; the Athenians would not march before
the seventh day, ivrdg epioiiris, nor the Lacedaemonians until full moon.
X. § 144. In addition to what has already been said (§ 48) on the construction
of camps, it may be here remarked, that the form of them was often changed
according to circumstances. The Lacedaemonians, however, always adhered
to the circular form in their camps, as well as their cities. The bravest troops
were usually placed on the extremities or wings, and the weakest in the centre
or interior. A particular part of th§ camp was appropriated for the worship
of the gods, and for holding councils of war and military courts. The guards
were divided into the day-watches, <|)t'?iaxat r;ixsf}ivac, and the night-watches,
^DT-axat vvxtspivac. The advanced posts, or outer guards, were called
rtpofvXaxai. The nightly round of visiting the watch was called ifo8sia, and
those who performed it, ;tfp(,'rto7iot, and the guard-house, rtf^ptTtoXfiov.

§ 145. Before a battle the soldiers were usually refreshed by eating ana
drinking, immediately after which the commanders ordered them to action.-



When very near the point of engaging, the generals addressed the army in
animating speeches, which often produced great effects. Then followed the
sacrifice, the vow, and the war-song {Ttacav ifi^atr^pcoi), a hymn to Mars —
The signs used in the field were either OTjixsla, regular ensigns and standards,
or Gv/xjio-Ka, particular signals, commonly understood or specially agreed upon
for the occasion.

1 u. The special signals, avu^oKa, were either audible {(puviKo.), such as watchwords
(arwOyiixa-a) ; or visible {op'^To), such as nodding the head, waving the hand, shaking the
armor, and the like {KapaawOiiixaTa). The a^neXa or standards were of various kinds ;
some being merely a red or purple coat upon the top of a spear ; others having an
image of a bird, animal, or other object. The raising of the standard was a signal to
commence battle, and the lowering of it to desist. Anciently the signal for battls
was given by Hghted torches being hurled by the persons appointed {■n:vp(p6pot). Af-
terwards it was done by blasts of sound, for which shells (koxXoi) were first used, and
then brazen trumpets (aaXmyyes) of several different kinds.

2 u. The LacedoBmonians usually advanced to action by the sound of the flute ; yet
we must not imagine, that the marching of the Greeks was as regular and as conform-
able to music, as the modern. Most of them were rather in the habit of rushing to
battle with impetuosity and clamor {d\a\ayiidg , dwh).

§ 146. The art of besieging arose first in the later times of Greece, because
the cities were not previously fortified with walls. Nor were the later Greeks,
especially the Lacedaemonians, very much in the habit of laying regular
sieges. The two principal points of proceeding in the siege of a city, were
the construction of the entrenchment around it, and the gathering and use of
military engines about it. Connected with these were efforts to scale the walls
of the city by ladders {iraj^depai, xxij-iaxs^) and to undermine their founda-
tions. — An entrenchment around the city was called Ttsf)i,ttL%ta^bi, or ajto-tBi-
X'''JfJ-o^, and consisted usually of a double wall of stone or turf. In the space
between the walls were shelters for the garrison and the sentinels. Above the
walls were turrets or pinnacles (sriaX^els), and after every tenth pinnacle a
large tower was constructed, extending across from one wall to the other. The
parapet of the wall was termed ^copa| or ^copdxiov.

§ 147. Most of the military engines of the Greeks (fxuyava, iJ-rjxavaL) were
of a comparatively late invention, and seem to have been introduced first about
the time of the Peloponnesian war. One of the principal was the x^^u>v'^, the
testudo or tortoise; so called because the soldiers were covered by it as a tor-
toise by its shell.

1 u. The testudo was of several kinds. The xeXoi/j? cnpaTioirCiv was formed by the
soldiers, pressed close together and holding their shields over their heads in such a
manner as to form a compact covering. It was also formed of boards, united and
covered with metals ; this was either of a square form, as the xs'^'^'^''n Xwot/ji?, which
served to protect the soldiers, while they were preparing the ground in order to bring
up their military engines, or of a triangular form, as the :\;£Xwi'>7 opv^, for the protection
of such as were undermining the walls. — Another instrument for similar purposes was
called the yeppov, made of twigs of willow hke the Roman vinecB, and held by the sol-
diers over the head.

2 u. The x^Aia was a mound composed of various materials and raised very high,
often above the besieged walls. — There were also moveable towers (Tn'pyoi), made of
wood and usually placed upon the x^'f^'^ > they were rolled on wheels and had often
several stories, containing soldiers and engines. — The battering-ram (xpidi) was a strong
beam with an iron head (f///?oA/;) in front resembling that of a ram, which the soldiers
thrust against the enemy's walls; it was often hung by ropes to another beam, so that
it could be thrust with greater force, and sometimes was placed on wheels and covered
with a :\;£Awv//. The KaTaTveXrai were engines for hurling missiles, stones, and the like
upon the enemy ; those which discharged arrows, being termed dlvPeXsTs, and those
which cast stones, Xt6ol36\oi or ireTpoPokoi.

Dionysius Sicuhis (xx. 48, 86) speaks of the latter engines as sometimes capable of throwing
Etones of one hundred weiglit (Xt6o/?oXoj raXai/rtaioj), and even of three hundred weight {irerpa-

3. The 'EXsnoXig was a machine, not unlike the battering-ram, but of greater size
and force, driven with ropes and wheels. This name (IXfn-oXif, city-taJ.-er) was first ap-
plied by Demetrius Poliorcetes to a machine invented by him, in the form of a square
tower ; each side being ninety cubits high and forty-five wide ; resting on four wheels ;
divided into nine stories, which each contained engines for throwing spears, stones,
and various missiles ; maimed by 200 soldiers. Cf Diod. Sic. xx. 48. — The Tpvnafa


were long irons' with sharp ends, and M'ere the instruments chiefly used in earlier
periods for demolishing the walls of a city.

§ 148. In the defence of a besieged city the following are the things most
worthy of remark. Soldiers, armed with various means of defending them-
selves and annoying the enemy, were stationed on the walls of the city. The
greater military engines were planted within the walls, and hurled arrows,
stones, and pieces of timber upon the besiegers. The mines of the besiegers
were opposed by counter-mines, and their entrenchments and mounds were
undermined. Their various engines were broken, set on fire, or embarrassed
in operation by different contrivances on the part of the besieged.

§ 149. On the taking of a city, the captors did not always treat the citizens
and the property in the same way. Sometimes the buildings were demolished,
and all the inhabitants put to death, or at least those in arms, while the rest
{aixud^utoi, 8opva.7MroL) were reduced to slavery. But sometimes favor was
shown, and nothing but the payment of a tribute exacted. Sometimes new
settlers were planted in the conquered city. Whenever the city was demo-
lished, it was customary to curse the spot on which it stood, and not even
cultivate the soil.

§ 150. The booty or spoils on such a capture, or after a battle, consisted
partly in the military stores, and partly in other things, which were the pro-
perty of the conquered party. These, when taken from the slain, were termed
cxv7xt,; if from the living, xdfvpa. The whole (tiapa) was brought to the
commander-in-chief, who first took a large portion for himself, then assigned
rewards to such as had distinguished themselves in the action, and afterwards
distributed the remainder equally among the soldiers. First of all, however,
a portion was set apart for the service of the gods, which was called axpoOcvia.
The armor of the conquered was also often dedicated to the gods, and hung up
in their temples; this was the case sometimes even with the weapons of the
victors, when they designed to terminate their military career. Thank-offer-
ings were also presented, and trophies (rpo^tata) erected, which were likewise
dedicated to the gods; statues also and other monuments were raised to com-
memorate victories.

An inscription (i-rriypantin) was often attached to the trophy, or offering presented to the god,
or other monument, containing the names of the conquerors and the conquered, an account of
the spoils, and sometimes of the occurrences of the war. The trunk of a tree, especially an
olive, was often used for the purpose of a trophy, the emblems of victory being hung upon it. —
Alexander the Great, abiding by a law of the Macedonians, never raised a trophy ; yet he erected
other monuments of his successes ; among them were altars to the gods, very broad and lofty
A representation of the tropcBuni is given in Plate XXII. tig. 4.

§ 151. There was a careful regard to order and discipline in the Greek
armies, and various rewards and punishments were established. Among the
jewards were promotion to higher rank, conferring of garlands or other distinc-
tions, and also the funeral honors and the encomiums, which were bestowed
on the brave warrior. At Athens public provision was made for the widows
and children of those slain in battle, and also for those who were injured by
wounds {abvvatoi). The children of such as valiantly died were also honored
sometimes with the first seats (TtpofSpt'oa) at the theatres. — The severest of the
punishments, death, w^as always inflicted on deserters, dvT'o,uoXot. Such as
refused to serve, a^t ^dtivt oi, such as quitted their ranks, "ksiTiotdx-tai,^ and such
as threw away their shields, Iji^^aoTtih^i, w^ere subject to civil degradation. At
Athens they were not permitted to enter the temples or public assemblies, and
were also fined in the court Heliaea. In Sparta they were exposed to still
deeper disgrace, which extended even to their whole family; it was so great
that their mothers often stabbed them at their first meeting afterwards.

^ 153. The Greeks employed various means for conveying inteUigence. They
had a class of messengers or runners, called iiiiEpocpojxoi, who carried news and official
commands; they went hghtly armed. — A contrivance much celebrated was the La-
cedaemoniati aKVTdXij. This was a roll of white parchment or leather (iq-fia, Ifidi), wrap-
ped round a black stick, about four cubits in length. The general always received a
stick of this sort, of the same size with another kept by the magistrates or govern
ment. When any command or intelligence was to be conveyed, a strip of parchment
was rolled on the staff, and on this was written what the person wished to communi



cate ; the strip was then sent to the general, who applied it to his own stick, and thus
could read what, otherwise, would be wholly unintelligible.

§ 153. Before proceeding now to notice the naval affairs of the Greeks, we
may allude to their method of passing rivers with their armies. It was usually
by means of boats (ax^^iat) or small vessels joined together so as to form a sort
of bridge ('yi(|)^'pa), like that which the Persians under the command of Xerxes
threw over the Hellespont. In order to hold these vessels fast, large baskets
or boxes, filled with stone, were sunk in the stream, which thus answered the
purpose of anchors. Anchors were also sometimes used. It was only in the
greatest emergencies that they carried forward with them these boats, having
taken them in pieces. Sometimes such bridges were made by means of large
casks and leathern bottles.

Darius is said to have thrown a bridg^e across the Thracian Bosphorus (Herod, iv. 83, 85). That
of Xerxes over the Hellespont was built between Abydos on the one side and Sestos on the
other (.Herod, vii. 36).

§ 154. The use of ships in the wars of the Greeks has been already mention-
ed (§ 47). Vessels of war (sTtiXiortoi, xuiTivj^r^ differed in their structure from
the other kinds, especially from ships of burden (oXxaSf j, (poij>'triyoi) which were
of an oval form, with broader bottonns. They were usually such as had three
benches of rowers, called T-pr/ipjij {triremes, cf. § 304), and hence this term is
often used to signify merely vessels of war. Before the vessel was launched,
it was purified and consecrated by the priests. Commonly, each vessel singly,
son:ietimes a whole fleet, was committed to the protection of a particular god.
The ensign or standard (rtapacrjy^oj/), by which one ship *as distinguished from
another, was placed in the forepart. Each vessel had its own name, which
was usually taken from its ensign or flag, and was also inscribed on the prow,

^ 155. We will introduce here some of the names apphed by the Greeks to the dif-
ferent parts of a ship and the tackhng. The Arabic numerals attached to some of the
terms in the following description are intended to correspond to those in fig. A, of our
Plate XXIIL, indicating the place of the parts named, according to HolwelVs plan of
a hexireme.

1. The principal parts of a ship were three, the proiv or front, Trpcopa, iitrunrov; the
middle, or body, neaoKoiXog, yaarpa ; and the stern, Trpvjxvd', 6 'pa. — The PROW was more
or less adorned, not only by the figures and images placed on it, but by the colors
painted on it, from which were derived such epithets as niXroTrap-qoi, Kvav€p.(io\oi, &c. The
sides of it were termed Trrspa and TrapziaX. The ordXoj was a long plank at the head of
the prow, at the extremity of which some of the principal ornaments, dKpovia, dKpocrrd.
\ia^, were fixed. The nrvxts^o j^r^^ ^ round piece of wood also attached to the prow,
on which the name of the ship was inscribed ; it was sometimes called 6(p9aXndg, The
XmcTKog was the figure of a goose upon the prow ; near the water, according to the
opinion of some, but by others assigned to a higher part. I'he EptPoXov^^ was the lower
porfion of the prow, which projected forward, and in war gallies was fitted to strike
into the ships of the enemy. Behind this, and just below the aroXog, was the -napaar]-
fiov or ensign, some image carved or painted. To the middle belonged the follow-
ing parts; the Tp6-:rig^ or aretprj, keel at the bottom of the ship, narrow and sharp, to cut
the waves, with the x^X^a/i/aTtt, wedges or bilgeways, attached to it, for guarding the
.ship's bottom: (paXKig, limber, containing the bilgewater, conveyed out by the pump,
nvr\La; the Koi\rt, hold (called also Kvrog, and yaarpa), surrounded by ribs or planks
rising from the keel, vopLzXg or eyKoiXta; the ^warrjpeg, or ino^^unara, rafters, or ropes, on
the sides (TrXEnpaiS) of the ship from prow to stern ; the toTxoi and £(5ajA(a< seats for the
rowers situated on the sides one above another ; the rprmara or d<pQa\p.0L^ openings
through which the oars were put out ; the mKWfia, a skin or the hke, which lined the
openings ; sometimes there was one continued opening for the oars, called Tpd(pri^, a

term applied also to the bulwark or upper part of it. The stern had ornamental

images, called dKpovia, in common with those on the prow, but termed distinctively,
u0Aa(7ru9. To the stern was also attached the imrpoTxh'^^ , the tiitela or safeguard of the
ship. Its bow was termed e-niaeioyv, and the planks composing it, mpnuveia. The mid-
dle of the stern was named, dcrdvStov. The decks, 'iKpta, were covered parts at the
prow and stern ; the ?>iya were the rowers' seats in the middle and open parts.

2. Some of the principal instruments (aKsvri) in navigating vessels may be mentioned
here; they are included under two divisions, the wooden {aKtvr) ^vXiva) and the hmigin^
{(TKEvr] Kpcixacrrd). The TzridiXiov^^, rudder, fixed not directly in the stern, but on the side of
the ship, and near the stern. In the later periods, two rudders were used, one being

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