Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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in the sacrifices of the gods, at festivals, games, entertainments, and funerals. Minerva
is said to have invented the straight, and Pan the obhque flute (^XaytaiiXof). Flutes were
made of the bones of stags or fawns, and hence called vcppewi av\oi, and the inven-
tion of making them of these materials is ascribed to the Thebans. They were also
made of the bones of asses, and of elephants; and likewise of reed, box, and lotus.
The Boeotians excelled all the other Greeks in playing on this instrument. — The pipe


was called cvpty^, and differed in sound from the flute. The tone of the pipe was sharp
and shrill, and hence its sounds were called XenraXiai. On the contrary, the sound of
the flute was grave, full, and mellow ; and hence the flute was denominated /iapii/V/iCj."
Besides the instruments already named, we may mention the following, arranged under the
heads of stringed instruments, wind instruments, and instruments of percussion.

1. Stringed instruments: ni/JAa, a sort of lute or lyre, said to have twelve strings
(SdJicKa (pO'jyyovs) -, TrrjKTis, another variety of the lyre, used by the Lydians; iiayaSis, a lute
with twenty strings ; dcKapov, said to be of a square form and similar to the \pi6vpa;
tcnvpa, an Asiatic lute often said to be of a melancholy tone, but perhaps without foun-
dation ; it has been supposed that the strings were drawn over a sounding board, and
in playing were struck with a plectrum (7rA^»c-/)0i'), like a modern violin ; aandvKri, samhuca
(cf. Persius, Sat. v. 25), sackhut (cf Ban. iii. 5), a harp of a triangular form, with four
strings of acute sound, used in chanting iambics ; Tplycovov, a triangle with several strings
of unequal length ; ipa\Triptov, said to be hke the naya(^t;, and also used for any variety
of the lyre ; ipiOvpa, a Libyan instrument of a square form.

In Plate XXVI. are given various forms of stringed instruments. Fig. 1. is a triansnilar form
of the harp or lyre, by some considered as the .sambuca, by others as ihe tiigonon. Fig. C pre-
sents a similar form ; this is taken from a representation of a religious festival found at Hercu-
laneum (cf. Lond. Quart. Rev. xviii. 87); it shows a Cupid dancing and playin?. Fig. 10 is by
some called the sambtica; having four strings apparently over a sounding board. Fig. w is an
old form of the lyre with three strings. Fig. 11 is another, given in Caimet as " Tinmiheus's
harp with nine strings." Fig. 4 is the ascaron as given by Montfaucon. Fig. 2 is a form of the
lyre found on Egyptian monuments ; fig. e shows the mode of playing upon it. (For the Thes-
pian lyre, see Plate XL. fig. 6.)— In fig. 6, we have the kinura or violin, from Montfaucon. In fig. 7
is a similar instrument from J^iebuhr, in a side view ; a front view of it is given in fis. 8, having
five strings of metal wire. Fig. 3 and fig. 5, also from JViebuhr, are given in Caimet, as other
forms of the kinura or kinnor, which have been noticed by travelers in the east. A harp con-
sisting of seventy-two strings or wires is said to be used in Kurdistan (cf A. Grant, p. 57, as
cited P. I. $ 154 b). Fig. 9 is taken from a sculpture at Thebes in Egypt, and seems to be the
same instrument with three strings; it has been supposed to represent the Hebrew shalidhim
played on by females in David's time (1 Sam. xviii. 6). In fig. / is seen a Persian violin and

2. Wmd instruments:£'X"^o?, a kind of flute of Phrygian invention, usually made of
bo.xwood ; yiyypci or yiyypia, a Phoenician pipe (cf § 77. 2), short, of a plaintive note ;
HovanXo;, a flute used especially at nuptial festivals ; mxavXag, a sort of bagpipe. It may
be remarked, that there was a great variety of these instruments belonging to the class
of pipes or flutes. The ovpiy^, which is called also the pipe of Pan, is of great antiquity •
some suppose it to be the instrument mentioned by 3Ioses (Gen. iv. 21, cf Compre-
hensive Commentary) by the name oi vgabh. It is still found in the east, in Turkey and
Syria ; with the number of its reeds'varying, it is said, from Jive to twenty-five. A
double flute is often memioned, called also the right and left (cf ^ 238) ; the right one, or
that held in the right hand, is represented as shorter and having a higher tone than the
left ; and both as blown by the performer at the same time. The male flute-player
was termed av\rir!)i', the female, avXrjrpta, or avXriTplg. — There were several varieties
Hkewise of the o-aXrrtyf, or trumpet ; as, Kipag, a Phrygian trumpet, or flute crooked like
a horn; Kspanvri, a trumpet of shnilar form, probably less crooked. — There seems also
to have been, in the later times at, a variety of musical instruments of the kind
termed vSpavhg, or water-organ ; the shape of an ancient organ is exhibited partly at
least in a poem, by Optatianus (cf P. V. § 341), describing the instrument in verses so
constructed as to resemble its form.

In Plate XXVI. we have also represented a number of wind instruments. Fig. s is the pipe
with seven reeds. Fig. y is the single flute as given by Pfeiffer, from JSTiebuhr. In fig. a we see
a musician blowing the double flute ; It is taken from a representation found at Pompeii (cf Pom-
peii, p. 260, as cited P. IV. $ 226. 1). Fig. ii. presents also, as has been supposed, the double
flute; it is from a representation found at Herculaneum; the two parts seem to be of equal
length. (The same appears to be the case in tlie views given Plate XXV. fig. h and i.) — Fig. n is
the keras or horn, a form of the trumpet. Fig. t is another form, straight; by some supposed to
represent the silver trumpets used for assembling the Israelites in the wilderness (cf J^Tum. x. 2).
Fig. B shows a form of the Roman cornu. Fjg. i represents a performer upon a sort of flute ; it
is from an Egyptian monument. Fig. A is taken from an ancient altar on which is sculptured
the funeral pomp of Hector; the figure here given leads the procession ; it is a woman blowing
a long flute with its extreme end fashioned like that of the trumpet; a funeral pipe, used as an
accompaniment to the threne or funeral song (cf Jilatt. xi. 17). See Oaland, as cited ^ 2S2. 2.—
A description of the liydraulis is given in a treatise of the mathematician Heron (cf Thevenat, Vet-
Math Op., cited P. V. $ "208 «. 1); a drawing, designed after this description, is found in Forkel'j
Geschichte (cited P. IV. { 63). Cf. JVou. Comm. Soc. Reg. Oditing. vol. ii. '

3. Instruments oi percussion: some instruments of this class were also used ; Tvpazavov.
a sort of kettle-drum, flat on one side and convex on the other, formed of wood with
leather drawn over it ; sometimes flat on both sides, consisting of a short hollow cylinder
with leather or skin drawn over both ends ; beaten with the hand, or with a stick , much
used at the festivals of Cybele and of Bacchus; id>ii/3a\a, cymbals which were of metal
iXa^Ka) ; in the shape of two half globes ; usually large and broad ; sometimes smaller,
60 that two (perhaps those termed- x-povjuara) were held in each hand of the player, and
such as arc used by oriental dancing- women. The kco6(x)v was merely a httie bell ; the

28 T


forms and uses of bells were various. The KporaXov is described by some as a sort of
bell made of brass ; by others, as "made of a reed split in two and so fitted as to emit
a sound from the touch." The auGrpov, sistrum, was properly an Egyptian instrument,
used in the worship of Isis; it consisted of an oval frame, with several bars of metal,
which passed through it transversely, and being loose gave sounds when the instrument
was shaken in the hand. A pecuhar instrument was lormed by placing metallic rings
so as to move freely upon a metalhc rod, which was sometimes in the lorm of a circle,
sometimes of a triangle.

Several instruments of percus.sion are exhibited in Plate XXVI. Fig. iii. is the tywpavum or
drum ; in fig. h are the large cymbals, and in fig. i, tlie smaller, called castanets. Fig. o, ditferent
forms of the simple bell. Fig. iv. shows the triangle, tiith rings ; by it is a stick with a knob at
the end, \ised perhaps in striking the rings. Fig. d presents the Persian drum, with the handg
of the drummer. Fig. c is a Turkish female playing on a. dulcimer (cf. Dan. iii. 10;.— In Plate XLV.
representing a sacrifice to Priapus, we see two women playing on the tympanum. In Plate XXV.
fig./, the Bacchante is playing with either the crotala or the small cymbals. The sistrum is seen
in fig. 0, of the same plate; also in the paw of the Sphinx, Plate VIII.

On the musical instruments of the ancients, cf. Monlfauccm, as cited P. II. § li 2. (d), vol. iii. p. .^42, and Supplem. vol. iii. p. 185.
—Calmet, Dictionary, &c. vol. iii. p. 337. ed. Chariest. 1818.— /"osAroie's Encyclop. cited § 13. p. 704— f. .4. Lampe, De C)'niball8
Veterum. Traj. ad Rheu. 1703. 12,; also in Ugolinus, oiled § 197. \.—PJeiffer, on the Music of the Hebrews, translated by 0. A
Taylor, in the BM. Reposit. and Quart. Obsirv. vol. vi. p. 357. (with a plale )—SviLzer, AUg. Theorie, Article InslrumentaU
Musik. — /. Hawkiiis, History of Music, lond. 1776. 5 vols. 4.

§ 181. The restraint imposed upon the female sex among the Greeks has
already been mentioned (cf. § 59). This state of subjection and degradation
continued even in the most flourishing times. Unmarried females were very
narrowly watched. Their apartment in the house (rtap^fvuji/) was commonly
kept closed and fastened. The married women were at liberty only to go as
far as the door of the court or yard. Mothers were allowed a little more freedom.
In general, women were allowed to appear in public but seldom, and then not
without wearing a veil {xdj.vTtrpov).

1 71. In Sparta, however, only married women were required to wear veils ; the un
married might appear without them. The sex enjoyed generally far more Uberty at
Sparta than at Athens. Lycurgus hoped by removing restraints to promote an innocent
familiarity of intercourse. But this freedom, however virtuous it might be at first, at
length degenerated into licentiousness.

On the slate of female society in Greece, see Land. Quart. Rev. vol. xxii. \6S.—Bibl. Repos. vol. ii. p. 478. — Social Condititm cf
the ancient Greeks. Oxf. IS32.— jj. Walker, Woman physiologically considered as to Mind, Morals, &c. Lond. 1839. S.— IV.Mex
ander. History of Women. Lond. 1782. 2 vols. i.—Lenz, as cited § 59.— G. Bernhardy, Grundriss der Griech. Lit. p. 36.

2. The employments of the women continued generally the same as in the earlier
ages (cf. § 59). They practiced weaving, with the loom (laroi) and shuttle {KepKig) ; the
loom was upright ; two perpendicular beams (ttrroTroMf or /cfXswKi) supporting a cross-
beam, from which the threads constituting the warp {arfiiiov) were hung; the vjoof was
termed KpoKi); also €<P"iljfi and poSavrj. They also employed the needle (d^orpa, pa'pt;) in
making garments, and various furniture for household use. Embroidery {epyov ^pvyiav
or ^pryioio)!', opus Phnjgiiim) was an art much cultivated, being perhaps the most im-
portant part of the general art of variegating in colors {TroiKi\ia), which was effected also
by painting and dyeing, and by weaving. Curtains {-Epovi'^para, a term applied to a gar-
ment or any article of cloth fastened by a -Kcpovrj or brooch), and other articles, richly
embroidered {ttoKvkixjto.), were wrought for private dwellings and for the temples (cf. *i 28).

A splendid work on Ancient Tapeitry was commenced at Paris in 1837, to be completed in 4 vols. fol. wi;h cuts and engravin?s —
See CouJiless o} Wilton, The Art of Needle-work from the earliest Ages ; with Notices of the Ancient Historical Tapestries. 3d ed.
Jjond. 1841. ]2.—C[.Mts Lamherl, Hand-book of Needle-work; with illustrations. N. York, 1842.

§ 182. The marriage state was much respected among the Greeks, and was
promoted and guarded by the laws. In Sparta particularly, certain penalties
were inflicted upon such as remained unmarried after a certain age. At Athens
also, all who wished to be commanders or orators, or to hold any public office,
were required to have a family and own a real estate. Polygamy on the other
hand was not permitted, although exceptions were made in some special cases.
The age at which marriage (yafioj) should be allowed was also prescribed, a
younger age being granted to females than to males; the latter, at Athens, were
forbidden to marry until they were thirty-five. At Sparta the usual age for
men to marry was thirty, and for women twenty. Marriage between parties
of near consanguinity was not allowed, or at least was generally viewed as im-
proper and scandalous. The Athenians, however, were allowed to marry sisters
by the same father (o/xo7tarptouj), although not those by the same mother (ouo-
firjtplovi). In most of the states, a citizen could marry only the daughter of a
citizen ; yet there was sometimes an exception.



1. Adul'ery v/as punished, and in some cases with severity. Although polygamy
was not generally allowed, concubinage was permitted without restraint. Concubines
rraWaKiSes) were usually captives or purchased slaves. Prostitution was exceedingly
common, and favored even by the whole system of religious worship. In Athens the
most distinguished statesmen and philosophers openly associated with females of dissolute
morals {eraLpai). The city of Corinth was still more famous for licentiousness. One
of the most odious forms of licentiousness among the Greeks was the Trot&paana ; how-
ever free from impurity might have been originally the relation and the habits of inter-
course in Sparta and in Crete between the boys loved (vAam or airat) and their lovers
((piXrjTope;) , and whatever excellent qualities might have belonged to the Theban sacred
ha7id(upa '/)aXay|) said to have been a body of 300 composed of lovers and their beloved,
it is nevertheless true that the hateful debauchery commonly designated by this term
was extensively practiced.

Respecting the prevalence of sensuality among the Greeks, of. Bill. Repos. vol. ii. p. 441.— On paederasty, cf. Berhardy, GrunJriss
der Griech. Lit. p. iS.—MUlkr, Hist, and Ant. of Dorians, bk. iv. ch. 6.— Boyd's Potter, p. 600.

2t. Wljen a virgin was sought in marriage, it was necessary first to consult the
parents, and if they were not living, the brother or guardian {inir pottos). The betrothing
was usually made in a formal manner by the father. The parties pledged to each other
mutual fidelity, by kissing or by joining right hands. The bridegroom also bestowed
on the bride a present as a pledge of his honor, called appa, dppaii^v, pLvmrpov. The giving
of a dowry iTrpolt, (pepi'ri) w'nh the bride was a custoin in Greece generally. At Athens
it was a legal and indispensable requisite, although the dowry was but small. In Sparta,
however, Lycurgus nearly abolished the custom. In the settlement of the dowry, and
the stipulations connected with it, witnesses were called in, and the husband delivered
an acknowledgment or receipt (Tpawwa), when he took the stipulated gifts. At Athens
it was customary before the actual marriage, to present the bride before Diana with
offerings and prayers ; this ceremony was called dpKTEia, and was designed to appease
the goddess, who was supposed to be averse to marriage. There were other divinities,
male and female, who were imagined to preside over marriage, and were therefore
called yapLfiXioi S)eol, to whom it was necessary to offer sacrifices on entering into the
marriage contract.

3 u. At the nuptials the betrothed pair, as well as the place of the festivity, were
adorned with garlands and nowers. Towards the evening the bride was conducted to
the house of the bridegroom {oIkov ayzaOat) either on foot or in a carriage (''PA"*)- The
bridesman, who attended her on this occasion, was called ndfyoxo; or TTapdvrp'.po;. A pro-
cession went before her, bearing lighted torches, and accompanied with music and
dancing. When the newly married couple entered the house, it was customary to place
or pour upon their heads figs and other varieties of fruit. The parties then sat down to
a banquet, which was, as well as the nuptial ceremonies together, termed y^fo?, and
was attended with music and dancing. The songs were called vjibmoi, or vpitvzg. Alter
the dancing, the pair were conducted with torches to the bridal chamber {caXdfio;), which,
as well as the nuptial bed (X?\of, XUrpoi'), was usually highly decorated (rraordf) for the
occasion. The young men and maids remained without, dancing and singing the
iviQaXapiov Koijir\TiKdv, while a friend of the bridegroom stood by as keeper of the door
(&i'pwpoj). This company returned to the door in the morning, and sung what wag
called the tmBaXdfiiov eyepriKov. The nuptial solemnities occupied several days ; one of
the days was called cTrdvXia ; another dnavXia.

See a lively description of an Athenian marriage in Bartheletny's Anacliarsis, ch. Ixxvii. On the marriage customs of Sparta

cf. MUller, bk. iv. ch. iv.

4. Children were discriminated as yvflmoi, lawfully begotten ; v69oi, bom of harlots or
concubines; i^rol, adopted. The paternal authorhy over the son ceased, at Athens,
when the son had completed his nineteenth year. It was an ancient custom for legi-
timate sons to divide their father's estate by lot, all having equal share, without respect
to priority of birth ; allowing a small pittance to such as were unlawfully begotten. The
father could dissolve the legal connection between himself and his son, and thus dis-
inherit him by a form of proceeding termed droKfipv^ts. If there were no legitimate sons,
the estate of the father fell to the daughters, who in such a case were termed trlKXinpoi ;
but their nearest relatives might claim them in marriage. When there were no lineal
descendants (eKyovoC) to inherit the property, it fell by law to the collateral relations
(iruyyEwrj) ; first to descendants of the same father with the deceased, to brothers and
the children of brothers ; next to descendants of the same grandfather with the deceased,
to cousins and children of cousins, the issue of males in every case taking precedence
of the issue of fe.uales ; a first cousin was termed dvapwg ; a first cousin's son, dwdjia^oHg.
The heir {kXiipoi/^ fio;) was said to receive his inheritance (vXrfpos) either by right of descent
(dyxtareia) or by righ' of consanguinity {avyyhcia). A male heir by right of descent might
take possession immediately ; or, if any one hindered him, might bring against that one
an action of ejectment (fpfiarcta). Persons who had no lawful issue were allowed to
adopt whom they pleased ; but at Athens foreigners although adopted by citizens could
not take an inheritance, unless they had received the freedom of the city. — Free citizens


were permitted to dispose of their property by will (SiadfiKTi), after the time of Solon ;
but there were certain conditions to be regarded. Wills were signed and sealed beforo
witnesses, and put into the hands of trustees (f7r(/ijXi7rai) who were to execute them.

Potter, Arch. Grsec bk. iv. ch. xv.—Blanchard, On Laws respecting Adoption, &c in the Mem. Acad. Irucr. x'n. 68. On ths

subject of inheritances, see Sir W. Jcmes, in fais Transl. of Isseus (of. P. V. § 104. 3.)—£mum, De Jure bered. Athen.— ScAoman,
Ant Jur. Fubl. Gra»c-

§ 183. Somethinor should be said of the Greek customs in later times in
reference to funerals and burials. Funeral obsequies were considered as a
sacred duty to the departed, and were therefore termed Stzata, vo^lixo., onia.
They were denied only to notorious criminals, traitors, and suicides, especially
such as destroyed themselves to escape punishment, spendthrifts, and the like,
whose remains, if they happened to obtain burial, were even disinterred.

% 184/. Some of the customs connected with the burial of the dead have already
^ 30, 31) been mentioned. In later times it was common to wrap the corpse in a costly
robe, the color of which was generally white ; and deck it with green boughs and gar-
lands of flowers. The body was then laid out to view (TrpoTiOsadat) in the entrance of
the house, on the ground, or on a bed {kXivt}) or a h\er{(p!:p£Tpov), where it remained at
least one day, with the feet towards the gate. It was while here constantly watched.
A vase of lustral water (dpiavtov) stood by, to purify such as touched the corpse. Shortly
before it was removed for burial, a piece of money, usually an d/JoAdf, was placed in the
mouth, as the fare {SavdKrj, iropByiiovi due to Charon for ferrying the departed over the
Styx. A cake made of flour and honey {jisWittovto.) was also put in the mouth, to ap-
pease the dog Cerberus, supposed to guard the entrance into Hades ("A(5??j).

On the meaning of the term Hades, and the opinions of the ancients respecting the state of the soul after death, see P. U. § 32.

As a burial soon after death was supposed to be pleasing to the deceased (cf. Horn. II, xxiii. 71)
the Greeks usually kept the corpse only until the third day. It does not appear that they ever
adopted the Egyptian custom of embalming the dead.

Respecting the custom of embalming, see De Caylus, in the Mem. Acad. Irucr. rxiii. 119.— 7. C. Warren, Description of an Egyp-
tian Mummy, Best. 1S24. 8. — Granville, On Egyptian Mummies ; in the Philos. Traniactiona of the Royal See. for Die year 1825.
p. 269.-7'. J. Pettigreni, History of Egyptian Mummies. Loud. 1834. 4.

"?> 185 t. The funeral itself was termed kKKonilr,, or €K(popa, the carrying forth of the
corpse, which at Athens was performed before sunrise, but elsewhere in the day time.
In Greece, generally, young persons were buried at break of day or early morning
twilight. The corpse v;as placed on a bier, or if the deceased had been a warrior, on
a large shield, and the bearers (j^^pofti-rai) carried it on their shoulders (aprriv (pspeiv), fol-
lowed by the friends and relatives of both sexes. The procession was commonly on
horseback, or in carriages; it was a token of higher respect when all went on foot. — •
Sorrow for the deceased was manifested by solitary retirement, fasting, and silence, by
wearing black and sordid garments, by covering the head with ashes, and plucking off
the hair, by cries of lamentation, and by funeral dirges. The latter were performed by
musicians employed for the purpose (ipfii/uv c^apxot) ; one dirge (v/ 7>0i) was sung as the
corpse was borne forward ; another, at the funeral pile ; and a third, at the grave ; they

were called 6\o(pvpiioi ; also ia\e[iui, raXf/iOi.

Funeral chants are still commoD in Greece, termed myriologues. — See Mrs. Hemans, Greek Funeral Chant, in her Poems. Bost.
1827. vol. ii. p. 160.

§ 186. The custom of burning the corpse became universal amoncr the later
Greeks ; the ceremonies attending it have been chiefly mentioned before (§31).

1 1. The ashes and bones were gathered (dcrroXoytov) in an urn, and buried commonly
without the city, amid many blessings and prayers for their repose. The urns used for
this purpose {Kd\nai, XapvuKcg, 6cTToQr\Kai, d(TTo6oxtZa, aopoi, &c.)were made of different ma-
terials, wood, stone, or precious metal, according to the rank and circumstances of the
deceased. These urns were sometimes inclosed in a sort of chest, which was formed
of stone or other materials ; and to this chest, as well as to the urn, the term aapKo^dyvs
seems to have been applied.

The body of Alexander was conveyed from Babylon to Alexandria in a splendid carriage, and
his funeral there conducted with great pomp by Ptolemy. The Sarcophairus in which the golden
colfin or nrn containing his remains was inclosed, is said to be now in the British Museum,
having been discovered at Alexandria by the French in the expedition of Bonaparte, and by
them surrendered to the English.

E. D. Ctarle, The Tomb of Alexander. Camb. 1805. 8. Cf. also Clarke's Travels, vol. iii. p. 164. ed. N. York, 1815.— Vua'r.
de Quincy, Sur le char funeraire qui transporte de Babylone en Egypte le corps d'Alexandre, in the Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr
C I a ss e d'ffijf. et Lit. Anc. vol. iv. p. 315, with a plate. Cf. C. de Caylus. in the Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. xixi. 86.

On an alabaster Sarcophagus discovered at Thebes, in the tombs of the kings, Land. Quart. Rev. xviii. 369 ; xix. 192, 401.

Along with the corpse when buried, and with the urns containing the ashes when the corpse
was burned, it was customary to deposit cups, phials (rpiaXii^ei), vases (\fiKvdoi), of diffHrent

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