Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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placed, it is supposed, near the prow (hence viieg dpL(piTxp"nvoi) ; sometimes there were
i'oux, one on each side of prow and stern. The parts of the rudder were oiaf, ipBclp,
ii-Kp''riov, dhxfiv, mna^. — The ewri, dyK^fa, anchor; first a stone bored in tbe middle, or



a basket filled with stones ; afterwards made of iron with teeth, dSovre;, fastening it to
the earth; the largest of a ship's anchors was called upa, and hence (iaWeiv ayKopav
apav obtained its proverbial sense, to resort to the last refuge. The cables attached to
the anchors, were irdafiaTa, or miirfKoi; ropes for towing were termed pviiara, oXkol;
those for binding a vessel to the shore, TrpTfxi/iiaia. — The KiMrai and tperiioi, oars, having a
broad part covered with metal (TXan;), and hung upon pieces of wood called cKaXjjioi, by-
leathern thongs, rporoi. — The lards^^, mast, fixed in a hole (fiecroSiJiri) , in the middle of the
ship ; capable of being taken down and put in a case (I'trro^o^r?) ; having several parts,

as nrcpi'a, TpaXri^o;, KapX^'l'^">''j ^(Jpt^KiOf, iKpiov, ))\aKaTTi. The Ktpaiai, or KEpara^^, were the

crosspieces or yards, fixed to the mast ; the dKpoK^paia were the extremities of the yards.
The io-ri'a'?, sails (called also ddovai, apjizva), including particular ones distinctively named,
as CT-iVpo/juj, mizen-sail ; dKarLov, main-sail {iKdrtov also signifies a small vessel, hke a pi-
rate's) ; riprf/xoi/, top-sail ; JoXwi/, sprit-sail. — The 'epiia, S-£^rA(oj, ballast. — The /JoXi'j, the lead
for sounding. — I'he kovtoI, poles for pushing the vessels from rocks. — The dirofiddpa,,
bridges, or stairs, to pass from ship to shore, or from vessel to vessel (called also
e-i0'idpai and dva(3d0paC). — The term oVrXa was appHed to the rigging generally. — The
terms a:\oivia, KaXoi, and roTTzXa are commonly considered as synonymous, and as signi-
fvino- the cordage ; including i-airovoi, ttoJ^jI*)^ rponok^, n^aovpiat, -n-pororoi^o, made at first
of leathern thongs, afterwards of flax, hemp, and the like. But Bockh considers the
axoivia as designating the stronger and heavier ropes, to which the anchor was attached
and by which the ship was fastened to the land ; and the TomXa as designating the
lighter ropes, including KaXdiia or xaXot, luavres, Kspovxot, vncpai, the rope called liyKoiva,
the xaXti'Of . CTt'roi'oi, &c. The term i-o^ojixara has generally been interpreted as signi-
fying hoards or planks covering the outside of a ship ; but it is shown by the inscrip-
tions found in the Piraeus and published by Bockh, that the vm^i'tnara were ropes which
ran in a horizontal direction around the vessel from the stern to the prow, and were
intended to keep the fabric together ; and it would seem that such ropes were taken on
board when a vessel sailed, to be used if necessary ; the expression in Acts xxvii. 17,
vKoloivvvvTEi TO JtXoZov , probably refers to the act of putting these ropes about the vessel.

See T. D. Woolssy, on Acts xxvii. 17, in the Bibl. Kepos. Sec. Series, vol. viii. p. 405.

3 ?<. In vessels of war the front point, and sometimes the whole of the front part,
was covered with iron. In early times these points or beaks, I'/^/JoXa'^, were long and
high ; afterwards they were made short and low, in order to pierce the vessels of the
enemy below the water. From each side of the front were planks or pieces of wood,
tmoriks, jutting out, to protect the ship from the beaks of the enemy. The war-ves-
sels usually had wooden decks or coverings {Kara'ppiiyjiara^'^) on which the soldiers
stood, and also coverings or guards of hides or the like, which were extended on both
sides {tEpi<ppiynara, napappviiara), to protect them from the waves and from the enemy's
missiles. I'he usual sign of a war- vessel was a helmet, sculptured at the top of the

4. The beaks are seen in Plate XXIII. fig. A, 13 ; and also in fig. b, which is a prow taken from
a bas-relief at Rome, and which shows the ensign behind them, and the acrostulia above it. In
fig. a, from an ancient coin, we have another prow, which lias a trophy erected upon it. In fig. c,
which is from the sculptures on the column of Antonine (cf. P. IV. $ 186. 2), is a prow of another
form. In fig. 4, we see a THerc/zani-vessel, managed by oars or sails ; in fig. 5, a war-vessel with
oars alone, and in the early form of one bank only.

The names of ihe various pans of a ship may be found, wiih ex[jlanations of every thing relating to this subject, in /. Scheffcr,
Diss de Varietite naviuin, Upsal. 1654 ; contained also in T. Gronirvii Thesaurus, &c. vol. xi. as cited § 13. — See also, Ly the same,
Comment, de militia navali velerum. Ups. 1634. 4. — Lenoy, La njarine des anciens Grecs, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. xxxviii.
j). oil.— Poller'! Arch. Graec. bk. ii. ch. 14.— Robitismi's bk. iv. ch. 14.—.^. Jal, Archeologie Navale. Par. 1840 —Also Huliudl,

»nd Le Roy, as cited § 156. On the Attic navy especially, jl. Bockh, Urkunden Uber das Seeuesen des Attischen Slaates. Berl.


§ 156. Originally the employments of the rowers and the combatants were
not distinct, but the same persons performed the functions of both. In later
times there was a division into three classes ; (1) the rowers or oarsmen, tptrac,
xa7tr;7Mtai,, who were also distinguished by specific names, according to the
rank of their bench, and their work and pay ; (2) the sailors, i-aiirat,, who attend-
ed to all the other proper duties of the ship ; (3) the marines, ijiijdd-tai, who
were armed like infantry, only their armor was more heavy and durable.

tiowers in the upper tier of benches, or the portion of benches highest above the
water {Opdvog) were called ^paiurai; those in the middle, Cuyi-ai (from si'y'O; those in
the lower tier or portion, SaXajuirai. The rowers were also distinguished, as those

near the prow, -poKcoTToi ; and those near the stern, iniKM-rot. Of the sailors, some

{dpixsvi(T-ai) had the care of the sails ; others {cxoiyajS'tra') went aloft on the ropes to look
out ; others {psaofavrai) were to supply the seamen with whatever was needed.

There have been various thpories to explain the manner in which the banks of rowers in the
ancient galleys were arranged, in the different classes of ships termed rpifipeis, TeTpripc.ii,TrevTi]-
psiS, &.C. trireme, qnadrirewe, quinquireme, <^c. — The most common idea formerly was. that the
benches were placed one above another. But there were galleys of seven, twelve, fifteen, and


sixteen banks of oars; Ptolemy Philopater built one of forty banks. If the benches were placed
directly above each other, the oars in the upper benches must have been so long as to be wholly
useless.— Another solution is, that the banks were ranged in one continuous line along the side
of the galley ; in a trireme, the first bank being in her bows, the second in her middle or waist,
the third in her stern. But such an arranL'ement would require a huge length in the vessel of
fortv hanks, or even twelve ; besides which, it is stated that the oars of a galley were not all of
the "same length.— It has been proposed to solve the difficulty by the suggestion that the galley
received its denomination from the number of men pulling at the same oar : the trireme wouid
have three at one oar; the quinquireme, five, &c.— Another suggestion is, that the banks rose
one over another to the number of five or seven, the rowers in the higher banks beins checkered
in quincunx with those in the lower; and that if a galley was saidto be ufany greater number,
the rating was only by the nun)ber of men employed at an oar; e. g. in the galley of forty banks
there would be Jive tiers with twelve men at each oar of the highest bank, ten at the ne.xt, and
so on until the lowest, which would have four men, to make forty in all. The engravings of
fig. B, in our Plate XXllI. are two views, exhibiting such an arrangement ; the up[)er one is a
front view, and the lower a sectional view. — Other schemes have been proposed which need not
be mentioned. The latest is that of Mr. Hulwell, of Edinburgh, which is thought by many to have
set the matter at rest. He supposes a vessel in the original form having one bank of ten oars
arranged horizontally; let these be divided into two banks of five oars each, and ranged ob-
liquely, and they will require but about half as much length; this construction, according to
his conjecture, is the bireme ; a trireme would have three of these oblique ascents or banks, each
bank having five oars; and thus a vessel might be built with any number of banks by only
increasing its length, while no oar would be raised higher above the water, necessarily, than in
a bireme. In Plate XXIII. fig. A, we have a view of a hexireme, or galley of six banks of oars,
on his scheme; the Arabic numbers, 21, 22, 23, designate the portion of the banks occupied
respectively by the three classes of rowers above mentioned.

See /. Holwell, Essay on the War Galleys of the Ancients. Lend. 1826. i.—De Le Roy, sur las navires employes par les anciens,
&C. in the Mem. de Vltistitut, C 1 as s e de Lit. el Btaux Arts, vol. i. 479 ; ii. 141, 153 — Ot Boyd's ed. of Potltr, p. 526, as cited § 13,

§ 157. Among the principal instruments employed for naval battle were the
following; Sopara vavjxaxa.., very long spears ; Spsmai^oj/, a piece of iron formed
like a sickle and fixed to the top of a long pole in order to cut the sail-ropes of
the hostile ship ; x^^9 otS-/;pa the grappling iron ; aprtayfj, large iron hooks at-
tached to the mast of a vessel in such a manner that being thrown into the ene-
my's ships they seized and raised them up into the air. An instrument, called
from its form the dolphin {^^-kipiv), was often used ; it was made of iron or lead,
and hung to the mast or sail-yards, and was thrown with great violence into an
adverse ship, in order to pierce and sink it. — The means of defence against these
instruments was to guard the ship by a strong covering of hides.

§ 158. Each fleet had officers of two sorts, such as had care of w^hat pertained
to the ships alone, and such as had care of the marines and all that pertained
to warlike action. (1) The chief officer, or admiral, was called luvapxoii
sometimes at67Mp%oi, or arpatr^yb^; often there were several in equal com-
mand, often there was but a single one. The duration of his authority
was decided by the people, who abridged it or prolonged it at pleasure.
Next to him were the commanders of individual ships, tptYipapzoi- 5 the Lace-
demonians, however, had a sort of vice-admiral in their officer called tTtt,-
ST'o^vEvj. (2) Of those, whose authority was confined to the care of the
ships and the duties of the rowers or sailors, the principal were the follow-
ing; the apxt-xv^spvY-tr^i, who had the care of the whole fleet; the a;v,3fpv-^r?;j,
who had the care of a single ship, and who himself kept the helm; and the
Ttpwpfvf, or Tipupdf/ji, the next in command, having the care of every thing be-
longing to the forepart of the ship.

There were also, in the second class, the following : rptTipa-CXrig , the musician, whose
notes cheered the rowers and regulated the strokes of their oars ; K-eXevcmrs, who gave
the word of command to them ; Totxaffxog, who governed the rowers on one side ; vav-
^vXaKsg, employed in guarding the ship from rocks and other dangers ; rajiia;, who
superintended the food; io^aprfj, who attended to the fires; Xoyjori';?, who kept the
ship's accounts.

§ 159. In the beginning of a sea-fight they sought first to lighten the ship of
all superfluous and unnecessary burdens; and to render sails, mast, and every
thing which was exposed to the violence of wind, as fast and safe as possible.
Then the most favorable position and order of battle was selected, according
to time, place, and circumstances. Sacrifices were next offi?red to the gods, and
the commanders passed round in light boats from ship to ship, to animate their
men. The signal for the onset was now given ; usually done by hanging a
shield, or flag, from the mast of the vessel bearing the vuxapxoi', while this sig-
nal was hanging, the battle went on. The mode of attack was similar to that


of a siege; the ships being drawn up in the form of a circie or semicircle 'r
letter V.

§ IGO. After a victory, they returned with the booty and captured vessels.
All the cities which were in alliance with the victorious party, honored the suc-
cessful general with crowns and garlands. With these it was also customary
to adorn his vessel. Sometimes the wrecks of the enemy's ships were used for
that purpose. These, as well as the better part of the spoils, were afterwards
consecrated to the gods; the rest being divided among the men engaged in the
battle. A monument was usually raised to the victors, and was sometimes
adorned with the wrecks, especially the ornamental parts (axpovta, axpcotyjpta),
of the captured ships. — The most common punishments in the naval service
were whipping with cords, and submersion, the offender being dragged in the
water by a rope even till drowned. Such as refused to serve at sea, avav^dxoL,
were, at Athens, punished with disgrace (drtp'a) together with their posterity.
Deserters, KBLTtovavtav, were scourged, or had their hands cut off.


§ 161. In glancing at the private life of the Greeks, we shall follow the same
order as in speaking of the earlier period (§ 51 — 60), and begin with the subject
oi food. In later times, when riches more abounded, the food was less simple
than before; the Lacedaemonians maintained longest their strictness and fru-
gality, no professed cook being suffered among them. Among the other nations,
and especially the inhabitants of Sicily, the art of cooking was much more culti-
vated and practiced. The Athenians, however, lived to a great extent moderate-
ly, owing, perhaps, to the comparative unfruitfulness of the Atlic territory. Wa-
ter was the common drink, with which they were accustomed to mingle wine.
The wine sometimes received an addition of myrrh {olvo<; ^v^jpivitrii,) or of barley
meal (6^1^05 a.ri-ri'K^mioiJi.ivoi).

The term employed to designate a drinking cupo^pa-np, is commonly derived from
Kepaadadai, to mingle, indicating the prevalent custom of mixing water with wine. PoU
ter states, that no certain proportion was observed in forming this mixture. A very
common division of wines was into the no\v(p6poi or strong wines, bearing a large addi-
tion of water, and dXiyo,/jdpo(, weak wines. To drink unmixed wine, dKpaTozTisZv, was
described as synonymous with 'ZvdtiTriT:uTv,to drink like a Scythian. — A common Ho-
meric epithet for wine, is !ii9o-^ ; sometimes yspomio;. (Cf Horn. II. i. 462, iv. 259.)—'
The sweft, unfermented juice of the grape (,mustu7n) was termed y'KsvKog. 'i'hat
which flowed from the clusters by merely their own pressure was called irpoxriia. Un-
fermented wine, inspissated by boiling, bore the name of 'eipnpa.- — There were various
sorts of wine, made from other substances besides the grape. Among the Greek
wines from the grape, the earbest of which we have any distinct account, is the 3Ia-
ronean, probably produced on the coast of Thrace, a black sweet wine {Horn. Od. ix.
249). The Framnian was another of early celebrity, supposed by some to have its
name from a hill in the island of Icaria, where it was produced. In later times, the
Lesbian, Chian, and Thasian wines were considered to possess uncommon excellence.
The wines of Rhodes and Crete, Cnidus and Cyprus, were also much esteemed. The
Mendean wine, from Mende. is commended for a peculiar softness. The Greeks also
used wines imported from different places in Asia and Egypt ; an excellent kind was
brought from Byblos in Phoenicia ; the Alexandrian, from the vicinity of Alexandria
in Egypt, was highly valued.

Compare \ 331 b.— See Hendersons History of Ancient and Modern Wines, Lond. 1S24. 4.— This work is adorned with several
beautiful illustrations taken from antiques, and relating to the use of wine.

§ 163. The Greeks had usually two meals a day, viz. : a breakfast, axpatiijiM,
apia-tov, the time of which was not fixed, and a main meal, Snrtvov, which was
regularly towards evening. But they also partook of an evening meal, ^siXtvov
or f(57t£pKJ;ua, and an after-dish or supper, Soprtog.

Fohinson remarks that most authors speak of but three meals a day, and do not
consider the 6n\iv6v as a separate meal from the S'lpm; ; while others think that the
Greeks had but two meals a day, the api(rrov and Soprrog. It seems certain, that apiinvu
was finally used to denote the dinner (that is, the meal taken not far from the middle
of the day), and idnvoy the supper, the latter being the principal meal.

" There was little variety in the private hfe of the Athenians. All of them rose at
daybreak, and spent a short time in the exercise of devotion. Soon after six in the



morning, the judges (dicasts) took their seats on the tribunaL and those employed in
agricuhure, manulactures, or commerce, engaged in their different occupations. At
mid-day, the more weahhy citizens, who by that time had commonly finished their
serious business, refreshed themselves with a short sleep, and afterwards spent a few
hours in hunting, or in the exercise of the palaestra, or in walking through the delight-
ful groves on the banks of the Ilyssus fmd Cephisus: or more frequently in discussing
whh each other in the forum (agora) the interests of the state, the conduct of the
magistrates, and the news of the day. It was also during the afternoon, that the
Athenians sometimes played K^'psia and TTETreta; two games, the first of which resem-
bled hazard, and the other either backgammon or chess." — "During the day, the
Athenians either took no food or only a shght repast in private. At sun-set they sat
down to supper, and considering the business of the day as over, devoted the evening
to society and amusement, and often continued to a late hour in the night."

§ 163. In early times, entertainments were given only in honor of the gods on
festival days ; afterwards they became very common. They were of two sorts :
the kTMTiU'yi, given by a single person, and the tpai'of, provided at the expense
of the party present. Entertainments of the latter kind were generally the most
frugal, orderly, and conducive to friendly feeling; such as were invited free of
expense, as poets, singers, &ic., were called aaviJLj5o7Mt; the contribution of each
other guest was termed Gv^i5o%r;, xara^oXjj. — The marriage feast, ya^oj, is some-
tinaes considered as a third sort. — There were also public entertainments for a
whole city, tribe, or fraternity, called avnaifia, jiavSaLaiai, Biirtva ^rj/xoma^ ^pa-
rpcxa, &c. furnished by contribution, by the liberality of rich persons, or by the

§ 164. Before partaking of an entertainment, the Greeks always washed and
anointed. The hands were also again washed (vi'^aaOai) between the successive
courses, and at the close of the feast {artovi'^aeai). In the early times the
guests sat at table (cf. § 52); in later limes they reclined, but not always. The
couches, prepared for the purpose, were more or less splendid, according to each
one's taste and condition in life. Five usually, sometimes more, occupied a
single couch. The guests took their places according to their proper rank,
although often no exact order was observed. The Greeks attached a certain
idea of sanctity to the table and the rites of the table.

Three couches, K\ii^ai, M^ere usually placed round the table, rpdm^a, one on each
side, leaving the fourth side open to the servants; hence originated the word rpiKXi-
viov, triclinium ; they were covered with tapestry, orpwpara, and had pillows, Trf)0(TK£<pa.
Xaia, for the guests; they were often very costly, being highly ornamented with ivory
and precious metals. Several persons usually reclining on the same couch, the first
lay on the uppermost part, with his legs extended behind the back of the second,
whose head was near the bosom of the first. See § 329. 2. — The tables were made
of wood, highly polished (^to-ri), ev^oo;) ; in the l^ter periods, exceedingly costly,
adorned with plates of silver and gold, and curiously carved images.

§ 165. At a regular and principal meal (as the BEtrtvov), the first course, rtpo-
Tto/m, SftTtroD TtpooLfiiov, consisted generally of pungent herbs with olives, eggs,
oysters, a mixture of honey and wine {oivo/xsu), and the like. Then came
the chief dish, more substantial and costly, xiq>a%rj Ss^nvov. Afterwards the
desert, Sfv-ripa rpaTtf^a, consisting of various sweetmeats, furnished with great
splendor in times of luxury, and called £7(t8£i,7iva,iJL£fa86priLa, &c.

1. The most common food among the Greeks is said to have been the na^a, a kind
of soft cake prepared in various ways, of the flour of barley or wheat. Among the
vegetables that were eaten, were mallows (ixaMxri), lettuce {^p(6a^), cabbages (pafavoi),
beans (wajuoi), and lentils {(paKaT). The sausage {(pvaKn) was a favorite article. Fish
(d-^/op) also became a favorite dish.

2 u. In all entertainments it was customary first to offer some of the provisions to
'.he gods, especially to make an oblation from the liquor. — On cheerful occasions, the
guests were clothed in white, and crowned with garlands.

3. At entertainments connected with the festivals of the gods, the garlands worn
were formed of the leaf or flower sacred to the particular god honored on the occa-
sion. At other entertainments they were composed of various sorts, according to the
season of the year, and the taste and circumstances of the parties. The rose, being
an emblem of silence, was often placed above the table, to signify that what was
there said or done should be kept private ; hence the phrase vtto p66oy, sub rosa.

§ 166. The officers and attendants at an entertainment were as follows: the
2i'fi7to(j(-'ap;toj, chief manager, who was either the maker of the feast (o tOT'taVwpli


or one appointed 'to that place, called also I'paTtf^ortotoj, apxt-ifpixUvoi; the Ba^ji-
%fvi, whose business was to see that the laws and rules of such entertainments
were preserved, and who was sometimes the same as the first mentioned; the
Aowtpoj, who divided and distributed the food, of which the best and largest
portions were given to the most honored guest; and the 'Oti'o;toot, who dis-
tributed the drink, and were heralds {x^pvxii), youths (xotpot) often of noble
birth, or servants {SovTioi).

In the later ages, it became an object of luxury to have young and beautiful slaves,
to perform the last mentioned office ; for such ones extravagant prices were paid ; and
a distinction was made between the v^po(p6pot, who served the water, and the oivoxooi,
who poured the wine, and were younger. When waiting at table, they were richly
adorned in person and dress.

§ 167. The drinking vessels were generally large, often very rich and costly;
they were frequently crowned with garlands.

1. The Kparfip was the vessel in which the wine was mixed with the water and from
which the cups were filled. Among the various cups used were the kvXiI or /cuXio-kt?,
the (jiidXri, the pvrov, ihe Kupxmiov, the KavBapo<;, the foa;, &c. The icvaQoi are described
as a sort of ladles used for conveying the wine from the crater to the cup.

2. It was customary for the master of the feast to drink to his guests, in the order
of their rank, drinking himself a part of the cup and sending the remainder to the person
named, which was termed nporivsiv ; while the act of the person, who received the cup
and drank the rest of its contents, was termed dvTi-porrii'eiw. It was also customary to
drink to the honor of the gods, and to the memory of absent friends, calling them by
name. Three craters were usually drank to the gods, ea^^^h one to a particular god ;
as KpaTfip'Epiiov; Kparfjp Aidf Sojrrjpof. — Sometimes the guests comended who should
drink the most ; and prizes were awarded to the conquerors. Some melancholy ex-
cesses are recorded; as, for instance, the case of Alexander, who in this way lost his

life. Singing (//oXtd)), instrumental music, and dancing (OpxriaTv;), were accompani

ments of almost every feast. The songs were in early times chiefly hymns to gods or
heroes ; subsequently songs and dances of a wanton character were introduced. The

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