Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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and their industry and enterprise contributed very much to the wealth and power of
the Grecian states.

2. Attica was favorably situated for commerce, being washed on three sides by the
sea. Her merchants are said, besides receiving the corn, wines, and metals, which
came from various places in the Mediterranean, to have imported also timber, salted
fish, and slaves from Thrace and Macedonia; woolen and other stuffs from Asia Mi-
nor and Syria ; and honey, wax, tar, and hides from the cities on the Black sea.
They likewise exported, not only different commodities brought from foreign coun-
tries for the purpose, but the products of Attica, which were chiefly olives and oil,
and various articles of manufacture, particularly arms and domestic utensils.

ISarthehmy's Anacharsis, ch. Ivi. — D. H. HcgewiscVs eeograph. und histor. Nachrichten die Colonien der Griecheo betreffend.
Altona, IS08. S,—RollMs History of the Arts and Sciences of the Ancients.— JBe?iedic(, Geschichte der SchifiTahrt und des Handels

der Alten. For an account of the routes by which the productions of the east were conveyed through Babylon to the countries of

the Mediterranean, see Heeren on the Commerce of Ancient Babylon, as translated by F. M. Hubbard, in the Bibl. Repo3. vol. vii.
D. 364 ss.

3. It is evident from the poems of Hesiod (cf. P. V. § 51), that agriculture was at
an early period a subject of practical interest among the Greeks. Yet the art does
not appear to have been carried to very great perfection in any of the states. (Cf. ^ 58".;

The plow (apoTfiov) of the Greeks is said to have been of two kinds {ivo eiSrj) ; the

one kind, composite (n-r/xroj/) ; the other, simple (dDTdyvov). (Cf. Hes. Works and
Days, V. 432, 436.) The principal parts of the composhe were the following; the
i(jTo3oTug or pi'/wj, heatn; the former term is also put for the yoke, or the string or thong
connecting the yoke with the beam ; the vvpi^ or vvvn, plowshare, whose extreme
point was called vvji^n ; it was attached to a piece of wood called I'Au/xa, and connected
with a piece terined yi'r;s ; the ix^rXri, handle.

A specimen of the simple may be seen in our Plate XXXII. fig. 6, which represents a Syrian
plow, with a small metallic blade or share, furnishing an illustration of the metaphor of the pro-
phet (Micali iv. 3) : other forms are seen in fig. iii. ; one of the engravings shows a single bullock
drawing the plow, which is held in one hand of the laborer, while with the other he guides the
animal by a rein.

See Mongez, Sur les instrumens d'agricullure des anciens, in the A/cm. de VInstitut, CI a s s e d'Hist. et Lit. Arte. vol. ii. p. 616 ;
vol. iii. (published ISIS), p. 1. with engravings.— Cf. Rougier, as cited § 13. 5.

4. The soil of Attica was more favorable to the production of the grape (PoTpvg), olive (tXaioj),
and fig (cvkov), than of grain (CTTro?); and it was necessary to import the latter; it has been
estimated that one-third of the quantity annually consumed was imported. The exportation of
corn was prohibited. The sale of it was under the supervision of oflicers called oiTu^ivXaxei.
If corndealers ((riroiroiXai) combined to raise the price, they were liable to capital punishment.
In order to avoid a scarcity of corn ((TiToScia), public granaries (airoSoKai) were kept, under the
direction of purveyors ((rtrui/at) and receivers (.d-rroScKTai) .

On this subject cec BScWs Public Economy of Athens— Bcrg^crte, Hist, de I'Agrlc. des Grecs. Par. 1830. 2 vols. 8.

§ 173. Here it may be proper to give a brief account of the moneys, weights,
and measures of the Greelis. In early times, traffic was effected only by ex-
change of goods, or barter, the inconvenience of which must soon be felt. Rude


metals were next employed, in order to render an equivalent for what was pur-
chased, and were weighed for the purpose. Afterwards their weight and value
were indicated by signs, marked or impressed upon them. At length, regular
coins were stamped, but the exact time of their first appe&france cannot be decided
(cf. P. IV. § 94, 95). It is known, however, that in the time of Solon, B. C.
about 600, they were in common use in Greece. The metals used in making
money-coins were gold, silver, brass, copper, and iron. Tlie oldest coins were
impressed only on one side. The impressions were various, both as to the
objects represented and as to the art and skill therein exhibited. The Attic
coins were stamped with an image of Minerva, and of the owl, her sacred bird.

1 u. The general terms used to designate metals as a circulating medium were
these: vi-^iofia, any legitimate coin ; xp'V. money in the loose sense ; and Ktpua, small
coin or change. Besides these there were numberless specific names, derived Irom
the weight ot' the coins, the place where they were struck, or the image upon their
face. There were also terms, which expressed large sums or amounts, but were not
names of actual coins; as e. g. the nid or niia, and the raXavTov. The former {fivd) de-
signated at Athens the sum of 100 drachms; at vEgina, the sum of 160; the term
was however also used to signify merely the golden ara-fip. The latter {TuXavrov) was
usually the sum of 6000 drachms, but had difierent values in difi'erent places; a talent
of gold in Attica was equivalent to ten talents of silver.

2 m. Of the actual and circulating coins the Xcttoi/ was the smallest. Seven of this
name were equal to the xa^Kovg, and eight of the latter to the dfJoXog. This last varied,
however, in value, according to the place where it v/as coined. Six 6j3o\di were equi-
valent to the (paxfi)'], which had its name from the weight, but was of difierent values
in different places. The names of the coins r,inu(i6\wv, citiPohov or 6i6poXov, rpioiSoKov,
&c., and lipLi^paxiiov , Sicpaxfjioy, &c., are easily understood. Four 6paxftai were equal to
the (rrari'ip in silver, a coin, which was also called TCTpa^paxjxov, and seems to have been
the one most generally in use among the Greeks. The arartjp in gold was equal in
value to 20 cpa\pai, in weight to 2, and was sometimes called iicpaxnog, but was most
generally termed xp^^ovq. It received likewise other names from the places where,
or the kings under whom, it was struck; as e. g. Stater Daricus, Stater Crcesi, &c.

3. Anionu the coins, named from the image upon them, were the 0ovi, bearing the figure of an
ox; the Kopri, h;iving a representation cf Pallas, the maid; yXav^, with an owl for its device,
another name fur the tetradrachma.

In Plate XL. are several specimens of Greek coins, taken from Montfaucon's Antiquity E.x-
plained, and from Ca/?He«'s Dictionary. Fig. 1 is a coin of Thebes ; fig. 2, of Argos ; 3, of.aSgina;
4, a!id also a, d. and e, are Macedonian coins ; 5, and also q,c,f, and v, are Athenian ; 6 is a coin
of Thespiffi ; 7 is an jEtnlian. Fig. 5 is an Attic tetradrachm, with Minerva's head on the obverse,
and on the reverse an owl standing on a prostrate vase, the dpfpopevs (amphora') or dicjrr/ {diota),
with the inscription AGE , the whole encompassed with an olive crown. Fig. v is the reverse
of a didracliiii, showing an augur's wand and a sacrificial vase. Fig. / is the drachm, bearing a
sort of tri[i<)d ; fig. c is another, which has the head of a Vulcan, and on the reverse are two
lighted torciies ; on 6, Apollo appears in company with the owl.— Cf. P. IV. $ 93.— For a tabular
view of the chief coins and their relative value, see our Plate XXV a.

'^ 174 u. Various changes successively took place in the denomination of Greek
coins. There were changes also in the worth of these coins, both as to their actual
contents and their relative value. Sometimes it was necessary to coin tin and iron for
money. The Spartans were required by the laws of Lycurgus to use tin and iron,
and did not depart from the custom until a late period. The common ratio between
gold and silver was as one to ten, but it was sometimes above ; as one to twelve and a
half. There are many difficulties in the way of comparing Grecian money with mo-
dern, and thus obtaining a settled idea of the value of the former. The Spaxiifj equal-
icd about 9d sterling.

1. The mint at Athens, or place where money was coined, was called upyvpoKorreTov ; here
were kept the standard weights for the various coins. — Many specimens of the silver ararfjp or
r^rpjjpax^iti'are still preserved in collections. Z.e/ronne,havingaccuratelyexamined five hundred
)f them, and arranged them according lo the centuries in which they were struck, deduced the
tiean weight of the old Attic Spnxi^fl, coined B. C. two centuries and more ; and the value, as
jhus derived, is slated at 17 cents 5.93 mills of our currency. The later Soaxufi is stated at 16 cents
t.'Si mills.

2. See Conner's Essay on the Measures, Weiglits, and Moneys of tlie Greeks and Romans, in Anthem's ed. of Lempriere.—G. Grosse,
Metrol. Tafeln Uber die alt. Masse, &c. Roms und Griechenlands. (by jj. G. Kiutner.) Brauns. 1792. S.—F. Ch. Matlhid, Ueber-
sicht des rom. und griecli. Mass- Gewiclits- and Manz-VVesens. Frankf. 1809. i.—J. F. IVwrm. De ponderum, etc. rationibus spud
Ronianos et Grajcos. Lips. 1821. %.—Hussey, Ancient Money, Weights, &c. cited § 274. 2.—Mckh, Ueber Manzen, Masse, una

Gewichte des Alterthums. Lpz. 1838. 6.— Eckel, as cited P. IV. § 99. 1. On the whole subject of Greek Coins and Medals, sea

P. IV. 55 93-99.

*?> 175. In connection with the account of Grecian money, it is proper to speak of
their systems of notation, or of denoting numbers. The more ancient method was
quite simple. Six letters were used for the purpose, viz. for one, I, perhaps from la
fo"- Mia ; for Jive, II, from Uevtc ; for ten. A, from Awa ; for a hundred, H trom H«a-


Tdv {iKarov) ; for a thousand, X, from XiXia ; and for ten thousand, M, from Wvpta. All
numbers were expressed by combinations of these letters ; each combination signify,
iug the sum of the numbers designated by the letters separately; e. g. Ill 1 1 repre-
sented eight ; AELI, sixteen ; A A, twenty, &c. Sometimes they were combined so as
to express the product, instead of the sum, of the separate letters ; in such case, one
of the letters was made large, and the other was written within it of a smaller size;
for example, H (representing a n with a A in its bosom) signified 10X5, i. e. 50: so a
n with an H placed within it signified 100 X 5, or 500 ; and a A having M within it,
signified 10,000X10, or 100,000: this form of combination was chiefly confined to
numbers involving 5 as a factor ; such numbers were expressed by using a large n and
writing the letter for the other factor in its bosom. This was the old Attic system,
and is found on inscriptions ; it is seen in the Chronicon Parium (cf P. IV. § 91. 4).

But this method was superseded by another; in which all the letters of the alpha-
bet were employed, and also three signs in addition, viz. BaiJ, Komra, and HanTrT, men-
tioned in P. IV. § 46. 2. By this system, the first eight letters, from Alpha to Theta,
expressed the units respectively from 1 to 9, BaiJ being inserted after Epsilon, to sig-
nify 6 ; the second eight, from Iota to Fi, expressing the tens ; the last (11) signifying
80, and KoTnra being used for 90; the next eight, from Eho to Omega, expressed the
hundreds ; il standing for 800, and Sa/jTrt being used for 900. The letters, when thus
used to designate numbers, were usually marked with a stroke above ; thus, i, 10;
K, 20: k/S" 22. In order to express thousands, the eight first letters with BaiJ were
again used, but with a stroke beneath ; thus, &, 4,000 ; r, 6,000 ; kuXS', 20,432.

Cf. Robinson's Buttman, § 2.—B(miUtt, Diet. Class. (Jabltaux, &c. N. 34.)

§ 176. The use of weights was of early origin among the Greeks, as else-
where. Grecian weights had the same names with their coins of money, a
circumstance which seems clearly to point back to the custom of weighing
uncoined gold and silver for purposes of exchange. The proportions of the
weights were different in different applications of them ; as, e. g. those of com-
mon merchandise did not in all respects correspond with those of the apothecary.
The 6,3o?tdj is said to have been the smallest weight used, except by apothecaries
or physicians, who used a weight, termed xfpattoi', about one-fourth of the
o^otJ)!;, and another, GitdpLov, only one-fourth of that.

Cf. L. Psetus, De Mensuris et Ponderibus Rom. et Graecis. Venat. 1573. (ol.—IViirm, Hussey, &c as c'lted § 174. 2.— See the
tabular view given in Plate XXV a.

§ 177. In speaking of the Greek measures, we may notice them as divided
into measures of length, of surface, and of capacity.

1 u. The names of the measures of length were taken, as was the case in most of
the ancient nations, from members of the human body; e. g. caKTvXo;, a finger's
breadth ; (rmQafif], a span, hand's width, the distance from the extremity of the thumb
to that of the Httle finger; tto??, a foot. The Herculean or Olympic foot was longer.
The mlY"?, a cubit, was the distance from the elbow to the extremity of the middle
finger. 'Opyvih, a fathom, was the distance across the breast, between the extremities
of the hands, the arms being extended (opeyu) in a horizontal fine.

2. Of measures including length and breadth, or measures of surface, the principal
were the novg, the apovpa, and the trXtdpov. The mvg was a square with each side one
foot ; the cipovpa, a square with each side 50 noSsg ; and the liKkOpov, a.square with a side
of 108 TTo^Ei ; so that 2,500 -Tokg made an apovpa and 4 apovpai a nXiOpov. — The term (nraprior
seems to have been used to designate a measuring fine.

3u. Measures of capacity had mostly the same names, whether applied to hquids or
to things dry. The largest Hquid measure was ptrprirhs, equal to about 8 gallons, and
called also sometimes Kaio;, Kipapiov, and dptpopvig. The smallest measure was the KoxKiapiov,
containing less than a hundredth part of a pint, and so called from koxKo; or koxXiou, a
snail-shell. The fwr/js contained about a pint, and was equal to twice the measure
termed KorvXr]. Between the Ko-ruXri (half pint) and the KoxXinptov, six intervening measures
are named. The measure next larger than the fiorr/j (pint) was the xo^s, containing
upwards of two quarts.

4. Th.0 KOTvXrj is said to have been applied by ancient physicians to the same use as modern
graduated glasses of apothecaries, being made of horn, and divided on the outside by lines, so
that certain parts of the measure corresponded to certain denominations of weight. The largest
measure applied to things dry was the jxt&ipvog, which contained somewhat more than a bushel
and a fourth, and received different names in different regions. The xorvjf was a little less than
a quart; forty-eight of which were contained in the piSifivog. The a^Jif, equivalent to the
ipiiexTov contained four x<"'»'"f£J- Most of the other measures were of tlie same names as
the liquid measures.

See G Hwper, Inquiry into the state of Ancient Measures, Attic, Roman, and Jewish. Ixjnd. 1721. S.—SSckJi, IVurm, &c cited
I 174. 2.— Cf. the tabular view, given in Plate XXV a.

§ 178. The social pleasures and amusements of the Greeks were very nu-




The estimated value in our denominations
is given according to the Tables of A. B.
Conger, which are based on the Treatise of
IVurm, & the Tables of Bouillet.


1. Below the Drachm.

Dolls, as. m.

Acndv CO 0.5

71 XnXKOvs • • 3.6

14 I 2 I d,Cx a'>^ov • ■ - • • • 7J

28 I 4 I 2 I ■Ha» o/3(}Xiov 1 4.6

56 I 8 I 4 I 2 I 'OjSo Aos ... , 2 9.3

112 I 16 I 8 I 4 I 2 I Aidji oXov • • • • 5 8.6
224 I 32 I 16 I 8 I 4 | 2 | TtTp o/3diAov • . II 7.2
336 i 48 I 24 I 12 I 6 I 3 1 1.5 | Afia;t^i} • . 17 6.9

Above the Drachm.

Apax/iij ....
2 I A/fp gy/tov
4 i 2 I 'VtTQiSgaxi^ov -
20 I 10 I 5 I Xp va-ov? -

100 I 60 I 25 I 5 I Mi/S -


DdOs. eU. m.

. 17 5.9

- • 35 1.8

• • 70 3.7

3 51 8.6

. 17 59 3.2

1055 59 3.2

60000[30000J15000[3000|6(X)J 10 | "^o/^i"" | '0555 93 2.6

Measures of Capacity.

1. For Liquids.

Kox>^idpiov . . •

2 I 'Xi JiJ.ri ....
2.5 1 1.25 I Mti o-Tpov
5 I 2.5 I 2 I Koy/CTj •

i 4 I 2 I KvaSoi -

Gal. qt.

10 I

I 7.5 I 6 I 3 |l.5| 'OlCi3ai,o

30 I 15 I 12 I 6 I 3 I 2 I rir aprov - . , .

60 I 30 I 24 I 12 I 6 I 4 I 2 I Ko tOAj; . , .

120 I 60 I 4' I 24 I 12 1 8 I 4 I 2 I 5t o-T»)y • .

720|36i)|2S8|l44|72 | 48|24|l2|6 | Xot-y . 2

4320l2l60|l728|864i432l2ss|H4|72|36| 6 IAwti? 4 I

The AitoTT) doubled formed the next and largest

measure, MtrpTjrjyj 8 2






0.079 I




2. For Things Dry

10 I KiaBo^ ■

15 I 1.5 I '0^ /?ai^ov
60 I 6 I 4 I KotvXjj

120 I 12 I 8 I 2 I •Ei'TTTli

240 I 24 I 16 I 4 I 2 I Xo iwg

960 I 9d I 64 I 16 Is |4 I 'E pi.ltKTOv

1920 I 192 ! 12S| 32 i 16| 8 I 2 I -Ektoj


3S 40|3S4 |256|64 |32!l6| 4 |2 | Tp tro's
Il520hl52|76s!l9i|96|48ll2|6|3 | MiSi/ivos


Measures of lieugth.

1. Small Measures,

Ft. In.

ArfKTvXoj 0.75

2 I KdvcvXos 1.51

4 I 2 I naXoKTTij, or Affipov • 3.03

8 I 4 ' 2 \ Aixds, OT 'Ufuirdliov . . . . • $.06

1 I 5 I 2.3 i 1.25 I Aix dS 7.58

11 I 5.5 I 2.75 1 1. 375 1 1.01 | 'Op9 rf(?a)pov 8.34

12 I 6 I 3 I 1.5 I 1.2 1 1.09 I Z-nie aiirj .... 9.10
16 I 8 I 4 I 2 I 1.6 I 1.45 I 1.3 | Hot); ... 1 o.l3
18 I 9 I 4.5 2 25 | 1.8 | 1.63| 1.5 1 1.125| Uv yiirj • I 1.65
20 I 10 I 5 I 2.5 I 2 I 1.81 | 1.6 | 1.25 |1.1 | Xlv y&v . 1 3.17
24 I U I 6 I 3 1 2.4 I 2.18 I 2 | 1.5 ll.3|l.2i Ug^vj » 6.20

2. Oreat Measures.


2.3 I B^^a •

6 I 2.5 I 'Opyvuf

14 I 1.6 I AtKdTTov^, K(i\a/ioj ■
I 24 I 10 I 6 I'A/i/ta • .

Miles, yds.

100 I 40 1 16.6 I 10 I 1.6 I nUBgov

I 240 1 100 I 60 I 10 I 6 I ZTdiJiov -

I 4^0 1 200 I 120 I 20 I 12 I 2 I Aioi>Xof

24001 <

1 1 400 240 I 40 I 24 I 4 I 2 i 'Iir^Ttxdv

7200|2S?0|1200| 720 | 120 | 72 | 12 | 6 | 3 | ArfXtyoy

Measures of Surface.

Tlovs . . . .
36 I ■E|a rr(}^»)5 .
100 I 2.7 I "Axatva

Poles, sq.ft.

• 102.30

. 3 35.79

6 71.58

2500 I 69 4 I 25 | 3 'Apovpa • 9 107.37

S33.3 l23.Us| 8.3 | 'H/ift/CTOS
16666 1 463 | 16.6 1 2 |"E<ctoj

lOCOO 1277.7 I 100 I 12 I 6 I 4 I nXtBgov 37 157.26 !


1. Below the Drachm.

(Troy Weight.)
Dwls. grs.
AcKTOV ...... 00.20

7 I XaX <oe; • 1.40

2 8 I 4 I 'ni uo^dXwv ..... 6.61
56 I 8 I 2 I '0^ 0X6; ... , 11.22

112 I 16 I 4 I 2 I Aio ^dXov .... 22.44
336| 48 I 12 I 6 I 3 I Agaxi^^ • 2 19.33

2. Above the Drachm.

(Troy Weight.)
Lbs. oz. duits. ^s.
_Apo>r/M) • • . . 00 00 2 19.33

2 I i>.t!g axi>-ov 5 14.66

ion I 50 I Mi /g ... 120 13.48

5C00 |3000| 60 I TdXai/Tov .70 1 13 17.29




116 10 16 4.82 .



merous, and in the better portion of their history, various, refined, and tasteful.
Music and dancing were among- the most prominent, and were almost a neces-
sary accompaniment of public and private festivals, entertainments, and social
meetings. In this custom there was a regard not merely to immediate gratifi-
cation, but also to the promotion of the general culture. Song and musical
accompaniment were almost inseparable; at least instrumental music was
scarcely ever practiced without vocal. There were several kinds of exercise,
•which it was common to connect with the entertainments of the banquet, and
various social games or plays (cf. § 167).

There was an amusement in which dancing and playing with a ball {a<pa'ipa) were
connected together'. The game at ball was a favorite amusement, and was ranked
among the gymnastic exercises ; five different modes are named : ovpavta, brtaKvpos,
(paiv'ivca, afmaardi', d-nrofpa^t;. There was a Sort of dancing in which the dancers or tumblers^
(KvPtarnrripe;) flung themselves on their heads and alighted again on their fieet, and made
somersets over knives and swords. — A favorue dance is still preserved^ in Greece, called

» Burette, Spheristique des Anciens, in the Hut. de VAcad. des Inscr. vol. i. p. 153. 2 See Paciaudius, as cited § 88. 2.—

Becker, Charicles, &c. a Land. Qttart. Rev. xxiii.350.

See Burette, De la danse des Anciens, in the Hist, de VAcad. des Imar. i. 93.—/. Meursivs, De Saltationibus Veterum, contained
in vol. viii. of Granovius, as cited § 13.— /ui. Caes. Eulcngeri de ludis privatis ac domestiris veterum liber unicus. Ludg. 1627. 8,
This is given also in the CUus. Joum. vol. v. — On various Doric dances, cf. MUller, Hist, and Aniiq. of Doric Race, bk. i. ch. vi,

§ 179. Under the Archaeology of Greek literature notice is taken (cf P. IV. '^ 63, § 65;
of the great importance and comprehensive meaning of music (//ow(K)»in the system of
education among ihe Greeks. Here we introduce some remarks on musical sounds and
instrume?its. To denote what is now called the Science of Music the Greeks used the
term 'ApuoviKf]. The subject was divided into several parts ; stated by some as follows :
1. ot souiuls (TrepX (pOoYyo)!') ; 2. oi intervals Ij^ipl iiaaTr)p.aT(jiv) ; 3. of systems {irspl avcrrjpaTwv) ;
4. of genera {rrspl yti'Wi'); 5. of modes (wpt rovui' or vopui/); 6. of transition or mutation
{TTcpl iisra0o\ris) ; 7. o{ composition impi peXovouag). — " The notes or sounds of the voice were
seven, each of which was attributed to some particular planet : 1. wrarr], to the Moon ;
2 iraprmaTTi, to Jupiter ; 3. yixavos, to Mercury ; 4. phrrj, to the Sun ; 5. napapicar], to Mars ;
6. Tp'irri, to Venus ; and 7. vriTrj, to Saturn. Some, however, take them in a contrary
order, and ascribe v-d~ri to Saturn, and vfim to the Moon.' — The tone or mode, which
the musicians used in raising or depressing the sound was called I'Ofjos; and they were
called vupoi, as being laws or models by which they sang or played. There were four
principal vSpoi or modes ; the Phrygian, the Lydian, the Doric, and the Ionic. To these
some add a fifth, which they call the iEolic, but which is not mentioned by ancient
authors. The Phrygian mode was rehgious ; the Lydian, plaintive ; the Doric, martial;
the Ionic, gay and cheerful ; and the ^olic, simple. The mode used in exciting soldiers

to battle was called "OpOio;. Afterwards, the term vojioi began to be applied to the

hymns which were sung in those modes."

Robinson, Arch. Grsec. bk. v. ch. xxiii.— For a fuller account of the science, see Smith, Diet, of Ant. p. Sii.—Drieberg, Musi
kalischeWissenschaften derGriechen.— AJso,£iirel(e, Chabanon, &c. as cited P. IV. § 63.— MeiiomiuJ, Collection of ancient writer*
on Music, cited P. V. § 208. 1.

§ ISO. " The music of the Greeks was either vocal or instrumental. The music of
those who only played on instruments was called po^aiKh s/^tXij; that of those who also
sang to the instrument, povuiKh psra pc^o^Stas. The musical instruments were divided into
cp-Kvewra, wind instruments, and evrara or vzvpokra, stringed instruments. The lyre, the
flute, and the pipe, were the three principal instruments ; but there were several others.
— Of the instruments to which chords or strings were applied, the most famous was
the lyre, which was called in Greek KiBapa and <p6ppiy^, though some affect a distinction
between the harp and the lyre. At first, the strings were made of linen thread, and
afterwards of the intestines of sheep. Anciently, the chords or strings were three in
number, whence such lyre was called rpixopSo;; and the lyre with three strings is said
by some to have been invented in Asia, a chy of Lydia, whence it was sometimes de-
nominated da'tag. Afterwards, it was rendered more perfect by having seven strings,
and hence was called cTrrdxophs, i-Ta>pQoyyoi , and £7rrdyXcoajoc. They struck the strings
sometimes with a bow, and sometimes only with the fingers ; and to play on this instru-
ment was called in Greek KiOapi^eiv, Kpovcw TrXrucrpco, or Siukeiv, 6aKTv\ioi; Kpoveiv, and ipaWstv.
To learn to play well on the lyre, an apprenticeship of three years was necessary. This
instrument was invented in Arcadia, which abounded with tortoises, of the shell of
which the lyre was made. — The flute, avXdg, was a celebrated instrument. It was used

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