Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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most remarkable of the various songs used were those termed cr/coAia.

Athaistus, L. X c. 9, 10. Cf. ^lian, Var. Hist. L. ii. c 41.— Respecting the o-KoXto, see P. V. § 27.

3. After the music and dancing, the guests often were invited to participate in various
sports. In earlier times, the athletic games were practiced ; but in the later ages, less
violent exercises were more frequently chosen, among which playing at the x-drra/Jo;
seems to have been a favorite amusement. There were various forms of this game, in
all of which the chief object was to throw wine from a goblet into another vessel in the
most skillful manner. '

See Gedoyn, Plaisirs da la. table chez les Grecs ; in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. i. p. 54. — Cf. Land. Quart. Rev. vol. xsiv. p. 421.
—For details respectin; the cottabus in particular, Robinson, Arch. Graec. bk. v. ch. 21. p. 52i.—GrndtleLk, Qber den kottaboa
der Griechen, in his Jntiquarische l-'ernuhe, Lpz. 1800.—/'. Jacobs, Uber den kotlabos, in IVidand's Altisches Museum.

On the whole subject of Grecian meals and entertainments, see Robinson, Arch. Grjec. bk. v. cb. 17-21. — J. Comarius, De Co»«
Yiviis Graecorum, in Gronoviits, vol. ix.—Athemms, Deipnosophists (cf. P. V. § 123).

On the affairs of private life generally, W. Becker, Charicles ; cf. § 13.

4. Frequently there were entertainments called o-i'/^rdo-ta (drinking-parties), at which
conversation and discourses were expected to form the principal amusement ; although
the various games common at other entertainments were not excluded. The propound-
ing of riddles {aiviyfia-a or yp'i<poi) was much practiced.

See p. IV. § 6i.—Eschenbach, as there cWe^.— Becker'' t Charicles.

§ 168. The hospitality practiced by the early Greeks (cf. § 57) remained
customary also in later times. The Cretans especially had the reputation of
being hospitable; the Athenians were termed tftXolfvot; but the Spartans were
less courteous to strangers. Hospitality was viewed as a religious duty, and
several gods were supposed to take strangers under special protection, and to
avenge all injuries done to them.

1 u. It was customary, at the hospitable meal, first to present salt (^sr^ jXj) before
the stranger, as a token perhaps of permanent friendship. The alliance contracted by
mutual hospitality {rrpolsvia, to op.orpaTTs^o;) was as sacred as that of consanguinity. The
parties often exchanged tokens of it {<jvn0o\a) in friendly gifis Hhia, ioipa, f£."(/fu), which
were carefully preserved and handed down to posterity. Officers were publicly ap-
pointed, called -pnlspoi, whose duty it was to receive all foreigners, coming on any public
errand, to provide entertainment and lodging for them, and conduct them to the public
spectacles and festivals.


2. Inns, however, appear to have existed in Greece in the later ages. Cf. Cic. De
Divin. ii. 68. — The term Travdoxelov {caupona) designated an inn.

Simon, on the hospitality of the ancients, in the Mem. de VAcad. dea Inscr. vol. iii. p. 41. — F. W. UUrich, De Proxenia. Berl.
1822. — Zeil, Die Wirthshauser d. Alten. — Stockmann, De Popinis.

§ 169. The dress of the Greeks did not underoro any very important changes ;
at least the names used in the first period were still applied to the principal gar-
ments in later times. Their clothing vi^as more commonly made of uncolored
white wool, sometimes of linen and cotton. Of the colors, which were given to
dress, purple was the most esteemed.

1 u. Coverings for the feet {vTroofinara, ztSi'Xa) were used very early, but not universally:
they were of various forms. Hats (nlXoi, -ntXia, niXicia) were first introduced at a later
period, designed chiefly as a protection against the weather.

2. The shoes were tied under the soles of the feet by thongs, [//airfj ; hence the terms
■ImoSeTv and vnoXve'ii', for putting on and taking ofi' the shoes. The following were some
of the varieties; dp/^vXai, large and easy shoes, which came up to the ankle; (the term
dpf3v\ri is also apphed to an appendage of the Greek chariot, a sort of shoe into which
the driver thrust his foot to assist him in driving) ; 0\avTai, shoes worn chiefly in the
house ; oidi3adpa, shoes common to men and women ; i^Purai, shoes used by comedians;
Kodopvot, shoes used by tragedians, buskins; Kapparivai, coarse shoes worn by peasants;
KprrKiisg, a kind of slipper ; supposed by some to be used by soldiers pariicularly ; Xavw-
viKoi, djjLVKXaiies, Spartan shoes of a red color; mpaiKal, shoes of a white color, generally
worn by courtezans ; TrepiPapiSei, shoes worn by women of rank ; cdt^caXa, shoes anciently
peculiar to heroines, consisting originally of a piece of wood bound to the sole of the foot.

In our Plate XXIV. are illustrations of various forms of ancient coverings for tlie feet and
legs. Several, marked by tiie letter a, are from Mexican monuments ; those marked 6 and c, are
said to be Phrygian ; d, s, and t, are from Egyptian remains ; e, g, i, k, I, m, p, and q, are Greek
and Roman samlals ; k and i having very rich ornaments for the instep attached to them ; q having
sharp iron nails underneath (used by warriors, it is supposed, so that an army marching with
them must make a confused noise; cf. Rosenviilller, Scliol. in Vet. Test. Isai. ix. 5); /, n, o, are
Dacian; h,j, v, are Persian; r is the Turkish slipper made of morocco.

3. The military covering for the head was the helmet (cf "S> 44). The nXXog seems to
have been a sort of skull-cap of felt, being of a conical form ; varying, however, in
elevation ; but always without a brim. A broad-brimmed hat, termed Tceraco^, was
used by young men : it is seen in Plate XXIV. fig. 3. " Travellers among the Greeks
v.'ore the chlamys, sword, and petasus or flat hat; this hat is sometimes thrown back
on the shoulders and retained by thongs fastened under the chin ; travellers carried their
money in their girdles." I'he Kavaia was similar to the nsTacoq, with a brim turned
upwards. Women always wore upon their heads coverings or ornaments ; some of
them were the followmg; ainrvl, a fillet, with which the hair was tied, forming on the
forehead a froiital, which was ofien made of gold, and ornamented sometimes with
precious stones ; KaXvurpa, a veil; Kpnltjivov, a covering which came down from the head
to the shoulders ; KCKp^aXog , a net inclosing the hair ; litrpa, a sort of cap or turban. The
term /^iVpo is also applied to a kind of girdle worn by military men under the iojpal. A
form of the fillet used by women given to luxury was termed crapavr] v-^riXh. The o/)//6f
was a sort of necklace, an ornament much worn, and often very cosily (cf % 338). The
women frequently had also ear-rings, epnara, eXiKs;, ivLna, eXX60ia. — 'Among the Athe-
nians, some of the men wore in their hair golden ornaments called rtrrr/fj.

The term Koprj designated the hair of the head generally ; the word -Spif, the general term for
hair, is used in the same sense ; but there were distinctive terms riesianaiing peculiar properties
of the hair, or peculiar modes of arranging it : as iOtipa, a head of hair caretully dressed ; x<"'"''»
long flowine hair, like the mane of a horse ; Troicas, the hair when combed ?.!id dressed ; 0d/?»?,
the hair in disorder, as when a person is in fear; Kdpari, the hair on the top of the head ; Kopvn
/ffoj, the hair of won)en when drawn up all round the head and fastened in a bow on the top;
KpdJ0vXog, the hair of men in the same fjshion ; the Athenians u.sed the Teml in fastening the
bow ; piuXXos, curly hair like wool ; KEpag, hair combed up from the temples so as to appear like
horns ; kikiwos, hair in ringlets, called also nXoKapius.

4 u. Next to the body, both men and women wore a tunic, an unJer-garment of wool,
5C«rwi/, which extended to the knee, and when worn alone, was trussed up by a rich
girdle (vovn) ; in some cases it was fastened from the shoulders by costly buckles or
clasps (ncpoi/ai, TTopTrai). Over this garment the men wore a mantle or robe, which was
long i'l^apog, lixaTiop) as worn by the more respectable ; while the lower classes used a
shorter kind {xXaTm). There was also another sort of short mantle, x^apii;, worn chiefly
by soldiers. The women generally wore over the tunic a robe (i/zdno^), rather short,
and over this a broad veil or outer robe, ttct-Xo?, with which they could cover also the head.

5. The xtrojv is represented as being of two kinds, the Doric and the Ionic. The Doric cor-
responded to the description above given, being of woolen stuff, short, and without sleeves. The
Ionic is described as long, sometimes reaching the feet (woJnpnj), made of linen, with wide
sleeves (xopai). — The ipaTiov or (papog was always a rectangular piece of cloth, exactly or nearly
square ; made of wool most commonly, but also of cotton, and of flax ; usually all of one solor
(16i6xpciv), sometimes var'egated inoiKiXov) and embroidered; sometimes ornamented with a


fringe. It was often used to spread over beds and couches ; to cover the body In sleep ; to form
a sort of carpet ; to serve for an awning or curtnin.

Of coverings for the body, called in general ecrOiii, £(T9rjpLa, and eiixa, there were many varieties
and forms, besides those named above; as, Pairij, 6t<pdipa, a sliepherd's garment, of skins;
eyKOfi^ofia, a cloak used by shepherds and servants ; £7rw/<tf, a short garmenf for females, which
was thrown over the shoulders ; e^o^ii;, a slave's garment, having only one sleeve (cf. $ 99);
£0£(rrptf, a kind of great coat, made of skins of goats ; ^cjorpoi/, a girdle appropriate for women ;
bcpiaTpiov, a thin garment for summer ; KaroivaKr}. a slave's robe, bordered at the bottom with
sheepskin ; Aj?Jof, a garment common to both sexes, suitable for warm weather ; oruArj, a long
rnbe reaching to the heels ; crpoipiov, a kind of kerchief worn by women over the bosom (crrjOo-
Sio^oj); rpi/Swv, rptjidjviov, a cloak of coarse stuff, worn by philosophers and poor persons;
raiviuL. a sort of band used by females and passing over the breast ; used also to signify an orna-
ment for the head ; (paivoXri;, a cloak without sleeves for cold or rainy weather; xXai'i?, a fine
thin robe. The i/ztAXioi' was an ornament worn, by women chiefly, upon the arms and bands;
a bracelet, or armlet (xXiJoji', dpKptSea). The Tr£pi(yKe>^is was probably an avklet, an ornamental
ring worn to decorate the leg ; frequently represented in the paintings of Greek figures found at
Pompeii ; yet the word is sometimes translated drawers, feminalia. The dva^vpiies were a sort
of pantaloons (bracca) worn by the Gauls, Sarmatians, and others, both in Europe and in Asia,
but not by the Greeks. Robinson's Arch. Gr. p. 541-546.

Our Plate XXV. contains several engravings illustrating ancient and Oriental female costume.
In fig. a, which is Egyptian, we see a form of the vail; similar to it is the vail in fig. ff, which is
taken from the French work L'Eg-ypte, <Scc., and represents an Egy|)tian spinning; another form
appears in fig. d, an Arabian hood ; in y, which is Syrian, is another kind, a sort of muffit^r ; in
w, which is Egyptian, is one which floats in the wind like a modern vail, but was attached to a
ribin or chain passing round the forehead and joined by a clasp above the eyes. In fig. 77i, is a
Grecian lady with a peculiar head-dress, somewhat rese:nbling the spiral curl of the murex shell
from which the Tyrian purple was said to be obtained. Oth*r head-ornanif^nts appear in fig. h, a
Grecian female, with the double flute, dressed for a festal occasion, and in fig. i, another Grecian
in a funeral dress. The net above mentioned is seen in fig. 4, of Plate XXIV; in fig. 7, of the
same Plate is a form of the turban, like the crescent-shaped tiara or diadem sometimes seen on
representations of Juno. In these figures we also s-ee the tunic fastened to the shoulders by
clasps , in fig. 4, it is without sleeves, as in fig. h, Plate XXV. This figure, h, shows also the robe
called peplos, which is seen also in fig. k, said to represent a Grecian lady in full costume of the
olden style; an outer garment like the peplos of the Greeks is seen lik'ewise in fig. b, which
represents a Cairo dancer, and in fig. c, which shows an oriental silk robe thrown over the head
and arms. In fig. e and/, we have two female Bacchantes; their costume, like that of the musi-
cian, fis. h, appears to be highly ornamented ; one holds the thijrsus and a wine cup, probably
the culix (cf J 167. 1); the other appears to be playing with a sort of castanets. In fig. n, is a
representation of an Egyptian princess from the palace at Karnac; it exhibits a slight under dress
and a close robe in slanting folds open in front, the whole scarcely concealing the form; it may
illustrate the Coan vestments, or rcoven vrind, of the ancients. A nearly transparent robe is also
seen in fig. a, which is an Egyptian priestess holding in her right hand a sistruni, and in her left
some mythological image probably pertaining to the worship of Isis.

The following is an incidental remark o( Chateaulmand respecting the mattriaU of ancient clothing. " My host laughed at the
faces thai I made at the wine and honey of Attica ; but, as some compensation for the disappointment, he desired me to take notice
of the dress of the female who waited on us. It was the very drapery of the ancient Greeks, especially in the horizintai and unda-
lating folds that were formed below the bosom, and joined the perpendicular folds which marked the skirt of rhe tunic. Tlie coarse
stuff of which this woman's dress was composed, heightened the resemblance ; for, to judge from sculpture, the stuffs of the ancients
were much thicker than ours. It would be impossible to form the large sweeps observable in antique draperies with the muslins
and silks of modern female attire ; the gauze of Cos, and the other stuffs which the satirists denominated woven wind, were never
imitated by the chisel." Travels in Greece, &c. p. 137, (N. T. ed. 1814).

Respecting the material of the vestments of Cos, see § 335. On the question concerning the use of silk among the Greekg, ct

Anthori'a Lempriere, under the word Seres. On the use of cotton, E. Baines, History of Cotton Manufacture. Lond. 1S36. 8.

(chap, ii.)

Respecting the costume generally, see a brief account in North Amer. Rev. for July, 183S. p. Xi^.—Mongez, Sur habillemens des
anciens, (Gr. and Rom.) in the Mem. de VInstitut, C 1 a s s e d^Hist. et Lit. Anc. vol. ir. p. 222.— Fosbroke's Encyclop. p. 610, 919,
giving some illustrations drawn from the Hamilton vases. — A. Rubeneus, t)e Re Vestiaria Veterum. Ant. 1665. 4 ; also in Grssvius,
vol. vi. — G. FciTario, Del Costume Antico e Moderno di tutti i Popoli. Milan, 1829. 18 vols. fol. exhibiting in vols. v. and vi. the
costume of the Greeks — Bardon, Hope, &c. cited § 197. 3.

6. The Athenian women seem to have paid much attention to the adorning of their
persons. " They painted their eye-brows black, and apphed To their faces a layer of
ceruse or white lead, with deep tints of rouge. They sprinkled over their hair, which
was crowned with flowers, a yellow-colored powder." At the toilet they used mirrors
(KaroTTTpa), commonly made of polished metals; sometimes of the length of a person's

The Bride, in Plate XXIV. fig. 4, holds a mirror in her right hand. — See Menard, Sur les miroirs des anciens, in the Merti. it
VAcad. des Inscr. xxiii. 140.— Cf. Class. Joum. xvi. lo2.—Caylw, Recueil d'Anliquitfe, vol. iii. p. 331; vol. v. p. 113.— SSttiger,
i^isengemllden, iii. 46.

§ 170. The custom of frequent bathing and anointingr continued to the lates*t
period, and both were practiced for pleasure as well as for cleanliness and vigor
of body. Public baths became at length very common, even in the cities
which had not previously admitted them. They were furnished with several
distinct rooms for undressing, for bathing, for anointing, &c., which were
named from their appropriate uses.

1. The public baths were furnished with various accomodations for convenience and
pleasure. Among the separate rooms were the following : the dTtohrnpiov , in which
27 s2


those who bathed put off their clothes ; the wzoKavaTov, the " sweating room," or room
for taking vapor baths; the PaTTricTyipiov, {or the hot bath; the Xourpdj/, for the cold bath;
the aXemrnpiov, the anointing room.

This account of the rooms is according to Roiinson, Arch. GrsEC. p. 506.— For a more full
account of ancient baths, see P. IV. $241 b.

2 m. The various ointments used had different names according to the modes and
materials of their preparation. To such an extent did extravagance go in this respect,
that it was sometimes necessary to check it by laws. At Sparta the seUing of perfumed
ointments was wholly prohibited, and in Athens men were not allowed to engage in it.

3. "Every part of the body had its appropriate unguent. To the feet and legs the Greeks
applied Egyptian ointment; the oil extracted from the palm was thought best adapted to the
cheeiis and breasts ; the arms were refreshed with balsam-mint ; sweet marjoram had the honor
of supplying an oil for the eyebrows and hair, as wild thyme had for the knee and neck. — A nice
distinction divided perfumes into two kinds : the first were a thicker sort, and applied more as
salves or wax (xpiVara); the others were liquid, and poured over the limbs (dA£i>;!/ara). To
indulge in the liquid ointment was thought to evince a feminine and voluptuous disposition ; but
the sober and virtuous, it was allowed, might use the thicker sort without any impeachment of
their good qualities." Lond. Quart. Rev. xxiii. 263. — Persons called aXdirrai were employed to
anoint the body after the washing and the rubbing or scraping with the instrument termed
arXEyyii or Ivarpa.

4 u. Some of the services connected with washing and anointing were performed by women ;
in particular they washed and anointed the feet. It was the custom to kiss the feet of such as
were highly esteemed.

In illustr.ition of this custom of kissing the feet, cf. Ariitophanes, ll(j)yKts, (p. 460. ed. Lug. Bat. 1624), and in New Test. Lulie
vii. 38 ; John i\. 2.

§ 171. The general construction of Greek houses has already been stated
(§ 5G). Perfect as was the art of architecture, particularly at Athens, it was
applied to public buildings rather than private dwellings, which were mostly
of an ordinary character. This was true also at Thebes, otherwise greatly
celebrated for her superb architecture. Much more care was bestowed in orna-
menting the interior apartments, especially the hall for eating, with rich furni-
ture and utensils, and with elegant works of art (cf. P. IV. § 178). Besides,
the custom of encompassing and bordering most of the public places or openings
with colonnades, hindered a free view of the private houses, and rendered their
beauty or splendor superfluous. The artists also found it to their honor and
profit to construct the public edifices in a style of superior magnificence.

]. The common term for the whole house was oIko; ; the eating hall was called
TpiKyiviov and tariaroptov; the sleeping room, Komov. — Po^^er gives the following account
of Grecian houses. "The men and women had distinct apartments. The part in
which the men lodged was towards the gate, and called dvi^pCuv or d^Vwi'trif ; that assigned
to the women, was termed ywaiKdJv, yvraiKMving, and was the most remote part of the
house, and behind the avXri, before which were other apartments denominated Tp6loj.ioi
and irpoavhov. The women's chamibers were called Teyeot S-dXn/zoi, as being placed at the
top of the house (cf. § 56), for the lodgings of the women were usually in the highest
rooms {ona, virepua). Penelope lodged in such a place, to which she ascended by a
K'\ipa^(Odyss. i. 330)." — The terms dvaPaOpdc, dva(iaQnU, dva(iadpa, and dvd0a6pov, are all
used to designate a staircase, a flight of steps, or stairs. — Portions of the upper story
sometimes projected beyond the walls of the lower part, forming balconies or verandahs
{npoffoXaX, ytunnoiianaTo.). The roofs were usually flat ; sometimes pointed, with a ridge
and gable. The windows or openings for hght and air (bvpiki) were commonly in the
roofs of the peristyles. The chimney (faTri/of^ox-;?) is supposed to have been merely an

opening in the roof. Although in general the private dwelHngs were of an ordinary

character, yet in the time of Demosthenes there were some, which were very costly
and splendid. The houses of Sparta are said to have been more lofty and built with
greater solidity than those at Athens.

In our Plate XXIV. fig. 1, is a plan of a Grecian house as given by Siwart (Dictionary of Archi-
tecture). His account is as follows: "The Greek house had no atrinm. but instead of it the
peristyle was approached by a passage called thyroreum. On the side of the peristyle opposite
the entrance was a kind of vestibule called pastas ; the apartments on the right and left of which
were termed severally thalamos and amphi-tlialamos, and beyond them were the ceci or halls. In
the first peristyle were the triclinia in daily use, and the apartments of the domestics; this divi-
sion of the house was caded gyncscortitis. In the south portico of the greater peristyle, which was
styled andronitis, were the pinacolheca and Cyiicene (ecus ; in the eastern, the bibliotheca ; in the
western, the exedra ; and in the northern, the great mcus, or banqueting-room. The fiospitalia
consisted of triclinia and sleeping-rooms fur strangers, and were on the right and left of the great
tECUs. There were courts or passages to these apartments called mesaulce. In the plan [given in
Plate XXIV.] a is the thyroreum ; b, peristyle of the gynoeconitis ; c, the pastas ; d, the great mens ,
e, stables; /, /, courts; g, g, g, porter's cellm ; h, h, common triclinia; i, the thalavios ; j, the
aniphi-t/iilamos ; k, k, ceci or halls ; /, I, the mesaulce ; m, m, the hospitalia ; n, the vestibule ; o,
^he great peristyle ; p, the bibliotheca ; q, q, the pinacothecm ; r, the Cyiicene a:cus ; s, the exedra.''

2 A door i^pa, iniXr]) was fastened by means of lock and key {kXsD ; the key de-



scribed by Komer seems to have been merely a bolt v/hich was moved by a thong
((//a?) attached to it (Od. i. 442). In later tmies keys similar to the modern were in use.
— Various articles of furniture are named. Although the house usually had a fixed fire-
place {hria), portable stoves {eoxapai) or chafing-dishes {dudpaKiu.) were frequently used.
In the sleeping room was the bed, Koirri or Af\:o? ; this was often in the form of the sofa,
about six feet long and three broad ; called also K\mi. The chair (-poi/of), ewer (npoxoos)
and basin for washing (Xovrfipiov) , mirror {KaTonrpov) and hs case or stand (Xo^^roj'), clothes-
chest {KicTr}), &c. are mentioned.

In Plate XXXII. fig. 6, is a son of keij formed by a bolt and string; it was found at Pompeii;
in Plate XXIV. fig. 2, we have a Grecian metallic key, selected from a number given in Mont-
faucon.— Fig. 5, of this Plate, shows a Grecian sofd-bed, with a man in one corner and his wife
reclining behind him. Fig. 10, of the same Plate, is another form of the Greek sofa; it is covered
with a cushion, from which an ornamental appendage hangs over one end of the frame. Fig. d,
of Plate XXXII. is a curious form, taken from an Egyptian monument. — Chairs (Egyptian) are
seen in fig. 8, and fig. 9, of Plate XXIV. ; others (Grecian) in fig. 7, and fig. 4.— The latter, fig. 4,
shows also a mirror, held by the female before her face.

Respecting the Greek house, &c. see Becker^s Charicles.— ffirJ's Geschichte der Baukunst, cited P. IV. § 243. 4.

§ 172. The arts of industry, especially navigation and commerce, were
highly prosperous in the flourishing period of Grecian history.

1 u. The business of navigation was originally in the hands of the Phoenicians
solely ; but afterwards was shared by the occupants of Asia Minor and several of the
Greek islands. The lucrative commerce of Egypt was then chiefly monopolized by
the Greeks. Athens was forced to engage in this pursuit by the unproductiveness of
her soil ; and although Lycurgus prohibhed commerce at Sparta, yet afterwards even
there it gradually and constantly increased. By the union wuh Egypt at a later pe-
riod, Grecian commerce rose to still higher success. Besides the states just named,
Corinth and the islands iEgina and Rhodes were the principal places of commerce ;

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