Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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Boldiers with shield and sword, baggage, &;c.
cf. P. III. $ 233.— Fig. a. A .Merto-Persian, from
sculptures at Persepoli.*; bearing a sort of ham-
mer, or baitle-ax, probably a token of some
military rank, perhaps however of some civil
office ; the two hands of amilber are seen bear-
ing the same token ; fig. 4, another from the
sculptures at Persepolis, with a sword and
other accoutern.ents. Cf. P. IV. $ 171. -Figs. A,
B. C, dec A viriniy of stand irds and flags;
cf. P. IH. i •2>2. 1 — Fig. E. Part of the tri-
uiiiphHlprncti-r-iiin represented on the Arch of
Titns; cf. P. IV. $ 188.2.

49. Plate XXXIV. (Page 279.) TFar-en-
giues, Roman Camp, (^c— Fig. 1, tesliido; fig. 2,
vinem; 3, movable tower; 4, 5, 10, battering-
ram; 6, Scorpio; 7, bali.-<ta; 8, pluteus; 9. falx
muralis ; see P. III. $ 299. — Figs. a. b. Archer
and slinger; cf. P. HI. $ 288. 1.— Fig. P, plan
of a consular camp; R, sectional view of the
agger and/oSAQ ; see P. III. $ 297 t.

50. Plate XXXV. (P.ige 301.) Pertaining
to Feasts and the use of H'ine. — Fig. 1. Plan and
view of a triclinium found at Pompeii; cf
P. III. $ 329. 2.-Fig. 2, carriage and vessel for
transporting wine ; fig. 3, a patera, used in
libations; cf. P. III. $ 331 b.— Fig. 4. Two per-
sons int(!rchangiiig the pledge of hospitality ;
cf. P. 111. $ 330. 3.— Fig. 5, a Bacchanal revel-
ing alone, taken from remains at Pompeii ; fig.
6, a wine press, from Egyptian monuments;
fig. 7, two glass cups elegantly cut or cast; fi^s.
a, b, c, d, e, f, &c., various cups and vessels;
cf. P. III. $ 331b.

51. Plate XXXVI. (Page 302.) Monumen-
tal Structure, dedicated to die Dii Manes; Re-
presentations of Jjeatli, i^-c. Cf. P. U. $$ 76, 83,
110, 113.

52. Plate XXXVII. (Page 306.) Ancient
Books, and Implenients used in Writing and in
the Arts.— Fig. 1. A painting on the wall of a
chamber, found at Herculaneum ; it shows a
bag of money, tied, lying on a table between
two heaps of coins, with an inkstand and reed,
a parchment or papyrus manuscript wiih its
title ap|)ended, a style, and tablets. — Fig. 2.
Tablets connected bv a ring, pugillares ; cf
P. IV. $57.2; § lis. 3.— Figs. 3 and 4. Styles;
cf. P. IV. $ 54.— Fig. 9. A reed.— Fig. 5. A roll
showing the manner of writing.— Fig. 6. Two
tablets, and the capaa, or bookcase; c:'. P. IV.
$ 118. 3.— Figs. 7 and 8. Tools employed in ar-
chitecture, &c. ; cf P. IV. $ 229. 2.

53. Plate XXXVIII. (Page 322.) Ancient
Writing, Manuscripts, and Inscriptions. — Fig. «.
Fine specimen of the ancient MS. roll; cf.
P. IV. $ 118. 2. Figs. d. e,f, are from remains

found at Pompeii: cf. P. IV. $ US. 2. Figs.

i. ii. iii. S()eciniens of writing in Greek MSS. ;

rf. P. IV. j 104 2 Fig. D. Inscription copied

from a Biibyloiiia.-\ oritk lately deposited in the
Boston Atkeneum ; the brick is about 11 inches
square and 3 inches thick; it is here (merely
for ibe sake of convenience in forming the
Plaie) e.vhihited so that the lines are perpen-
dicular, but their actual direction is horizon-
tal; they are lo be read from left to right, the
bottom of the figure being the left, and the top
the right. Cf. P. IV. $ 18. 4.— Fig. Q. Several
spf ciinens of writing in the arrom-titad charac-
ter: iSo. 1, part of an inscription found on a
pillar near Murghab or Mourgaub, su(iposed
by Morier lo be the site of the ancient Pasar-
pada ; it is the name of Cyrus, Kusruesh, in
ilenrew Koresh, in Greek Kuron : No. 2, part
of an inscription on a monument at Persepolis ;
the name of Darius, Darheuscii, in Hebrew
Dariarisk, in Greek Dareios: No. 3, part of an-
other inscription, containing a title often as-
sumed by Persian nionarchs, Khschehioh
Khschehi iHTCH, i.e. King of Kings (tf. Ezra,
vii. 12); No. 4. the name of Xer.xes, in the al-
phabet of the Zend language, Khschhersche:
Ko 7, the sa.ue name in the alphabet consi-

dered that of the Pehlvi language; No. 8, the
same, in a character supposed to be more mo-
dern : No. 5, Hieroglyphic inscription noticed
by Champollion, on an Egyptian alabaster
vase, as being the name of Xerxes, and read
by him Khschearscha; No. 6, the same name
in the Persep litan character, as found on that

vase. See P. IV. $ 1.?. 4. Fig. H. Specimen

of phonetic hieroglyphical writing; two car-
touches of hieroglyphics, from one of tlie co-
lonnades adorning the first court of the palace
of Karnac, a part of Egyptian Thebes; the
name of an Egyptian king, supposed to be the
one called in tlie Bible Shishuk (1 Kings,
xiv. 5); the left carlouch expresses, it is sup-
posed, the surname, interpreted as signifying
''approved of the sun;" the other on the right
(in which the corresponding Roman letters
are, in the cm, attaclied to the hieroglyphics by
way of explanation, is read Am.n.mai ShsHiMv,
and interpreted "Dear to Amnion, Shesltonk";
this name is thought by some to be the same as
the Sesiinchis i'ZfiaoyxiO of Manetho. Cf. P. IV.

$ 16. 1; Q 91. 7, 8. Fig. B. Ancient British

writing on movable sticks; cf. P. IV. J 53.

Fig. C. The papvrus, growing on the banks of
the Nile; cf. P.'lV. $ 118. 1. Fig. E. Com-
parative view of several corres|)onding letters
in eight ditFerent alphabets (cf. P. IV. $ 45. 2);
forming as nearly as the alphabets will allow,
the words of the Htbreuj inscription, H'Li.ness
TO the Lord, which was engraved on the
golden plate attaciied to the miter of Aaron
(Exod. xxviii. 36. 37); — the line a is in Hebr'VV
old coin letters; b, in the Hebrew coiiiinon let-
ters, as in the modern printed Hebrew Bible;

c, in the Egyptian hieratic or priest's letters;

d, in the Samaritan ; e, in the Egyptian phone-
tic hieroglyphics; /, in the Co(itic; the vext
line gives the corresponding Roman letters, ;is
formed in modern printing, being the same as
ours; g, the common Greek, as nearly as the
alphabet seems to allow; the last line, h, is the
Septu (gint version of the inscription. Tliis cut
may serve also to illustrate the ancient custom
of engraving an inscription in different lan-
guages on the same monument; as, e. g. the
Rosetta stone (cf P. IV. $ 91. 7); the Egypto-
Persian Vase noticed above in explaining fig.
G; and the memorable threefold inscription
placed by Pilate over the head of the Saviour
on the cross {Luk'', xxiii. 38; John, xix. 19).

54. Plate XXXIX. (Page 335.) Muses as
represented in the statues cf Christina. Cf.
P. II. $ 103.

55. Plate XL. (Page 350.) Grecian Coins —
For particulars, see P. IV. $ 93. 2; $ 95. I ;
P. III. $ 173. 3.

56. Plate XLI. (Page 354.) Specimen of
Ornnments in ancient MSS. ; a painting of the
Goddess of Mght. Cf. P. IV. $ 104. 3; P. II.

57. Plate XLII. (Page 358.) Roman Coins.
—For the details, see P. IV. $ 134. 1; $ 139. 2.
P. HI. $ 270.

58. Plate XLIII. (Page 375.) Representa-
tions of Meptune, S^c, on Coins. Cf. P. IV.
$ 139. 2.

59. Plate XLIV. (Page 37S.) Specimens of
Ancient Sculpture.— Fig. 1. Dving Gladiator";
cf. P. IV. $ 1S6. 9.— Fig. 2. Head of Antinous;
cf P. IV. $ 186. 10.— Fig. 3. Apollo Belvidcre ;
cf. P. IV. $ 186. 4.— Fig. 4. Gladiator BorL-liese ;
cf. P. IV. H 186. 8.— Fig. 5. Laocoon ; cf P. IV.
$ 186. 1.— Fig. 6. Hercules Farnese; cf. P. IV.
$ 186. 6.

6{). Pl.aTe XLV. (Page 384.) Specimen of
Sculpture in Bas-rdief. Cf P. II. $ 91. 2.

61. Plate XLVI. (Page 395.) The Tri-
umphal Sacrifice of Aiirelius ; a marble ana-
glyph. Cf. P. IV. $ 188. 3.

62. Plate XLVH. (Page 399.) Jeicels and
Sculptured Gems. Figs. 1 and 2. Specimens of
the Abraxas; cf. P. IV. { 200. 2j } 19S; P. U.



J 96, 6.— Fig. 3. A Roman seal; cf. P. IV.
I 206.— Fig. 4, and figs, g, k, i, o, and r. Jewels
for the ear and breast; cf. P. III. $ 338. 2.—
Fig. 5. Cupid, as on an ancient gem ; cf. P. IV.
J fsS.— Fi?. 6. Dffidalus, as on an ancient gem ;
cf P. IV. > 198.— Figs. 7 and 8. Gems bearing a
Hermes and Hermeracles ; cf. P. IV. $ 164. 2.—
Fi2s. a, b. c, d, e, f. Finger-rings, with gems in-
serted ; cf. P. IV. $ 206.

63. Plate XLVIII. (Page 408.) Specimen of
Frxrravinir on Gems; Bacchus, Satyrs, &c. See
P. IV. $211-5; P. 11- 5 60.

64. Plate XLIX. (Page 411.) Jllustrafions
verlainiiiff to the Theatre— F\g. 1. Plan of the
Greek theatre; cf. P. IV. § 2.S5.— Fiff. 2. Plan
of the Roman theatre; cf. P. III. $ 238.— Fig. A.
Edifice r-illed Choragic Monument of Thrasyl-
lus: cf P. IV. $ 66. 3; P. I. $ 115.— Fig. C.
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, called also
Lantern of Demosthenes.— F\g. B B. A repre-
sentation in Mosaic, found at Pompeii; cf.
P IV. $ 189. 1.

65. Plate L. (Page 417.) Architectural Illus-

trations.— F\ss. a, b. c, d, e. Columns, Egyptian,
&:c. ; cf. P. IV. $ 238. 3.— Figs. /, fr, h, i, j, k, I.
Grecian and Roman columns, exhibiting the
different orders, &c. ; cf. P. IV. J 238. 1 — Fiss. wi
and n. Arches upon pillars ; cf. P. IV. J 244. —
Fiss. p, q, s, u. Grecian capitals; cf. P. IV.
$ 238. I.— Figs, o, r, t, v. Pillars; r and v.
Gothic; o, Saracenic; t, Chinese; cf. P. IV.

66. Plate LI. (Page 422.) The Temple of
Dinna at Ephesvs. Cf. P. IV. $ 234. 3.

67. Plate Lll. (Page 425.) Comparative
View of celebrated Edifices and other Strnctiires.
See bottom of the Plate. Cf. P. IV. $ 234. 3.

68. Plate Llla. (Page 432.) The Ruins of
the Parthenon; from Hobhouse. Cf. P. I. $ 107;
P. III. $ 96.

69. Plate LIII. (Page 434.) Grecian Busts,
with names annexed ; taken from the Historic
Gallery, cited P. IV. $ 187.

70. Plate LIV. (Page 548.) Roman Busts,
with names annexed ; taken from the Historic
Gallery and Landon, as cited P. IV. $ 187.




55 S

a .
§1 fe

3 2 'i >.



^ 1. The earlier Greeks must have been very ignorant of the neighboring coun-
tries, for the scenes of some of the wildest fictions of the Odyssey were within a few
hours sail of Greece. The account of the Argonautic expedition furnishes a still
stronger proof of this, for these adventurers are described as having departed by the
Hellespont and Euxine sea, and as having returned through the straits of Hercules ;
whence it manifestly appears, that at that time the Greeks believed that there was a
connection between the Palus Maeotis (sea of Azof) and the Ocean. In those early
ages the earth was supposed to be a great plain, and the ocean an immense stream
which flowed around it and thus returned back mto itself (^dxpoppooi).

In later times, however, the commercial entprprise of the Athenians corrected these errors.
Their ships sailed through the seas to the east of Europe and brought home such accurate infor-
mation, tiiat we tind the description of these seas and the neighboring coasts nearly as perfect in
ancient as in modern writers. — The expedition of Clearchus into Asia, related in the ^^nahasis
of Xenophon (cf. P.V. $243), and still more that of Alexander, gave the Oreeks opportunities of
becoming acquainted with the distant regions of the east. — The west of Europe was visited and
described by the Phoenicians, who had penetrated even to the British Islands.

§ 2. All the astronomical and geographical knowledge of the ancients was embodied,
in the second century after Christ, in two principal works by Claudius Ptolemy ; one
styled M£yaAi7 'Evvra^n, and the other VE(jiyoa(t>iKr] 'Y(pfiyT](ng. From the latter we de^
rive our chief information respecting the limits of the ancient world, and the attain-
ments of the Greeks and Romans in geography. (Cf. P. V. ^^ 206, 207, 216, 218,

§ 3. The northern parts of Europe and Asia were known by name ; an imperfect
sketch of India hmits their eastward progress ; the dry and parched deserts of Africa
prevented their advance to the south ; and the Atlantic ocean limited the known
world on the west. It must not be supposed that all the countries within these lim.its
were perfectly known ; we find, that even within these narrow boundaries, there
were several nations, of whom the ancient geographers knew nothing but the name.

Let us attempt to trace a line, which would form a boundary including the whole of the earth
that was known in the time of Ptolemy. We will begin at Ferro, one of the Insulm FortunatcB
(Canary Islands), which, because it was the most westerly land known, was taken by Ptolemy
for his fixed meridian. Our line extending hence northerly would include the British Isles and
the Shetland Isles; the latter are probably designated by the Thule of the ancients, according
to d'Anville, although some have supposed it was applied to Iceland. From the Shetland Isleg
Ihe line would pass through Sweden and Norway probably; perhaps around the North Cape, a3
it has been thought that this must be the Riibeas Proniontorium of Ptolemy. The line would, in
either case, be continued to the White Sea at the mouth of the river Dwina, which seems to be
described by Ptolemy under the name Carambucis. Thence it would extend to the Ural Moun-
tains, which were partially known by the name of Hyperborei ; near which the poets located a
people of the same name {Vir^. Georg. i. 240), said to live in all possible felicity. From these
mountains the line would pass along through Scythia to the northern part of the Belur Tag
mountains, the ancient Imaus. Crossing these, it enters the region of Kashjrar (in Chinese Tar-
tary), called by Ptolemy Casio Reirio ; a region of which, however, he evidently knew little.
Our line would be continued thence to the place called by the ancients Sera; which is most pro-
bably the modern Kan or Kan-tcheou, near the north-west corner of China and the termination
of the immense wall separating China and Tartary. From Sera or Kan, it must be carried over
a region, probably wholly unknown to the ancients, to a place called Thyvm in the country of
the Sinrp; this place was on the Cotiaris, a river uniting with the Senus, which is supposed It.
be the modern Gamboge. On the coast, which we now approach with our line, the most easterly
point (that is particularlv mentioned) is thousht to be Point Condor, the southern extremitj
of Cambodia; this was called the Proniontorium Satyrorum. and some small isles adjacent /n-
sulm Satyrorum, because monkeys were found here, whose appearance resembled the fabled
Satyrs. The general ignorance respfcting this region is obvious from the fact, that it was ima-
gined, that beyond the. Promontory of Satyrs the coast turned first to the south, and then com-
pletely to the west, and thus proceeded until it joined Africa. From the point or cape just
named, the boundary we are tracing would run around the Aurea Chersonesus, or peninsula of
Malaya or Malacca, take in the coast of Sumatra, anciently called Jabadii Insula, and pass tc
Taprobana or Salice, the modern Ceylon. Theoce sweeping around the Maldives, called 'jy Pto


lemy rnstiles ante Taprohanam, and crossing the equator, it would strike Africa at Cape Delgrado,
supposed to correspond to the Prasum Promontorium, being about 10 degrees S. latitude. 1 he
boundary would exclude Madagascar, as the ancient Menuthias designates, not Madagascar as
has been conjectured, but most probably the modern Zanzibar. It may be impossible to trace
the line across Africa; of the interior of which the ancients Itnew more than one would suppose,
judging from the ignorance of the moderns on the subject. The line would pass south of the
Mountains of the Moon, LuncB Montes, which are mentioned by Ptolemy ; and also, in part, of
the river Niger, which, as d\^nvUle remarks, was known even in the time of Herodotus. On
the Atlantic coast the line would come out a little south of Sierra Leone at Cape St. Ann's, about
10 decrees N. latitude: this point answering to the ancient JVy?i Comu, Southern Horn, otf
against which lay the islands called Insula Hesperidum. From this cape our line passes up the
shore of the Atlantic to the Insulce Fortunatm.

From this it is obvious, that the portion of the earth known to the ancients was small in pro-
portion to the whole. It has been said, with probable accuracy, that it was scarcely one-third
of the lavd, now known, which has been estimated as 42 or 44 millions of square miles : and of
the 155 millions of square miles of icaier, covering the rest of the globe, they knew almost no-

On the knowledge of the ancients respecting the earth, Class. Jowm. v. 103. ix. 133. For the principal helps in studying Clas-
sical Geography, consult the references given in P. V. § 7. 7 (i) ; see also P. V. §§ 206-208, 371 ss.— On the history of Geography,
cf. P. IV. § 27.

% 4. The division of the earth into the large portions, Europe, Asia, and Africa, is
of very ancient date ; but ahhough the names have been preserved, the boundaries
in several particulars differed. Egypt was formerly reckoned among the Asiatic
kingdoms : at present it is esteemed part of Africa : Sarmatia was esteemed part of
Europe : a great part of it now forms one of the divisions of Asia.

% 5. The division of the earth into zones has remained unaltered ; but the ancients
beheved that the Temperate alone were habitable, supposing that the extreme heat
of the Torrid and the extreme cold of the Frigid zones were destructive of animal hfe.

Another division, introduced by Hipparchus, was that of climates. A climate is a space in-
cluded between two parallels of latitude, so that the longest days of the inhabitants at one
extremity exceeds that of the inhabitants of the other by half an hour. Of these, eight were
known. The parallels pass successively through Meroe on the Nile, Sienne, Alexandria in
Esypt, Carthage, Alexandria in the Troas, the middle of the Euxine Sea, Mount Caucasus, and
the British Islands.

NOTE.— In studying this Epitome, it is indispensable to success that some Atlas should be used. That of Butler is very suitable
for the purpose. The editor of this Manual has it in contemplation to prepare an Atlas adapted to the Epitome of Geography here
rresented.— The student need not commit to memory in the usual way. Let him first learn the general divisions and names of the
countries or provinces included in the lesson, and next carefully read over the whole lesson, tracing every thing, as far as possible,
071 hit maps. For recitation, let the Teacher question him on the maps of the Atlas, or ou large maps in mere outline, prepared fol
the purpose, which will be far better.


^ 6. EuPvOPE, though the smallest, is, and has been for many ages, the most import-
ant division of the earth. It has attained this rank from the superiority in arts and
sciences, as well as in government and religion, that its inhabitants have long possessed
over degraded Asia and barbarous Africa. — It derives its name from Europa, the
daughter of Agenor. a Phcsnician king, who being carried away, according to the
mythological tales (P. II. ^ 23), by Jupiter under the disguise of a bull, gave her
name to this quarter of the globe.

§ 7. The boundaries of ancient Europe were nearly the same as those of modern
Europe ; but we learn from Sallust that some geographers reckoned Africa a part of
Europe. The northern ocean, called by the ancients the Icy or Saturnian, bounds it
on the north ; the north-eastern part of Europe joins Asia, but no boundary hne is
traced by ancient writers ; the remainder of its eastern boundaries are the Palus
Mceotis, Cimmerian Bosphorus, Euxine sea, Thracian Bosphorus, Propontis, Helles-
pont, and ^gean sea ; the Mediterranean sea is the southern and the Atlantic ocean
the western boundary.

§ 8. The countries of the mainland of Europe may be arranged, for convenience,
in the present geographical sketch, in threti divisions ; the northern, middle, and

'southern. The islands may be considered m a separate division. The north of

Europe can scarcely be said to have been known to the ancients until the unwearied
ambition of the Romans stimulated them to seek for new conquests in lands previously
unnoticed. From these countries, in after times, came the barbarian hordes who
overran Europe, and punished severely the excessps of Roman ambition. — The
southern division contains the countries, which, in ancient times, were the most dis-
tinguished in Europe for their civilization and refinement.

The Northern countries, with their ancient and modern names, were the follow-
ing ^nivniNAViA, Norway and Sweden; Chersonesus Cimbrica, Jutland, or Z>e»-


mark; Sakmatia, Eussia ; Gekmania, Germany.— The Middle countries were
the foUow'ing: Gallia, France and Switzerland; Vindelicia, Suabia ; Rh^tia,
country of the Grisons ; NoRicrM, Austria ; Pannonia, Hungary ; iLLYRicmi,
Croatia and Dalmatia ; MiESiA, Bosnia, Servia, and Bulsaria ; Dacia, Transylvania
and Walachia. — In the Southern division we include IHispania, Spain and Portu-
gal ; Italia, Italy ; Thkacia, Macedonia, and Gr^cia, all lately comprehended
under the Turkish Empire.


^ 9. Scandinavia, or Scandia, by the Celts called Lochlin, was falsely supposed
to be a large island. The inhabitants were remarkable for their number and ferocity ;
they subsisted chiefly by piracy and plunder. From this country came the Goths,
the Heruli, the Vandals, and at a later period, the Normans, who subjugated the
south of Europe.

^ 10. The Chersonesus Cimbrica, a large peninsula at the entrance of the Baltic,
was the native country of the Cimbri and the Teutones, who after devastating Gaul
invaded the northern part of Italy, and made the Romans tremble for the safety of
their capital. They defeated the consuls Manlius and Servilius with dreadful slaugh-
ter, but were eventually destroyed by Marias.

^11. Sarmatia included the greater part of Russia and Poland, and is frequently
confounded with Scythia. This immense territory was possessed by several inde-
pendent tribes, who led a wandering life like the savages of North America. The
names of the principal tribes were the Sauromatas, near the mouth of the Tanais,
and the Geloni and Agathyrsi, between the Tanais and the Borysthenes. The latter
were called Hamaxobii from their living in wagons. Virgil gives them the epithet
picti, because they, like the savages of America, painted tlieir bodies to give them-
selves a formidable appearance. — From these districts came the Huns, the Alans and
Roxolanians, who aided the barbarians formerly mentioned {^ 8) in overthrowing the
Roman empire.

The peninsula, now known by the name of the Crimea, or Crim Tartary, was
anciently called the Chersonesus Taurica. Its inhabitants, called Tauri, were
remarkable for their cruelty to strangers, whom they sacriticed on the altar of Diana.
From their cruelty the Euxine sea received its name ; it was called Euxine {favorable
to strangers) by antiphrasis, or euphemism. — The principal towns of the Tauric
Chersonese were Panticapceum (Kerche), where Mithridates the Great died ; Saphrce
(Procop), and Theodosia (Kaffa). — At the south of this peninsula, was a large pro-
montory, called from its shape Criu-Metopon, or the Ram's Forehead.

^ 12. Ancient Germany, Germania, is, in many respects, the most singular and
interesting of the northern nations. In the remains of its early language, and the
accounts of its civil government, that have been handed down to us, the origin of the
English language and constitution may be distinctly traced. The inhabitants called
themselves FFer-men, which in their language signifies TFar-men, and from this
boasting designation the Romans named them, with a slight change, Ger-vaen.
The boundaries of ancient Germany were not accurately ascertained, but the name is
generally applied to the territories lying between the Rhine and the Vistula, the
Baltic Sea and the Danube.

% 13. These countries were, like Sarmatia, possessed by several tribes, of whom
the principal were the Hermiones and Suevi, who possessed the middle of Germany.
— — The tribes on the banks of the Rhine were most known to the Romans. The
chief of these were the Frisii, through whose country a canal was cut by Drusus,
which being increased in the course of time formed the present Zuyder Zee ; the
Cherusci, who under the command of Arminius destroyed the legions of QuintiUus
Varus; the Sicambri, who were driven across the Rhine by the Catti, in the time of
Augustus ; the Catti, the most warhke of the German nations, and most irreconcila-
ble to Rome ; the Marcomanni, who were driven afterwards into Bohemia by the
Allemanni, from which latter people Germany is, by the French, called AUemagne,

Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 5 of 153)