Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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kinds, and other articles ; many of which have been found in modern times by searching ancient
sepulchers. These vessels are sometimes of terra cotta, sometimes of alabaster, not unfrequently
of glass. Some made of the latter material have been gathered from the catacombs in the island

T 2


Milo, the ancient Melos, one of the Cyclades (cf. P. V. $ 146). " Among the decayed bones are '
found coins, ornaments of gold and precious stones for the ears, lamps, lachrymatory vases (cf. j
$341. 7), with large quantities of glass, earthen, and copper vessels, probably for oils and per-
fumes. . . . Many earthen cups are of the form we call Etruscan; the larger are painted '
with a light pencil ; often only the outlines are given, but generally with much spirit. The ques- I
tion whether the ancients knew the use of glass, was settled by the discoveries in Pompeii; this I
is the first I have heard of auiong the Greeks. The vessels are generally flat at the bottom, and I
four inches over; tliey rise one inch, of this diameter, and then suddenly narrowing to the dia-
meter of an inch and a half, pass thus to the height of seven or eight inches ; their shape is much j
like that of a candlestick : but I have several other forms, running through a considerable I

TTie above quotation is from Jbnas'j Sketch of Naval Life. N. Haven, 1829. 2 vols. 12.— Cf. Silliman'i Journal, vol. svi. p. 333, j

for engravings of some of these vases.— Specimens of the vases found at Milo are in the cabinet of Amherst College.— For further j

notices of the urns and vases found in sepulchers, see § 341, and P. IV. § 173. '

2 t. The solemnities of the funeral were concluded with an oration or eulogy, with

games, repasts, and sacrifices and libations ; which, in many cases, were repeated on ]

successive anniversaries ; the sacrifices and offerings in honor of the dead were various ; j

Tplra, those offered on the second day after the funeral ; ewara, on the ninth ; rpiaKaiei, I

on the thirtieth, when the time of mourning expired, which at Sparta, however, was '

limited it is said to eleven days : xoai and cvayta-fiaTa, libations and offerings of flowers i

and fruits at various times ; yevtaia, offerings on the birth-day of the deceased ; vsKvcna, \
offerings on the anniversary of the death. — In the case of such as had died in war, the
oration at their funerals and at subsequent anniversaries of their decease, was viewed as

so important that the speaker for the occasion was appointed by the public magistrates. |

Thus Pericles was appointed, when the Athenians solemnized a public funeral for those |

first killed in the Peloponnesian war (Thucyd. ii. 34) ; and Demosthenes, when the same |

honor was rendered to those who fell in the fatal battle of Chaeronea (cf. Mitford's i

Greece, ch. xlvii. sect. 6). i

For a very interesting view of the games and exercises performed in honor of the dead, the 1

student is referred to the twenty -third book of the Iliad, where Homer gives an account of the {

funeral of Patroclus. Solemn earnes with rich prizes were instituted by Alexander in honor |

of his friend HephiEstion at Ecbatana; the whole ceremonies of the funeral were conducted '
with great magnificence, according to ^rriaji (lib. vii). Diodorus Siculus speaks also particu-
larly of Hephffistion's funeral pile.

Cf. Comle de Caylus, Le bucher d'Hephsestio!;, in the Mem, Acad. Insa; zzzi. 76. — Quatr. de Quincy, on the same, in the Mem.
de VInsiilul, 01 a s s e i'Htst. et Lit. Anc. iv. p. 395, with a plate.

The custom of honoring by festivals the anniversary of the death of friends and eminent per-
sons was followed by some Christians of the early ages, in the celebrations termed ptaprvpuv |
yevidXia. "These festivals were preceded by vigils, and celebrated around the graves of the
martyrs, where their lives were read, and eulogies pronounced, the sacrament administered,
and public entertainments given gratuitously by the rich."

See L. CoUman, Antiq. of Christian Church, p. 441.—/. P. Schwabe, De Veneratione erga Martyres in prim. Ecclesia. Lips.
1748. 4.

§ 187. The sepulchral monuments of distinguished men were built often
with prreat expense and splendor. Monuments were also frequently erected to
them in other spots, where their ashes were not deposited.

1. In early times, the Greeks were accustomed to place their dead in repositories,
rnade for the purpose, in their own houses. Temples also were sometimes made repo-
sitories for the dead ; especially for such as had rendered eminent public services. But
in later ages it became the general custom to bury the dead without the cities and
chiefly by the highways. At Athens the most common place of burial was near the
road leading to the Peiragus, outside of the Itonian gate, which on that account was
styled the burial gate {i)p(ai inXai) ; those who had fallen in battle, however, were buried
in the outer Cerameicus, at the public expense. Graves at first were mere openings
dug in the earth, vnoyaia. Soon there was a custom of paving and arching them with
stone. The place of interment was originally marked simply by a barrow or mound
of earth (xw^a) ; which sometimes had a circular basis of masonry {Kprjms). On this a
rude stone (o-ij/^a) was placed afterwards ; then, a stone more carefully prepared, a cippus
or truncated column ; at length, larger and more imposing monuments were built.

2. The terms fiviina and fivrjfiuov were applied to designate the whole structure, includ-
ing the receptacle for the remains and the monumental erections. Two parts are dis-
criminated ; (1) the grave strictly, called imr), cnfiXaiov, rvupog, Ta(pog, ripiov, which last means
specially the portion under ground ; (2) the space around it, usually fenced with poles or
a sort of balustrade, called Spiywj, cKcrrr], mpioiKoSop.}], epKog, or^Kog ; within this space the
monurriental pillars ((jrr/XaO and ornaments were erected. — The various monuments have
been discriminated under four heads ; 1. arifKai, designating upright tablets terminating
in an oval heading called t-rrWrjixa, but applied to any form of sepulchral pillars ; 2. Kioveg,
columns ; 3. rpdm^ai, flat horizontal tablets ; 4. iipcoa or vafSta, small buildings in the
form of temples. — On the pillars, or other structures forming the tomb, were placed
inscriptions (mypa^aO ; and often images of the deceased {dyaXixara), and also other orna
meuta with devices denoting their character and pursuits or particular achieve-


merits. Thus on the monument of Diogenes was inscribed the figure of a dog ; on that
of Isocrates, a syren reclining upon a ram ; on that of Archimedes, a sphere and cylin-
der. Tombs adorned with sculptured bas-reliefs have been discovered at Athens and
other places. Some of the most remarkable Greek tombs were recently discovered
m Lycia.

See De Boze, Descript. d'un Tombean, &c. in the Mem. de VAcad. da Inscr. iv. 648.— Ardixolosia, (as cited P. XV. § 243. 3),
vol. liii. p. 2S0, on a Greek sepulchral Monument ; with a plate.— Also, specially, Seeker's Charicles ; and Stackelbere. Die Griber

der Hellenen. Berl. 1837. On the tombs of Lycia, C. Fellows, Account of Discoveries in Lycia, a Journal kept during a second

Excursion in Asia Minor. Lond. I84I. 8. with thirty-eight plates, Cf. C. Fellows, Journal during an Excursion in Asia Miner
Lend. 1839. 8. with twenty-two plates.

3. Cenotaphs (Kevora(pta, Kevfjpia) were monuments erected for the dead, which were not the
repositories for their remains. They were raised both for persons who iiad never obtained a
proper funeral, and also for such as had received funeral honors in another place. It was a
notion of the ancients, that the ghosts of unburieri persons could not be admitted into the regions
of the blessed without first wandering a hundred years in misery ; and if one perished at sea or
where his body could not be found, the only way to procure repose for him' was to build an
empty tomb, and by certain rites and invocations call his spirit to the habitation prepared for it.

4. A common place of sepulture for many individuals was called TroXvai/Sptov.—The terra
Koinr}Tnpiov, cemetery, appears to have been introduced by Christians, in accordance with their
faith, that the grave is but a temporary sleepivg- place. The early Christians protested against
the prRctice of burning the bodies of the dead, and followed the Jewish custom of burying them.
In the fourth century, an open space near the church was appropriated for the burial of princes
and the clergy, which was afterwards made common to all the members of the church. la
earlier periods, the Christians buried their dead chiefly in subterranean excavations, which were
often of vast extent, and which in those days of persecution served al once as the home of the
living and the repository of the dead. See $ 341. 8.

5. The custom of raising splendid monuments in honor of the dead at length led to
such extravagance, that it became necessary to impose penal restraints. The splendor
of the monument erected to Mausolus (cf. P. II. § 72) occasioned the word Mausoleum
to be applied as a common name to such structures. It is said to have been more than
400 feet in compass, surrounded by 36 beautiful columns.

See De Caylus, Tombeau de Mausole, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. xivi. 321.— Saint* Croix, Tomb, de Maus. in the Mem. de Vln-
ttitut, 01 a s s e d'Hist. &c. ii. 506.

In our Plate XVIII. are some specimens of monumental structures. Fig. 1 represents a tomb
of white marble at Mourghab in Persia, corresponding to the ancient Pasargada ; it has com-
monly been supposed to be the Tomb of Cyrus, which was erected by himself, and visited by
Ale.xander (cf. Arrian, vi. 29) ; some, however, declare it to be a more modern structure. Cf.

Morier, cited P. IV. § 243. 3. Fig. 2 represents a structure called Absalom's Pillar, which

stands near Jerusalem (cf P. I. $ 16'8 b). In the time of Josephus there was a marble structure
by this name, said to have been reared by Absalom (cf. 2 Sam. xviii. 18). The one here given is,
however, no doubt, comparatively recent. "The lower portion is quadrangular, standing
detached from the living rock, from which it was hewn. Upon the four facades are cut Ionic
pillars, above which is aTrieze with Doric metopes and triglyphs. Over this basis rises a square
piece of masonry, smaller ; and the whole is crowned by a tall conical tower ;" and the " dome
or cupola runs up into a low spire, which spreads a little at the top like an opening flower." Cf

Robinson, as cited P. I. $ 171. vol. ii. p. 519. Fig. 3 gives a view of the Tomb of Cestius af

Rome ; cf P. IV. $ 226. 1 : it is taken from Pronti, cited P. IV. $ 243. 2. Fig. 4 presents the

^ates of a tomb ; over them is a Greek inscription, Ghjcun and Hemer a to the infernal gods ; Mev-
cury, with his wand, is represented as in the act of closing or opening them, it being a part of his
office to introduce departed spirits into Hades. See P. II. J 32. 1. $56. Cf. Calmet, Dictionarv,
&c. vol. iii. p. 279. Chariest. 1813.



Classes of the Population.

These were— Citizens, XloXirai ; Residmts, MiTomoi, ;

Slaves, AovXoi ; and Strangers, S^voi.
HoXlTCu, divided by Cecrnps into 4 Tribes, $liXai ;

Each ivXii into 3 Races, $paTpiat, "Edi'tj ;

Each f parpia into 30 Kindreds, Tivi], TgiaKiSt% ;

His Tiibes, KcKpoTrij, AiirdxQ'av, 'AKraCa, llagaXla.
Tribes, by Clisthenea, ten ; afterwards, twelve,
Solon's 4 Classes, n£VTaKo<rio/ti<Ji/4vot, 'Innels,

ZtvyXrai., Q^rts ! according to weallh.
A division also into 174 A^fioi, or Wards.

Various Public Officers.

1. For the Executive.

The Eleven, 'Oi 'EvStKa ; a sort
of Sherifls the S o lioijivXaKes
perhaps the same.

The Lexiarchi, ArjllagX"^ ! six
chief; 30 subordinate.

The Toxotx, To|oTat ; 1000.

I 2. For the Legislature.

I The President 'EnitrTdTri;

of Senate, ttjS BovXrjs.

The President 'Enta-Tarrjs

of Assembly, ri); 'E/c)cA7)(rioy.
The Proedri, TlgdtSgoi.
The Prytanes, Ugvravtts.
The Nomothetx, l^So/ioSirai.
The Syndics, ZvvSlkoi.
The Orators, 'PiJTogts, same as

The Ephydor, 'E<pvSuig, having care

of the Clepsydra.
The Syngraphs, T,vvyga<j>iCs ; 30,

who collected the votes.
The Ckry, TganiiaTtXs.
Heralds, K^pviCfj.
Ambassadors, Xlgea-ptXs.
The Pylagori, TlvXaydgoi, delegates

to the ' AfKpiiCTVovla.

3, Connected with the


The Areopagitz, 'AguorrayZrau

The Heliastx, 'UXiaa-Tal.

The Ephetsi, 'E4>iTai.

The Tribe-kings, ivXoPamXtX^.

The Paredri, TldgtSgoi, who sat in

Courts held by Archons.
Dicasti, AiKavral.
Accountants, AoyKTral.
Directors, 'EvSvvol,
Summoners, KA^ropij.
Ushers, KiyxXCScs.

4. For Public Works and


Superintendents 'EnKTrdTai
of Buildings, ruiv 'Epyojv.

Superintendents 'ETriordTai
of Waters, rmv iilaruiv.

Guard of Founts, Kgr]Vo(j)vXal,

Surveyors C Ways, 'OSonoiot,
of \ Walls, Ttixonoiol.

Astynomi, 'Aorvvd/iot, having care
of streets, &c.

224 '

Cltrouchi, KXrigovxoh to divide
lauds in colonies; applied also to
the settlers.

5. For the Treasury.

Chief Tamias, Tajiias ^Vi ^lot-
K1JITEUS ; for 4 years, or 5.

Sub-Treasurers, Tainovxoi ;
Tafilas rCsv CTgaTLtuTLKiuv,
Tajilai Tmv S-eiugiKCov, &c.

Collectors of Fives, UgdXToges-

Tax-gatherers, 'E/cXoytij.

HelUnotamise, 'EXXTjVoraiiCai, for
the Tribute from Greek allies.

Poletx, HixiX^rai, ten overseers of

Theori, BttogoX, deputies with pre-
sents for festivals, &c.

.SssMiorj of taxes, 'Effiypa^tZy.

Registers of accounts, Aiaypa^tlJ.

Auditors, 'AvT!.ypa(peXs-

Receivers, 'Ano(£<Tai.

Colacretse, KiuXaKgcral, for money
due to the temples.

Searchers, on Debts, ZrjrrjTol,
on Confiscations, Mdo-TTjpty.

6. Connected with Trade.
The Sitophylaces, ZiTO(f>vXa<es-
The Sitons, Ziravai.
The Sitometrm, ZiTo/ieTpai.
Overseers of Port, 'Ent.p.cXrjTal
'E/inogiov, or twv vtuigluiv,

, -^ Markets, 'Ayopavo/ioi,
LFish, 'OipovofLOt.
Pilots, 'Kav(*>iXaKts.

7. For Manners and
CEnopis, 'Oivdnrai, to notice wine-
mixing at banquets.
Gynscocosmi, rvvaxoKda-fioi, to

watch the dress of women.
Gynseconomi, rvvaiKovdiioi, to

guard the conduct of wpmen.
Phratores, ^pdrogts, to see to the

register of births.
Sophronists, I.ui(pgovia-Tai, over

youth in Gymnasia.
Orphanistse, 'OgipavKTral, to take

care of orphans.
Episcopi, 'EniaKdiTot, overseers o^

allied cities and colonies; occasional


The Legislature.

Assembly, 'E<KXr]a-la, of all the UoXXrat.
Senate, RovX}], of 400 at first; then SCO;
finally 6i0 ; 50 from each tribe; by lot.

The Executive.

Archons, 'Ot "AgxovTts ', Nine, by lot; the
'Endwiios, the Baa-cXziis, the UoXc/iag-
XoSi and the six QtcrnoBirai. \ forming the
Slate Council.


in Civil

The Judiciary.

Areopagus, 'Aptioffayos; at first, Supreme.
Epidelphiiiium, ' Enl AcX(pivlu>, "i in
Epipalladium, 'EnX UaXXaii(ti,
Epiprytaneum, ^EKlTlgVTavtCcp,
Eiiphrealtium, 'Ev igearToX,
HdiBM, -HAtafa, the Highest j
Five others; liagdjivrrTov ,

Tglyoivov, Kai.vbv, Td M

AvKov, and To MrfrCxov,
The Dixtetie, Atatrijral ; two kinds ; public,

KXrjgoToC ; private, iigcrol ; Arbitrators or

The Forty, Tta-c-agdKovra, a Circuit Court

for the A^jioi.
The Nautodiae, NaVTodCKai, in naval affairs ;

at riraeus.
The Exetasfs, 'Eltraa-Tal, of 10 Aoyio-ral

and 10 'EvBvvol ; on accounts of oflScers.
The Thesmothetx, Qi(rp.o8iTai, on subjects

not falling to other Courts.

Actions iu

Public, AiKai fij/toVtat ; which included
rgafpr/, ^dcri;, "Ei/fit^i;, 'ATrayiuyr^,
'E(p^yr]cn;, ' AvtgoXrjxpla, ' Ei<;ayy iXla;
under the Tga<pij came the highest crimes;
murder, &c.

Private, ACicai ISCai ; including actions for
trespass, DXajSijj ; theft, kc.


Fine, 2r)iiCa; Disgrace, 'Arifjila; Slavery,
AovXtla ; Branding, JLr^y/ia ; Poning,
ZTiijXri ; Bonds, Atcr/iol ; Banishment,
$tjyi) ; Death, QdvaTog ; '0cngaKi.<7y.i$
was Banishment for 10 years.

Civic Honors.

first Seat, XlgotCgla ; Statues, 'EiiaSves ;
Crowns, LTi<pavoi; Exemption, 'AtAho;
Pension, by 2i'T9;(n; Iv XlgvTaviiip.


Fines, Tiii'^/iara ; Tributes, <idgoi ; Rents,
TlXri ; Contributions, 'Eis(j>ogal ; Services,
J^eiTovgyiai ; the latter including Xopij-
yCa, Tvfivainagxla, 'Ea-Tlams, and


Public Works, "Epya (Jri/irfcrta ;

Festal Shows, Uofnral, K. t. X.

Donatives, Aiavo/ial ;

Theatric Fee, AiwPoXCa ;

Pay of Senate, Mio-flos BovXevriKds ',

Pay of Assembly, MiaSbs EiCKATjo-iatrriKos ;

Pay of Army, Mio-fld; LrpaTwuTiKdj ;

Pay of Navy, Wio-fldj NavTiKOS i &c.



§ 188. It belongs to the topics of history and geography rather than antiqui-
ties to describe the origin and progress of the Romans, and the extent of
their empire. Yet a glance at these subjects, and a few remarks upon them,
will aid in getting a better view of the Roman antiquities, and enable one to
understand and appreciate more correctly the people and their more important
peculiarities. Some notices of Rome and its empire will be given first, and
then something respecting the Romans themselves.

§ 189. According to the common accounts of history, the city of Rome was
founded 752 B. C. by Romulus and Remus, grand-children of tha Alban king
Numitor. It was situated not far from the mouth of the Tiber, in Latium, a
province in middle Italy. In the beginning it was of small extent, confined to
Mount Palatine, on which it was built. The number of inhabitants did not
amount to 4,000. This more ancient part of the city was afterwards called op-
pidum, while the better part, later built, was called urbs, which became at
length a general name for Rome. It was first peopled by some families from
Jlba Lnns;a, and afterwards by various accessions (cf. P. IV, § 109, 110);
partly of the vagabond and worthless from the neighboring people of Italy.

1 u. The Capitoline Hill was occupied next after the Palatine, and at last five other
mountains or hills were included in the chy, and thence was derived the epithet septi-
collis. The first walls around the city were low and weak ; Tarquinius Priscus and
Servius TuUius improved them.

2u. Among the principal events which greatly changed the appearance of the city
were the capture and burning of it by the Gauls, 385 B. C, and the erection of nu-
merous buildings in the reign of Augustus, and after the conflagration under Nero.
In t'*e two last-mentioned periods, Rome was very rapidly enlarged and adorned, and
continued to be further improved under succeeding emperors down to the time of Ho-
norius. In his reign occurred the capture and sack of Rome by the Goths under
Alaric, A. D. 410. The chy was in a great measure rebuilt by Theodoric. But by
that disaster, and the still greater devastations of the Gothic king Totila, A. D. 547,
it lost much of its ancient splendor. It continued to wane during the ages following.

3 u. After all the exertions of the later popes to restore its former beauty, there is
avast difference between modern and ancient Rome. Of the latter we find only
certain traces and monuments, and these are in part mere ruins and fragments.

p. Macquier, Romische JahrbUcher, oder chronoU Abriss der Gesch. Roms ; aus dem Franz, mit Anmerk. von C. D, Beck
Leipi. 1783. 8.
A more particular notice of the topography of Rome is given in P. I. §5 51-71.

§ 190. In the most flourishing period of Rome, at the close of the republic
and beginning of the imperial monarchy, the population was very great. The
number of citizens may be estimated at three hundred thousand, and the whole
number of residents at two millions and upwards.

" Concerning the number of inhabitants in ancient Rome, we can only form conjec-
tures. Lipsius computes them, in its most flourishing state, at four millions." (Adam.)
Tacitus (Annals, L. xi. c. 25) states, that by a census in the reign of Claudius the
number of Roman citizens amounted to nearly seven millions ; it is supposed that
this number must have included the citizens in other places besides the city of Rome
hself — Gibbon has the following remarks on the population of the Roman empire :
"The number of subjects who acknowledged the laws of Rome, of citizens, of pro-
vincials, and of slaves, cannot now be fixed vdth such a degree of accuracy as the
importance of the object would deserve. We are informed that when the emperor
Claudius exercised the office of Censor, he took an account of six millions nine hun-
dred and forty-five thousand Roman citizens, who with the proportion of women and
children must have amounted to about twenty millions of souls. The multitude of
subjects, of an inferior rank, was uncertain and fluctuating. But after weighing with
29 225


attention every circumstance which could influence the balance, it seems probable
that there existed, in the time of Claudius, about t\\4ce as many provincials as there
were citizens, of ehher sex and of every age ; and that the slaves were at least equal
in number to the free inhabitants of the Roman world. The total amount of this im-
perfect calculation would rise to about one hundred and twenty millions of persons ; a
degree of population which possibly exceeds that of modern Europe, and forms the
most numerous society that has ever been united under the same system of govern-

De la MaUe. Sur la population litre, &c. de la Republ. Rom. in the Mem. dt Vbutitut, C 1 as s e de Hist, d Lit. .Snc vol. i. 461.
— R. Wallace, Dissertation on the Numbers of Mankind in Ancient and Modem Times. Edinb. 1753. 8.— Hume, Essay on the
PopuIous::ess of Ancient Nations.— jjmer. Quart. Regisltr, vol. ix. 140.

§ 191. Originally the authority of Romulus extended scarcely six thousand
paces beyond the city. But he and the succeeding kings considerably enlarged
the dominion of Rome. During the time of the republic her empire was rapidly
and widely spread, and at length, by numerous and important conquests, a
great part of the known world was subjected to her sway.

1 u. In the reign of Augustus the limits of the Roman empire were the Euphrates
on the east, the cataracts of the Nile, the African deserts, and Mt. Atlas on the south,
the ocean on the west, and the Danube and the Rhine on the north. Under some
of the succeeding emperors, even these hmits were transcended.

The following countries were subject to Rome: in Asia ; Colchis, Iberia, Alba
nia, Pontus, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Palaestina, the Bosphorus, Cappadocia, Galatia,
Bithynia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lydia, in short the whole of Asia Minor : in Africa ;
Egypt, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, Gastuha, Africa Propria, Numidia, and Mauretania:
and in Europe ; Italia, Hispania, Gallia, the Alps, Rhoetia, Noricum, Illyricum, Ma-
cedonia, Epirus, Grajcia, Thracia, Moesia, Dacia, and Pannonia. In addition to
these were a namber of islands, from the Pillars of Hercules to the Black sea, to
which Britain may be added.

2 m. Augustus made a division of the whole empire into twelve parts. — The empe-
ror Hadrian afterwards gave a new form to this division, and separated Italy, Spain,
Gaul, Aquitania and Britannia, Illyricum, Thracia and Africa into provinces. — One
of the last changes of this kind was made by Constantine the Great, who divided the
empire into four Praefecturates, containing various dioceses and distinct provinces, for
the government of which he appointed a number of new magistrates (cf. § 309. 3).

The most complete description of the Roman Empire, and of its various changes, is found in Onuphrii Pa7Winii Romanum Im-
pedum, in the Thesaurus Antiq. Rom. of Grseviiis, vol. i.— Cf. (Jihbon, Bed. and Fall, &c. ch. I.

§ 19-2. In a few centuries the Romans acquired a greatness and power, which
is altogether singular and the most remarkable in all history.

1 u. What in the highest degree contributed to this was their warhke character, for
which they were from their first origin distinguished. Bodily strength and superior
prowess constituted the grand object of their wishes and efforts, and war and agricul-
ture were their only pursuits. A great part of the people were directly occupied in
their constant wars ; the proportion of soldiers compared with the rest of the citizens
is estimated to have been as one to eight. All the early Romans felt an equal interest
in defending their country, because the conquered territory was divided equally among

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