Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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them. In addition to all this, much must be ascribed to their pohcy in the manner of
maintaining their conquests, in the treatment of allies, and in arranging the govern-
ment of the provinces, and to the respect towards them awakened in other nations.

2 m. To treat of these topics belong:s to history ; yet a brief view of the principal revoliUions
in Roman atfairs seems to be necessary for our object.

^ 193 u. Romulus, the founder and builder of Rome, was the first king. Accord-
ing to the common accounts (not altogether certain, however,) six other kings suc-
ceeded him; Numa Pompihus, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Martins, Tarquinins Pris-
ons, Servius Tullius, and Tarquinius Superbus ; men of active enterprise, who con-
tributed to the growth and stabihty of the nation. The most remarkable circum-
stances or events, during the regal form of government, were the division of the peo-
ple into Tribes, Curiae, Classes, and Centuries ; the separation of Patricians and Ple-
beians; the establishment of the senate, and of the religious worship ; the settlement
of the mode of computing time, of the military disciphne, of the valuation and taxa-
tion ; and the introduction of coined money. In general it may be remarked, that
the principles of the government under this first form were not strictly monarchical,
but rather of a mixed character, and really laid the foundation of the subsequent ad-
vantageous system of the republic. During this whole period, the Romans were in-
volved in wars ; but this uninterrupted continuity of war contributed to their success,
for they never would make peace until they had conquered. The regal governm.ent
continued 244 years, and was abolished B. C. 509, because the last king, Tarquinius
Superbus, had provoked the nobilhy by arrogant haughtiness ; and the people by
lieavv impositions.

p. III.


The immediate occasion of Tarquin's expulsion and the abolition of the monarchy, is said to
have been the vile abuse committed upon Lucretia, wife of Coliatinus, by Sextus Tarquinius,
the liing's son.— Cf Goldsmith's Rome, by Pinnock; p. 85. ed. Phila. 1835.

§ 194 71. Rome was now a free state, at first aristocratical, and then for a period
governed more by the Plebeians, whose importance and power, sustained by their
tribunes, constantly increased. During this time the dominion of the Romans, as
well as the vigor of their constitution was augmented ; their legislation was judicious ;
and their morals comparatively rigid. For a considerable period they maintained an
elevated national character, in which simplicity and propriety of manners, a high spirit
of enterprise, a strong sense of justice, daring boldness and self-denial and the warmest
patriotism, were prominent trahs. — 'The most brilliant era in the Roman republic was
the first half of the sixth century from the building of the city, and especially during
the sixteen years of the second Punic war, at the close of which Rome was in posses-
sion of her greatest strength. But immediately after this, corruption of morals ad-
tranced with rapid steps. Among the various causes of this, we may mention the
victories in Greece and Asia, the long residence of the legions and officers amidst the
luxuries of the east, and at last the overthrow of Corinth and Carthage ; each of these
things contributed to the unhappy result. Through debauchery, luxury, and effemi-
nacy, the Romans now suffered a universal degeneracy of manners and morals,
ahhough they gained from their intercourse with the Greeks and the eastern nations
an increase of knowledge and much poUsh and refinement in matters of taste.

A valuable work on this subject is the following : Chr. Meiners, Geschichte des Verfalls der Sitten und der Slaatsverfassung der
Romer. Leipz. 17«2. 8 —Also, by smne, Geschichte des Verfalls der Sitten, Wissenschaflen und Sprache der Romer in den ersten
Jahrhunderten uach Ch. Geburt. Wien und Leipzig, 1791. 8.— More minute, but especially instructive, is Ad. Ferguson's Rise and

Prog, of Rom. Republic, cited P. V. § 299. 7. On the state of morals in ancient Greece and Rome, Spirit of the Pilgrims, vol. iv.

p. 579.

§ 195 u. Selfishness, avarice, and lust of power were immediate consequences of
this degeneracy ; and became in turn causes of the most melancholy disorders in the
state, and of those civil wars, the leaders in which contended for the supreme authority.
Octavius at last gained the point, and under the name of Augustus was the first pos-
sessor of the now established Imperial throne. His reign throughout was a flourish-
ing period of Roman history. Some of his successors were worthy rulers. But
much more effectual and more fatal was the influence of those emperors, who dis-
graced the throne by the lowest voluptuousness and vilest despotism ; under these,
the already prevailing corruption was fully completed. Now arose in rapid succession
the most violent and fatal internal commotions; the right of the strongest triumphed
over every thing, and although particular emperors endeavored to prop up the sink-
ing dominion, it constantly drew nearer and nearer to final ruin.

GcldsmiW! Rome, and Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Cf. P. V. 5 299. 1.— Bridge's Roman Empire under
Constantine the Great.

§ 196. It may be seen from this brief delineation of the Romans, that their
history must be crowded with interesting and instructive incidents : and that a
familiar acquaintance with their constitution and customs must be highly useful.
The utility of studying the Roman antiquities needs, therefore, no further re-

1 u. But besides the indispensable importance of a knowledge of the antiquities in
order to understand properly the history of the Romans, there are other advantages,
which render it worthy the attention of every lover of hterature, and of every one, in
fact, who is not wholly indifferent to intellectual refinement and taste. It is "essential
as a help in reading the distinguished Roman authors, whose writings are preserved,
and in obtaining a correct idea of the various works of Roman art.

2 u. The best sources, whence a knowledge of Roman antiquities may be drawn,
are doubtless the Roman writers themselves, particularly the historians. There are
also several Greek writers valuable in this respect, as they lived among the Romans,
and being strangers, many things must strike them as more important and remarkable
than they might seem to the native citizens. Among the latter class of writers are
Polybius, Dionysius, Strabo, Plutarch, Appian and Dion Cassius, and even some
later writers, as Procopius, Zonaras, Lydus, &c. fiome aid may be derived also from
the writings of the Christian Fathers.

3 u. In modern times Roman antiquities have been formed into a sort of science.
The materials drawn from the sources just named, and various others, have been di-
gested into regular systems on the one hand, while, on the other, particular branches
of the subject have been examined in more full detail. Yet this has perhaps never
been done wiih sufficient knowledge of fact, or adequate or critical skill and discrimi-
nation ; the essential has not been sufficiently distinguished from the less important,
nor the general and universal from the particular and local ; nor has there been suita-
ble care to note the periods in which the customs and principles were introduced,
made prevalent, or changed. These are defects, which we must notice rather tha»



avoid in tlie brief treatise, upon which we now enter, and which cannot be fully re-
moved without more labor than has hitherto been devoted to the subject.

E. PUUtner, Ueber Wissenschafiliche Begrilndung und Behandltng der Antiquiiaten, inbesondera der Rom. Marb. 1812. 8.—
F. A. Wolf, VorlesuDgen aber Allerthums wissenschaft, &c. as cited P. V. § 7. 9.

^ 197. We mention here some of the principal writers on Roman antiquities.

cited P. V. § 7. 9, treaU

1. The largest CoUectiant of separate treatices are the two
followiDg ;

Jo. Gearg. Grsmui, Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanarum ;
c. fig. Traj. ad Rhen. 1694-99. 12 vols. fol. (For an account
of the contents of this, see Appendix to KenneM, cited below.)

/. M. Polenw, Supplement to Graevius and Gronovius. Ven.
1737. 5 vols. fol.

Mb. Henr. de Sallengre, Novus Thesaurus antiq. Rom. Hag.
Com. 1716-19. 3 vols. fol.

Very useful on account of its copiousness and its good refer-
ences, is Sam. Fitisci Lexicon Antiq. Roman. Hag. Com. 1737.
3 vols. fol.

As a system (brmally arranged, may be mentioned, Jo. Rosini
Antiq. Roman. Corpus absolutissimum, c. n. Tho. Dcmpsteri.
Traj. ad Rhen. 1710. 4. (Ed. /. F. Reitzius.) Amst. 1743. 4.

Some pertinent treatises are contained in B. Ugolinus, Thesau-
rus Antiquitatum Sacrarum, complectens selec'issima clarissimo-
rum virorum Opuscula ; in quibus Vet. Hebraeorum Mores, Rilus
Sacri, &c illustrantur: Opus ad Philologiam Sacram et Frofanam
utilissimum. Venef. 1744-69. 34 vols. fol.

Meusd, as cited § 240, vol. 3d exhibits the writers on Roman
Antiquities, &c.

2. UnJer the class of ManuaU are the following :

That. Godwyn, Roman Antiquities, 15th ed. Lond. 1689. 4.

B. G. Struvius, Antiquitatum Romanarum Suntagma. Jen.
1701. 4.

IV. Baxter, Glossarium Antiq. Romanarum. Lond. 1726. 8.

Bas. Kennett, Romx Antiqua; Notitia, or the Antiquities of
Rome, in two Parts. Lond. 1731. 8. There have been many
later editions; first American, Phil. 1822. 8.

G. H. Nieuvart, Rituum, qui olim apud Romanos obtinuerunt,
Buccincta explicatio. 14th ed. Berl. 1784. 8.

C. G. Swartz, Observationes ad Nieuportii Compendium an-
tiquitatum Romanarum (ed. .4. M. Nagel). Altd. 1757. 8.

C. /. H Haymanu, Anmerkungen Uber NieuporVi Handbuch
der romischen Alterthamer. Dresd. 1786. 8.

Christ. CellariM, Compendium Antiq. Rom. cum adnot. /.
E. Inu Malchii. 2d ed. Hal. 1774. 8.

G. C. Maternus von Cilano, Ausfahrliche Abhandlung der
lOmischen AlterthQmer, herausgegeben von G. C. Mler. Altona,
1775-76. 4 vols. 4.

C. G. Heynii Antiquitas romana, inprimis juris romani.
Gott. 1779. 8.

P. F. Jl. Nitsh, Besrhreibung des hstuslicben, wisseaschaftli-
Chen, sittlichen, gottesdieustlichen, politischen nnd kriegerlschen
Zustandes der Rdmer, nach den verschiedenen Zeitaltern der Na-
tion, by /. H. M. Emesti. Erfurt, 1812. 2 vols. 8.— Sauie work
abridged (by Emesti). Erf. 1812. 8.

K. Ph. Moritz, ANGOTS A, oder Rom's AlterthQmer. 1st part
(of the sacred riles of the Romans). Berl. 1791-97. 8. 2d part
(of the civil and private aflkirs), ed. by F. Rambach. Berl. 1796.

Alexander Adam, Roman Antiquities, &c. Edinb. 1791. 8.
Often reprinted. An improved ed. by /ame»5oyd. Edinb. 1834.
12mo. Another ed. by /. B. Major. Oxf. 1837. 8.— Transl. into
German, with improvements, by /. L. Meyer (3d ed.) Eriang.
1818. 2 vols. 8.

/. K. Unger, Sitten nnd Gebrauche der Rdmer. Wien. 1805-6.
2 vols. 8. with plates.

G. G. Kop'ne, Antiqnitates Romanse, in xii. tab. descr. Berl.

L. Schaaff, Anti(iJitaten und Archlologie der Griechen und
Rbmer. (In his Encyclop. d. dost. Alterthumskunde). Magdeb.
1820. 8.

F.Creutztr, Abriss der rOniischen Antiquitaien zum Gebrauche
Dei Vorlesungen. Leipz. IS24. 8.

/. P. Fuss, Roman Antiquities. Translated from the German.
'nrf. 1840. 8.

The 5ih vol. of W^ol/'j Vorlesunge
of Roman Antiquities.

Less extensive, but useful and instructive, is the following.
/. B. L. Meierotto. Ueber Sitten und Lebensart der Romer, in
verschiedenen Zeilen der Republik. Berlin, 1814. 8. (Ed. Ph.

Worthy of mention also is, WilcocVt Roman Conversations, or
Descriptions of the Antiquities of Rome. Lond. 1797. 2 vols. 8.

The following are abridgments :

Abriss der griech. und romisch, Alterthamer, von Chr. Fried.
Baache. Stendal, 1821.

Roman Antiquities, and Ancient Mythology, for Classical
Schools; by Clis. K. Dillaway. Boston, 1831; 2d ed. 1835.

TAo*. S. Carr, Manual of Rom. Antiquities. Lond. 1836. 12.

3. We may also refer here to Muntfancon's Antiquite Ex-
pliquee, as illustrating by its plates and descriptions i2077ian an
well as Greek Antiquities (cf. § 13).

The following work contains many excellent delineations !
Raccolta Tavole rappresent. i costumi religiosi, civili e militart
degli antichi Egiziani, Etruschi, Grecie Romani, tratti dagli anti-
chi monumenti,— disegrate, ed incise in rame, da Lorenzo Ro*-
cheggiani. 2 vols. 4. containing one hundred plates each.

As pertaining especially to the subject of costume, we add,
Bardon, Costume des Anciens Peuples. Par. 1786. 2 vols. 4.

A. Lens, Le Costume, ou Essai sur les habillements et let
usages de plus, peupl. de I'Antiquite, prouve par les monument*.
Liege, 1776. 4.

Thos. Hope, The Costume of the Ancients. Lond. 1812. 2 vola
8. with numerous engravings in outline. New ed. Lond. 1841
2 vols. 8.

Particularly, Maillot and Martin, Recherches sur les cos
tumes, les mcEurs, &c. des anciens peuples, &c. — orne de 296
planches, au trait. Par. 1804-6. 3 vols. 4. " The first volum*
contains, in great detail, the costume, manners, &c. of the Ro-
mans, from Romulus to the last emperors of Constantinople.
The engravings are taken from medals and monuments of each

4. It is proper also to refer here to works illustrating th»
remains of Roman Antiquity.

See P. IV. §§ 130, 138, 187, 188, 191, ffiS, 243.

F. A. David, Antiquites d'Herculanum. Par. 1780-1 SOX
12 vols. 4.

W. Stukdey, Itinerarium Curiosum, &c. Lond. 1760. 2 vols,
in one, fol. with two hundred copperplates ; containing notices
of Roman monuments in England.

The Publications of the Instituto di Correspondenza Archeo-
logica, a society for archa?x)logical correspondence, founded in
Rome by several distinguished scholars and antiquaries. The
Bulletino ddV Instituto, commenced 1829, contains brief notices
of new discoveries and new works, with other articles of special
interest. By the title of Monurrunti Inediti, the annual volume
of plates is designated. The Annali delV Instituto, the chief
publication, gives essays, reviews, and extended descriptions.
Gerhard, Kestner, Raoul-Rochetle, BOek, Panofka, Hirt, MuUer,
Millingen, &c. have been contributors.

5. On various points it will be qseful so consult Lardrur,
Pauly, Weber, Fosbrote, tc as cited § 13. 5.

Also, F. Sabbathier, Institutions, Manners, and (^istoms of the
Ancient Nations. Translated from the French by P. Stochdale.
W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.

6 Other references to authors on particular topics ire givef
under the sections treating of those topics.

LockharVs Valerius, Bidwer's Pompeii, and War^t Letters
from Palmyra, are fictions professing to exhibit the state of man-
ners in the first centuries after Christ.


§ 198. We shall treat the Roman Antiquities, as we did the Greek, under
four distinct branches; thus exhibiting separately the affairs of religion^ civil
governmeiit, war, and private life.


§ 199. As the word religion is of Roman origin, it may be well to notice the
ideas attached to this term in the Latin language. Originally, religio seems to
have signified every sort of serious and earnest exertion, to which one was im-
pelled by external or internal motives. Afterwards, it was used chiefly to ex-
press the included idea of duty towards the Deity and towards fellow-creatures;
and the theory of this, as well as the practice, then took the name of religion.
In the plural number, the word usually designates the regulations and practices
pertaining to the worship and propitiation of the Deity. And, in as much as
the knowledge and practice of duty towards men and the Divine Being will
lead to a certain permanent moral sensibility and conscientiousness of deport-
ment, the word religio was also naturally employed as comprehending in its
meaning this correctness of morals.

§ 200. In inquiring into the origin of the religion of the Romans, we must
revert to the origin of the nation, already noticed (§ 189). There doubtless
existed in Latium, long before the founding of Rome various religious customs
and the worship of various divinities; and it is not easy to trace out their
gradual rise and establishment. By the subsequent colonies from Greece, Elis,
and Arcadia, this native religion received many additions and modifications;
hence the great similarity between the Greek and Roman systems of mythology
and worship (cf. P. II. § 8). In some particulars the Roman traditions differ
from those of the Greeks, where the divinities and their chief attributes are the
same. The Romans also adopted several religious usages not practiced by the
Greeks, as e. g. in relation to auguries and auspices, which were borrowed from
the Etrurians. To the latter source we may chiefly ascribe the great prevalence
of superstition in the earliest part of the Roman history.

§ 201. The religion of the Romans was, like that of the Greeks, intimately
connected with their politics. It was often employed as a means of promoting
secret designs of state, v/hich the projectors knew how to render agreeable and
desirable, by the help of superstition. Thus the inclinations of the mass of the
people were determined by pretended oracles and signs. Many military enter-
prises derived their most effective stimulus from this source; and not seldom
it furnished the strongest motives to patriotic exertion, since love of country
was held to be a religious duty. The pomp of the religious solemnities and
festivals served to foster and to deepen sentiments of awe and fear towards the
gods, and thus contributed to the same end. The purpose and influence of the
gods were considered as effecting much in all events and transactions, and this
belief was greatly confirmed by the artifice of the poets, who sought to impart
dignity to the incidents of their stories, by describing the intervention and agency
of the gods therein.

§ 202. On the first establishment of the city, Romulus made it a prominent
object to render the national religion a means of union between the various and
discordant materials of which the first inhabitants were composed. Still more
carefully was this object pursued by his successor Numa, who is viewed as the
chief author of many of the religious usages of the Romans, which were in part,
as has been suggested, borrowed from the Greeks and Etrurians. His pretend-
ed interviev/s with a supernatural being, the nymph Egeria, secured greater
respect and success in his efforts. The fundamental principles of Numa's
system, being retained, were afterwards carried out more fully and variously.-
As knowledge and sound philosophy advanced among the Romans, the religious
notions of the more intelligent portion were gradually rectified and elevated;
but this was confined to a few, while the great mass adhered to the common
faith, even in the period when the system became inconsistent and cumbrous by
the deification of the emperors.

On Nunia, cf. P. V. § 44".— lor a particular account of the gods worshiped by the Romans, we refer to the part (H.) of this work
which treats of tte sutgect of Mjihology. The Bomiu division or classification of their gods is notii dd in (P. U.) 5 9.


§ 203. The great number of the Roman deities occasioned a large number of
temples, of which, as some assert, there were in Rome above four hundred [four
hundred and twenty]. The name of temples, templa, however, properly belong-
ed only to such religious buildings as were solemnly consecrated by the atigurs;
by this circumstance, and also by a less simple style of architecture, they were
distinguished from the acdes sacrse, although the names are often used inter-
changeably. Their form was almost entirely in Grecian taste, oblong rectangu-
lar oftener than round. It was customary to dedicate them with various cere-
monies, on laying the foundation and on the completion of the building, and
also after a remodeling or repairing of it. — The principal parts of a temple were
commonly the sanctuary {cella sanctior, adytum), the interior, appropriated for
the ceremonies of sacrifice, and the exterior or court, serving for various pur-
poses. The temples, however, were often used, not only for religious solemni-
ties, but also for meetings of the senate, select councils, and the like. They
usually stood in an open place, and were surrounded with pillars, or at least
ornamented with them on the front.

On the structure of ancient temples, cf. P. IV. 5 234, and references there given. On the temples at Rome, cf. P. I. §§ 58-60.—

See Simon, Temples de rancienne Rome, in the Mem. Acad. Insar. i. 199.

§ 204. The Romans adorned the interior of their temples, as did the Greeks,
with statues of the gods, with other works of sculpture and painting, and with
consecrated oflferings of various kinds, called danaria. Every thing connected
Avith a temple was held as sacred to the god or gods to whom it was devoted.^
A general name for such places as were sacred to the gods, even if no buildings
were there erected, was fanurn. The word dthibrum, on the other hand, had a
more limited meaning, signifying properly only that portion of the temple where
stood the images of the gods, one or more; but it is often used in a more gene-
ral sense. Small temples, or chapels, also places for worship without roofs and
only guarded by a wall, were termed sacella. Among the groves (Juci) conse-
crated to the gods, of which there were thirty-two in the city, those of Vesta,
Egeria, Furina, and Juno Liicina were the most noted.

"§ 205. Altars were sometimes erected apart from any temple, and were then
inscribed merely with the name of the god to whom they were dedicated; usu-
ally, however, they were placed in temples. A distinction was made between
aitaria and arae ; the former were raised higher (cf//a era), and were used for
offering the sacrificial victim; the latter were lower, and were used in offering
the prayer and libation. The former were more usually consecrated to the
celestial gods; the latter, to the infernal. They stood one behind the other, and
w^ere so placed that the images of the gods appeared behind them.

1 u. There was also a third kind of altar, anclabris or enclabris, a sort of table, on
which the sacrificial utensils were placed and the entrails of viciirns were laid by the
Haruspices. The mensa sacra was something still difierent, a table on which incense
was sometimes presented, and offerings not designed to be burned, as various arti-
cles of fruit and food. — Altars were sometimes made of metals, even of gold or some
metal gilded, but more frequently of marble and other stones, commonly of a white
color. Sometimes they were hastily formed of ashes, earth or turf, or the horns of
victims. The form of altars was various, quadrangular oftener than round, Not un-
frequently they were adorned with sculpture and image-work.

Different forms of altars are seen in our Plate XXVII. fig. B, C, m. Fig. t is the evdabris.
Fis. H is a representation of Solomon's altar of burnt offering- (cf. 2Chron. iv. 1); given by Pri-
Jeauj. as drawn according to accounts of the Rabbins; copied and described in Ca/;;i€<, Did.
&c. vol. iii. p. 144, 357, ed. Chariest. 1813.— Fig. E. is an altar erected as a sepulchral monument,
in honor of a Roman emperor; it is highly ornamented wiih sculptures, and bears an inscrip-
tion ; the letters D M stand for Diis .Vanibus. The elevations at the corners in this and in fig.
H, show what is desisnated bv the phrase ''horns of the altar."— In Plate XX. are other forms
of the altnr. In the Sup. Plate 30, are four oth-rs ; on the altar of Jupiter is seen the bust of
the god, and below it an eagle holding a thunderbolt in his claws ; beneath this, in the original
monument, is the inscription, I. O. M. IVSSA OCTAVIA SVCCESSA P.; i. e. Jovi Optimo
Jilaximo, jussa Octaria Successa posuit. On the altar of Bacchus, a Bacchanal is dancing over a
prostrate wine-cup, holding another cup in one hand and the thyrsus in the other. Tne ali-jr
of Xeptune is one of the four discovered at Antium (Nettuno); on it is sculptured Neptune with
the trident in his left hand and a dolphin in his right; above this is inscribed, in the original,
ARA NEPTVNI. The trip.d was often used as the form of an altar to Apollo; the very re-
markable one given in this Plate corresponds to a representation on a silver coin of Consul M.
yEni. Lepidus.— See Mi^n'fahcon (as cited P. II. $ V2\ ii. 242. I.'i2. Sup. ii. 5C.— For various altars

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