Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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of each could be appropriated to business, were called infercisi ,- those wholly
resigned to business, profesii. Such as were considered inauspicious were
called dies religiosi ,- among these they reckoned especially the first days after
the Calends, Nones, and Ides ; which they named pustridiani. The festival
days were termed also feriae, dies feriati, from the cessation of common

1. The Roman festivals were either public, observed by the whole nation {fericB pnblicce),or
private, observed by families and individuals (ferite private). Private festivals were held or.
days deternnned by the parties interested; being designed to commemorate births, marriages,
deaths, or other important events in domestic history. The public included the ferim stattv,B,
those of regular occurrence on certain fixed days; the ferits conceptivm, those held on days annu-
ally appointed by civil magistrates or by the priesthood (jus pvntificium); and the feria: impera-
tiyffi, those held on special emergencies by command of the consul, the praetors, or a dictator.
As above mentioned all common business was suspended on the public ferim, the sancity of
which was violated if the rex sacrorum, or any of the flamives, saw any. person at work. The
great number of the feriae and the length of their continuance sometimes interfered with the
proper discharge of the public affairs of the state. Marcus Aurelius ordained that two hundred
and thirty days of the year should be open for business, and the remaining days might be ferice.
The festivals commonly had particular names, but some were designated by a distinctive epi-
thet applied to the common name; as, e. g. Feria Latince, commemorating the alliance between
the Romans and Latins; Ferim Sementivm, in seed-time, to pray for a good crop. — The J^'undiiKB
were sometimes reckoned among the Ferice; ihey were regular days on which the people from
the country assembled to expose their various commodities for sale, market days ; called Kandinae,
because they occupied every ninth day (Ov. Fast. i. 54). — It was the business of the Poiitifices
to prepare annually a register called Kalendarium, or Fasti Kalendares, or Fasti Sacri, in which
the days were marked in each month and distinguished according as they belonged to the differ-
ent classes above named ; and the various festivals were mentioned as they were to take place
through the year. The Fasti Kalendares are to be distinguished from the Fasti Jinnales: the latter
were registers of the magistrates; of which the most important were those termed Fasti Consulares.

Hartung, Die Religion der Romer.— .fi. Hospinian, De Testis Diebus Judseorum, Grsecorum, Romanorum, et Turcarum. Tigur.
1593. fol. — Couture, Les pastes, in the Afem. jlcad. Inscr. i. 60. — De la Xauze, Calendrier Remain, in the same item. &c. vol. xxvi.
p. 219.— Cf. Port Royal Lat. Grammar.— Several Fragments of Calendars are given in Grssvius, vol. viii.— A Calendar from Pauly't
Real-Encyclopadie is given in Smith's Diet, of Antiq — Respecting the Caiendarium Prsnestinum, see P. IV. § 133. 6.— Respect-
ing the Foiti Jinnales or Bistonci, see P. V. § 508.

§ 230 1. Of the numerous Roman festivals, we will mention some of the
principal, in order of the months.

January, 1st day. The festival of Janus, on
the first day of the year, on which, in later
times, the Consuls entered upon their office.
The presents customary on this day were called
strenm; they were sent from clients to their
patrons, from citizens to the magistrates, and

from friends to one another. 9th. The j?o-o-

nalia, also in honor of Janus. 11th and 15th.

The Carmentalia, to the goddess Carmenta,
an Arcadian prophetess, mother of Evander.
-25th. The Sementinm, or festival of seed

ralia, to the Manes, accompanied with a solemn
expiation or purification of the city, called fe-
bruatio, whence the name of the month itself.
It continued from the 18th to the end of the
month, during which time presents were car-
ried to the graves of deceased friends and rela-
tives, and the living held feasts of love and rt-

conciliation. 21st. Terminalia, to Terminus,

the god of boundaries.

March. On the first day, with which in
early times the year began, a festival to Mars,

accompanied with the Jimharvalia, which dif- on which the procession or war-dance of the
fered from the festival of the same name in Salii was made (cf. $ 215); called also the fes-

May ; on which they passed over the fields with I tival of the shields; it lasted three days.

the animals to be slain in sacrifice. 30th. j 6th. Ffs^aiia, different from that held iri June.

The festival of Peace (Pax), first established by 17lh. Liberalia, to Bacchus, but different

Augustus. 31st. The festival in honor of the from the Bacchanalia. 19th. Quinquatria, to

Penates, or household gods. | Minerva, named from its duration of five days :

February. 1st. The Lucaria, in memory of the last day called Tubilustrium, because the

the asylum formed by Romulus, or of the re- trumpets used in sacred rites were then puri

fuge (hicus) of the Romans after the sack of fied. 23d. Hilaria, to Cybele, whose sacrec?

their city by Brennus. — This day was also dedi- image was during it sprinkled and purified.

cated to Juno Sospita. 13lh. Faunalia. in called also Lavatio Matris Deum.

honor of Faunus and the Sylvan gods, repeated April. On the 1st day, Veneralia, the festival

5th December. 15th. Lvpercnlia, to Lvceean of Venus, to whom the whole month was dedi-

Pan (cf $ 216). ITth. Quirivalia, to Romu- cated. (Cf. Scholl, Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. iii.

lus, deified by the name Quirinus 18th. Fe- p. 24). 5th. Megalesia, to Cybele, whose

31 X



priests, the Galli (cf. $ 217), on this made their games in honor of Mars. 13lh. To Diana.

procession. 12th. CereaZia, to Ceres, attended 17th. Portumnalia, to Portumnns, the god

with games. 15. Fordicidia, to the gnddess of harbors. Ibth. Covsualia, to Consus, the

Telliis, for tiie purpose of averting a dearth or god of counsel or rather to Equestrian Neptune,
scarcity, on occasion of wiiich Numa instituted The seizure of the Sabine women was com-

the festival; each Curia furnished a pregnant memoraled the same day. 21st. f^inalia (_lhe

cow (forda) to be sacrificed to Tellus. 2]st. ' second), or festival of the vintage to Jupiter

PaZiZfa, a rural, country festival to Pales, god- and Venus. 23d. Vulcanalia, to Vulcan as

dess of cattle. — 22d. Vinalia, repeated in Au- j the god of fire, for security against conflagra-

gust, to consecrate to Jupiter the growth of the tions. 25th. Opeconsivaj to Rhea, or Ops, or

vine in Italy. 23. RobigaUa,\.o the god Ro- fruit-beaririH Earth.

bicus, that he might protect the grain from September. On the 1st day, to Jupiter Jlfai-

blighiing (a ruhigine) 26th. FLralia, to Flo- 'mnctes. 4th. Ludi Magni, or Roviani, in the

ra or Chloris, attended with games (cf. $ 236). Circus, to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva; they

30th. The festival of the Palatine Vesta, in- j lasted from the 4th day to the 12th. 13th. The

stituted by Augustus. | ceremony of fixing a nail {claims figendus) in

May. On the first day, the FesfiraZ to <^e i the temple of Jupiter, by a dictator appointed for

Lares Prdstites, and the ceremonies by night to the purpose, to avert contagious pestilence.

Bona Dea, performed by the vestals' and wo-;23lh. To \ enws Genetriz. 20\\\. Meditrinalia,

men alone. 2d. Compitalia, to the Lares in for tasting new wine before the vintage ; that

the public ways. 9th. Lemnria, to the Lemu- this festival was sacred to a goddess of health,

res, or wandering spirits of deceased ancestors named JMeditrina, is as doubtful as the existence
and relatives on the father's side (cf. P. 11. JJ of the goddess herself.

110,111). 15th. Festum Mercatorium, to yier- \ October. 12th. Angustalia, properly gamea

cury, for merchants (cf. P. II. $ 56). 23d. in honor of Augustus, instituted after the close

Vuicanalia, to Vulcan, called also Tuhilustria of his campaigns, particularly the Armenian,
''rotii the purifying of the sacred trumpets. ; B. C. 19 or 20. 13th. Fovtin'alia, in which the

June. On the first day were several festi- public fountains were crowned with garlands.

vals, to Dea Carna, Juno jMoveta, Mars Extra- \ 15th. To Mars, chiefly a horse-race on the

mu ravens, and TempestHs. 3d. The festival Campus Martius, at the end of which a horse

to Bfllona. 4ili. To Hercules. 'Jth. Vesta- was offered in sacrifice. 19th. The .Irmilus-

lia, to Vesta, in memory of the gift of bread to triinn, or review-muster, celebrated only by

men. Food was sent to the Vestals to be of-
fered to the gods ; and the asses, which turned
the mills, were decked with garlands and led

in procession. 10th. Matralia, to Matuta,

celebrated by Roman matrons ; also a festival,
on the same day, to Fortmta Virihs, by wonien

soldiers, and in full armor.

November. 13th. A feast dedicated to Jupi-
ter, Epuliim Jovis. 15th. Ludi Plebeii, in the

theatre, or the circus ; they were also frequent-
ly held al other times not defined.

Dece.mber. 5th. Faunalia, kept by thn peo-

and to Cnvcord:a. 13th Quinquatria ( paria), pie of the country, as the same in February

designed for the improvement and pleasure of was by the inhabitants of the city 17lh.

those, who had the care of the music in the SaZiirnaZw, one of the most famous festivals of
worship of the gods. 16th. Purifying of the Rome, originally limited to a single day, after-
temple of Vesta. 19th To Siimmiinus, i e. wards e>tefided over three, four, and more. It

probably to Pluto. 24lh. Fortuna Fortis. for was a festival of leisure and general joy, in

people of the lower classes. 30th. To Her- memory of the golden period in Italy under the

cules and the ]Muses. government of .Saturn. During it slaves were

Ji LY. On the first day the occupants of placed on a footing of equality with their mas-
hired houses changed their residence. 5th. ters. Many of the peculiar customs and sports

Lvdi Jlpollinares, with sacrifices. 6th. To were similar to those of the Carnival, or Christ-

FeiMMle Fortune, in memory of Coriolanus with- mas Festival, of m.odern Home. 8. e Coleman's

drawing his army from the city (,Liv. ii. 40). Chr. Antiq p. 435.— The work entitled /iowe iw

• 7ih. To Juno Caprotina, for young women, the J^ineteertth Century, vul. iii. p. 240. i9th.

15. To Castor and Pollux. 2.3d. J^eptu- Opalia, to the goddess of Ops. The Compi-

nalia. 25th Farinalia, to the goddess Furina. talia, to the Lares of the crossways, were often

AiGUsT. On the 1st day a festival to the held shortly after the Saturnalia, as well as in

go(jdess of Hope; and gladiatorial sports and other months.

,/§ 231. The public games {ludi) among the Romans, as well as among the
Greeks from whom the former borrowed them in part, were viewed as festival
occasions in honor of the gods. Tliese games were usually at the expense of
the stale, sometimes at the expense of individuals, particularly the emperors.
They were different in their character, as well as in the time and place of their
celebration. Many were held annually, or after a period of several years, at a
time fixed or variable; many also arose from particular occasions; hence the
variety in distinctive appellations; e. g., ludi s/o/z, imperativi, instauralivi,
vofivi, quinquenimles, decennales, secularcs, ludraJes. &c. Names were given
also in reference to their character, and the place where they were celebrated ;
e.g., ludi circenses, capilolini, scenici, piscatorii, iriumphales, funebres. Only
the most famous of these games can here be noticed.

§ 232. The first to be mentioned are the Ludi Circenses, or by way of emi-
nence Zu^? ^f^/g-rz/. They received their name from the Circus Ma ximus, which
was not merely a la'ige free place, but, taken in its whole, formed a superb edi-
iice ; it was a kind of theatre, commenced by Tarquinius Priscus, and enlarged
and adorned by Julius Caesar as dictator.

1 ?/. Its breadth was more than a stadium, and its length was three and a half stadia
(U18~ feet). All around it were seats {fori) for spectators, so as to accommodate at
li^st 1^0,000 Persons. In the middle, extending lengthwise, was a wall, called $fina


circi, 4 feet high, 12 broad, and 1 stadium in length. At each end of the wall were
three pyramids on a single base, which were the goals (mefcp-), around which the horses
and chariots turned. I'he wall had many other ornaments. The whole edifice also
was highly ornamented ; it was altogether the largest of the kind, although there were
in Rome eight other places for races and games, called Circi. At one end were 12
openings or parts separated by walls, called carceres, where the horses and chariots
stood waiting for the signal to start. [Not far from the carceres, a whitened rope (alba
linea) was drawn across the circus ; one half of it marking the commencement, and
the other half the end, of the race.] Those who governed the chariots, were divicied
into ceriain classes [facliones or greges), distinguished by dresses of diJfTerent colors.
The whole circus was dedicated to the god of the sun,

2. Pliny (Hist. N. .x.xxvi. 24) states the number of persons which the Circus Maximus wag
capable of containing as 260,000; and the authority of Aureliiis Victor has been cited for the
number of 385.000.— Of the other structures of this class the following were the principal : the
Circus Flaminiits ; the Circus j9lexaiidrinus ; the Circus Sallusticus ; the Circus Florialis, or \a-
ticanus, tiiiished by Nero in a splendid style, and signalized as the scene wiiere numbers of the
early Christians suffered martyrdom under that emperor; the obelisk in the centre of the peris-
tyle of St. Peter was taken from the spina of this circus ; the Circus Caracal Icb ; the Circus Do-
mj(i<8.— On the Via Appia there still remains the ground plan, with part of the superstructure,
of a small circus, commonly called the Circus of Caracalla.

Gnevna, as cited § 197. 1. vol. ix. j and Polenus, as there cited, vol. v.— G. L. Bianconi, Discrizione dei Circlii particolarmenta
di quello di Caracalla, &c. Con note C. Fea. Rom. 1780. So\.— Burgess, The Circus on the Appian Way.— SmilA, Diet, of Anti-

3 u. The Liidi Circenses were commonly held but once a year ; sometimes they
were appointed on extraordinary occasions ; in both cases they were maintained at public
cost. The solemn procession which preceded them, pompa circensis, moved from the
Capitol. The images of the gods were borne in splendid carriages or frames (m thensis
etferciiUs), or on men's shoulders {inhumeris), followed by a great train, on horseback
or on foot, with the combatants, musicians, &c. Sacred rites were then performed,
and the games opened.

§ 233 71. The games or shows (spectacula) in the Circus were of four kinds ; chariot-
races, with two or four horses ; contests of agility and strength, such as wrestling (iitcla),
boxing {pugilatiis), throwing the discus (disci jactus), leaping (salt us), and running
(rursus); representations of sieges and of battles on foot and on horseback, including
the Ludiis TrojcB (Virg. JEn. v. 545); fighting of wild beasts (venatio). — To describe
these pariicularly would exceed our limits. Many of the exercises, however, cor-
responded to those of the Greeks (cf §"^ 78 — 83). The victors were rewarded with crowns
and sometimes with rich gifts in addition. The victor in the chariot-race received a
palm-branch, which he bore in his hand.

1. We have in n». B. of Plate X%'I. a victorious Roman charioteer, with the palm in his right hand, and the reins in his left; ha
b closely girdel about the chest and body.

See Brottier, Le jeux du Cirque, in the Mem. de TAcad. des Insar. vol. xlv. p. 487.— Afong-ez, Sur les animaux promenes ou taeg
dans lea Cirques, in the Mem. de Vlnititvi, C I a s s e d'Hist. et Lit. Jlnc vol. x. p. 360.

2 u. At the time of the Ludi 3Iag7u, other spectacles were also exhibited, not in the
Circus ; particularly the NaumachifP, or representations of naval battles. These ori-
ginally were made in the sea, but afterwards in artificial basins or excavations made for
the purpose and filled with water, which were also called Naumachice. The vessels
were usually manned by prisoners, malefactors, slaves, or conquered foes, and many
lost their hves or were severely wounded. This spectacle was sometimes exhibited in
the Circus Maximus, water being introduced into it for the purpose.

3. Claudius is said (Tac. Ann. xx. 56.— Suet. Claud. 21) to have exhibited a m.ignificent sea-fight on lake Fueinus, in which there
were fifty ships on each side, with 19,000 combatants (naumachiarii). — Representations of naval battles were common under the
emperors, and are commemorated on some of the imperial coins. — See Sdieffer, De Militia Navali.

§ 234. The Ludi Saeculares, or centurial ^ames, were solemnized with much
ceremony. They were not celebrated exactly after the lapse of a century, but
sometimes a little earlier or a little later ; usually in the month of April. For tliis
occasion long^ preparations were always made, the Sibylline books were consulted,
and a sort of general purification or expiation of the whole city was previously
made. Sacrifices were oifered to all the g-ods, those of the infernal world as well
as those of Olympus, and while the men attended banquets of the gods in their
temples, the wonnen assembled for prayer in the temple of Juno. Thank-offer-
ings were also presented to the Genii.

1 11. After the sacrifices, a procession advanced from the Capitol to a lar^e theatre on
the banks of the Tiber, where the games were exhibited, in honor of Apollo and
Diana. On the second day the Roman m.atrons were collected to offer sacrifice in the
Capitol. On the third, among other solemnities, a song of praise to Apollo and Diann
was sung in the temple of Palatine Apollo, by a select band of young men and virgins


of Patrician rank. The carmen scecidare of Horace was prepared to be thus sung, at
the command of Augustus, in v,'hose reign the games were celebrated.

The first celebration took place in the reign of Augustus, B. C. 17 {Tac. Ann.xi.H); the second in the reign of Claudius, A. D. 47
{Suet. Claud. 21) ; the third in the reign of Domitian, A. D. 88 ; and the last in the reign of Philippus, A. D. 248, just one thousand
years after the building of Rome.— Cf. Harlung, Die Relig. d. Rom.— On the chronology of these games, Clast. Journal, xvii. 351.

2 u. To the religious solemnities, which were held for the purpose of securing the
safety of the whole state, were afterwards added various amusements, which rendered
this a festival of universal hilarity. Among the diversions were pantomimes, histrionic
plays, and the feats oi }ugg\eTsiprcBstigiatores), persons who seemed to fly in the air
IpetauristcB), rope-dancers {funamhuli), and the liiie.

The rope-dancer {<a\o[?dT7i;, o-xoi.vo[idTrjs) seems usually to have been a Greek {Juv- iii. 80). Some of the paintings found at
Herculaneum exhibit funamhuli placing themselves in a great variety of attitudes, in the character of bacchanals, satyrs, and the
like.— See the work styled Antichi tTErcolano (cited V. IV. § 243. 2), vol. iii.— A few of the figures are given in Smit/i, DicL of
Antiq. p. 434.

§ 235. The gladiatorial shows, Ludi Gladiatorii, were greatly admired in
Rome. They were usually called Munera, as they would impart pleasure to
the spectators, or bestow respect on those out of regard to whom they were
held ; in the latter view they were appointed, e. g. at the funerals, or in com-
memoration, of the deceased.

1 u. These shows were of Etrurian origin, and probably grew out of the ancient
custom of sacrificing prisoners at funeral solemnities in honor of the departed. At
Rome they were at first exhibited chiefly at funerals ; afterwards they were given by
the J^diles, Praetors, Quaestors, and Consuls, in the amphitheatres, especially on the
festivals of the Saturnaha and Quinquatria.

The gladiators (eZadia^ores, />ioi/o/iaxoi) were supported at public expense. Their resi-
dence or place of instruction was called Indus, a name often given to any arena or
building, where such exercises were learned or practiced ; their overseer was termed
procurator, and their instructor, lanista. In the pubhc spectacles, the combat was often
carried to blood and even to death, unless the conquered gladiator begged his life of
the crowd of spectators. The number of combatants was originally indeterminate, and
until fixed by Caesar. The gladiators bore various names according to their armor and
their mode of fighting.

2. The gladiators termed secutores were armed with helmet, shield, and sword.
They were usually matched with the retiarii, who were dressed in a short tunic with
nothing on the head, bearing in the left hand a three-pointed lance (tridens or fuscina),
and in the right a net {rete) in order to throw it over the head of their adversary. The
mirmiUones were armed hke Gauls, and took the name from the image of a fish on their
helmet, and were usually matched with those termed thraces. The essedarii fought
from chariots, and the equites on horseback ; the andabalcjo wore helmets which covered
their eyes, and according to some writers, fought on horseback. Several other classes
are named. — It is to be observed that the term gladiatores included those who fought
with beasts as well as those who fought with men ; although the former were termed
distinctively hestiarii.

3. At first gladiators were wholly composed of criminals and slaves ; but afterwards
free citizens of noble birth, and even women, fought on the arena. — An advertisement
or pubUc notice {libellits) was put up by the person (editor) who intended to exhibit a
gladiatorial show, with an account of the combatants and sometimes a dehneation or
picture annexed. On the day of exhibhion the gladiators were led along the arena in
procession, and then matched for the contest. When a gladiator lowered his arms, it
was a sign of being vanquished; his fate depended on the spectators ; if they wished
him to be saved, they pressed down their thumbs ; if to be slain, they turned up their
thumbs ipolllcem premehant or vertebant). If a vanquished gladiator was spared, he
was said to receive his discharge, which was termed missio, hence an exhibition in which
the lives of the vanquished were not to be saved was said to be sine missione. — Vast
numbers of men and of brute animals were destroyed. In the spectacles after the
triumph of Trajan over the Dacians, it is said that 10.000 gladiators fought, and 11,000
animals were killed. These shows were prohibhed by Constantine, but not fully sup-
pressed until the time of Honorius.

In Plate XXX. are several figures illustrating this subject, which are taken from sculptures
on the tomb of Scaurus found at Pompeii. Fig. 1 represents an equestrian combat; the anda-
hatcPArp. clothed in the short cloak (ivducvla), and armed with the lance, round buckler (par-md),
helmet with a vizor covering the face, and a sort of mail on the right arm. — Two gladiators on
foot appear in figures 3 and 4. Each has the helmet and the siibligacuhnn, a short apron fi.\ed
above the hips by a eirdle. Fig 3 has armor on the right arm, and holds the seutvm, or long
shield ; on his riiiht leg is a kind of buskin, and on his left the ocrea or greave ; the rest of the
body is naked ; he has lowered his shield as beins vanquished, and raised his hand to implore
mercy of the spectators. Fig. 4 is behind him, waiting for the signal from them, whether to
spare his antagonist or strike the death-blow ; he carries a smaller shield, has armor upon his
thicKj. and the high greaves upon his legs.— Fis. 6 presents a group of four gladiators; two are
followers (secutores), and two net-men (retiarii). One of the secutores is wounded in the leg,




thigh, and arm, and, having in vain implored mercy of the spectators, he bends his knee appa-
rently to receive from the sword of his comrade a more speedy death than would be likely from
the trident of his antagonist retiarius, who pushes him and seems thus to insult his conquered
rival. The other retiarius is waiting to fight in his turn with the secutor who is hastening to
end the sufferings of his wounded companion. The letters against two of the figures are the
sculptured names of the persons represented, with the number of victories gained by them on

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