Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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the arena. The Fig. 8, with a lance in each hand, is from a group on the same tomb representing
a young bestiariun preparing himself to contend in the arena.— Fig. 5 is also from a sculpture on
this tomb, representing a bull frantic with rage, with a lance driven through his breast, and
lushing towards the man by whom he is wounded.

See Mazois, as cited P. IV. § 243. 2.— Pompeii, p. 291, as cited P. IV. 226. 1. For minute details respecting gladiators, cf. J.

Lipsius, Saturnalia, in his Works. Ant. 1637. 6 vols. fol.

§ 236. The Ludi Florales were united with the festival of the goddess Flora,
held on the 28th of April (§ 230). They were instituted at Rome, B. C. 24 ;
afterwards they were discontinued for a period, but were renewed again in con-
sequence of a sterility of fruit, which was viewed as the punishment for their
omission. They lasted from the day above mentioned to the evening of the 3d
of May ; no sacrifices were offered ; those who engaged in the celebration wore
garlands of flowers, and indulged in frequent banquetings, and often descended
to extreme licentiousness. Parties for hunting and dancing were also formed ;
and the aediles curules, who had the care of the plays, distributed vast quantities
of peas and beans among the populace in the Circus.

§ 237 1. There were other games or sports {ludi), which we may just men-
tion here.

The Ludi Megalenses, in honor of Cybele, mother of the gods, celebrated with
shows, and by mutual presents and entertainments {mutilare) between persons of the
higher ranks. — The Ludi Cereales in the Circus, in the memory of the rape of Pro-
Bsrpine, and the consequent sorrow of her mother Ceres. — The Marliales, dedicated
to Mars Ultor, or the avenger. — The Apollinares, in honor of Apollo, and generally
scenical.— The Capitolini, to Jupiter, ia memory of his preserving the Capitol from
the Gauls. — The Plebsii, in commemoration of the expulsion of the kings and the re-
covery of freedom. — The Consiiales, in honor of Neptune, and in memory of the
seizure of the Sabine women. — The Ludi Auguslales iYc/Jaara, and 'Avyowraha), in
honor of Augustus. — The Ludi Piscatorii, held on the sixth of June, near the Tiber,
in behalf of the lishermen. — Among the games occasioned by vows and called ludi
votili, the principal were such as were promised and appointed by generals in war ;
among which may be ranked those already mentioned (§ 231), the quinqueiniales, de-
cennales, &c., given by the emperors every five, ten, and twenty years. — To the class
called extroordinarii, belonged such as were held at funerals, called Ljidi Fmiehres ;
and those appointed by Nero for youth on completing their minority in age called
Ludi Juvenales.

§ 238. For exhibiting many of these games, especially the dramatic {ludi
scenici) and gladiatorial, theatres and ampitheatres were used. — In the first ages,
theatres were constructed merely of wood, and were taken down after being used.
Afterwards they were built of stone, and sometimes of great size and splendor.
Their construction was similar to that of Greek theatres ; one side or end had
the form of a prolonged semicircle, for the spectators, and the other was rec-
tangular for the stage and actors. The most famous theatre was that built
B. C. 59 by the aedile M. Scaurus, at his own expense, partly of marble, and so
capacious that eighty thousand spectators could sit in it. The theatres of
Pompey and Marcellus were also very large and celebrated ; the latter in part
still remains.

I. The Roman theatre, like the Greek (cf P. IV. % 235), consisted of three parts,
the scena, orchestra, and cat^ea; but the two latter are sometimes included under one
(the cavea), because in the Roman the chorus and musicians were placed on the stage
(or sccna) ; and the rows of seats in the orchestra were occupied by the senators,
foreign ambassadors, and especially distinguished personages. The next fourteeu
rows of the cavea were assigned to the equites, and the rest of the people. Women
occupied the portico surrounding the whole, by an arrangement of Augustus. — The
stage, or portion allotted to the performers, had several parts distinguished by name ;
one part was that to which the term scena (which is put sometimes for the stage as a
whole) more appropriately belongs, the sce?ie or scenery ; the part sometimes concealed
by a curtain {aulcBum), which was fastened not at the top but at the bottom, and, when
it was necessary to hide the scene, was drawn up by a machine for the purpose (called
exoslra); columns, statues, pictures, and various ornaments of the most magnificent
character were exhibited, according to the nature of the plays. The postscenium was
<i place behind the scene, v/here the actors changed their dresses, and the ■proscenium


was the space kr front of the scene. The place usually occupied by the actors when
speaking was termed ■pulpuum {\oytlov, cf. "ji 89).

A plan of the Roman theatre is given in our Plate XLIX. fig. 2. The upper half of the circle
BHBH is the orchestra ; the circle is presented complete with the four equilatrial triangles in-
scribed, in order to show the manner of determining the places for the scena, the postsceniuviy
and llie cunei ; these triangles are inscribed so that their vertices fall severally on the ends of
the diameters BB, HH ; then their other angles give the points and limits required ; the diameter
(HH) of the orchestra was usually one-third (or more) of the whole diameter of the theatre.
The length given to the scene or stage was twice the diameter of the orchestra.

2. The principal forms of dramatic entertainment among the Romans are mentioned
particularly in another part of this work ; see P. V. §'5> 308-320. — Among the musical
instruments employed were the flute, and the lyre or harp, and in later times the hy-
drauhc organ, sometimes called cortina. The common accompaniments of comedy
were the flutes termed tibi<B dextrcB or LydicB, and tibicB sinistrcB or SerrancB or Tijrice;
the terms pares and impares are also applied to them. There has been some disagree-
ment as to what these terms mean. It is most commonly supposed that the musician
used two flutes at once or a double flute ; that the sinistra had but few holes and
sounded a sort of bass, while the dextra had more holes with sharper tones, and when
these two were united they were termed impares, and took the other names because
one was stopped by the left hand and the other by the right ; when two dextra or two
sinistrcB were united and played upon by the musician, they were called pares.

A painting found at Pompeii represents a flute-player blowing upon ttie double flute ; see our Plate XXV'I. fig. a, and cf. § 180. 2.
—The use of the double flule is seen also in Plate XLIX. fig. B, and in Plate XWX.—Bdlliger, Die Erfindung der Flote, in vol. ii.
of fVieland's Attisches Museum. — A. Manutius, De Tibiis Veterum, in UgoUnits, vol. rxxii. as cited § 197.

3. Masks in great variety were used on the Roman stasre as well as on the Grecian ;
and were probably similar to those of the Greeks. Cf, ^ 89. 2,

Several masks are represented in the beautiful mosaic given in Plate XLIX. fig. B B.— On theatres, plays, masks, *c. cf. Bemardi,
Las jeux sreniques chez les Romains, in the Mem. dt Plnstitut, I a s s e A' Hist, et Lit. Anc. vol. viii. p. 250. — Dunlop, as cited
P. V. § 299. 8 —Work styled Pompeii, cited P. IV. § 226.—/. L. FahriciiLX, De Ludis Scenicis, in Gronovius, vol. I'lW.—Bottiger,
Prolus. de Pers^nis scenicis, vulgo Larvis. Vinarise, 1794. 4.— Francisco de Ficoroni, Disserlatio de larvis scenicis, &c. Rom. (the-
atrical Masques of the Romans). Rom. 1736. 4. with plates. — Boindin, Sur les Masques, &c in the Mem. de V.icad. aes Inscr.
Bol. iv. p. 132.

§ 239. The ^xsi amphiihentre^-a.% built B. C. 45 by Julius Caesar, but merely
of wood. The emperor Titus erected the first of stone, the ruins of which,
under the name of the Colosseum or Coliseum (from a colossal statue of Nero, which
stood near it), constitute still one of the most remarkable curiosities of Rome.
The form of ampitheatres was oval or elliptical. They were generally used for
gladiatorial shows and the fighting of wild beasts. Both theatres and amphi-
theatres were commonly dedicated to certain gods.

1. The amphitheatre exhibited the appearance of two theatres joined ; thus Curio
actually formed one, perhaps the first ; wishing to outdo others in exhibitions of this
sort, he constructed two large theatres of wood looking opposite ways, in which dra-
matic plays were performed in the morning ; then by machinery for the purpose he
suddenly wheeled them round so as to look at each other, thus constituting an amphi-
theatre, and presented a show of gladiators in the afternoon. The term arena is some-
times put for the amphitheatre, but means properly the place in the centre where the
gladiators fought, and was so called from its being covered whh sand. The arena was
surrounded with a wall, guarded with round wooden rollers turning in sockets, to pre-
vent the animals from climbing up. Sometimes the arena was completely surrounded
with a ditch filled with water {euripus). Next around the arena was the podium, raised
12 or 15 feet above it, projecting over the wall and protected by a sort of parapet. On
this gallery or terrace, which was wide enough for two or three rows of moveable
seats, senators, ambassadors, and persons of special distinction were seated; here also
the emperor had his seat {suggestus, or ciibiculum). Above the podiumyvere the fixed
Beats igradus), divided into stories or sloping portions called mceniana. The first, next
to the podium, included fourteen rows of marble seats appropriated to the Equites. In
the second and third masniana, were seats occupied by the people and cd\\e& popularia.
The moBniana were separated by passages {prcEcinctiones) running in the direction of the
seats ; there were also passages (scalcp) running transversely ; thus were formed several
compartments in the shape of wedges {cunei). The women, afier they were allowed
to attend the amphuheatre, were seated in a gallery or portico exterior to the whole of
these, and servants and attendants in the highest gallery. The general direction of the
amphitheatre was commuted to an oflficer styled VilUcus amphitheatri, and persons,

caWeA. designatores, were employed to superintend the seating of the spectators. By

a device of luxury, perfumed liquids were conveyed in secret tubes around these
structures, and scattered over the audience, sometimes from the statues which adorned
the interior. — The Romans had also a remarkable contrivance for covering the vast
area embraced in such a building; an awning was suspended, by means of ropes
stretched across the building and attached to masts or spars, which rose above the sum-


mit of the walls. Near the top of the outer wall of the Coliseum there are above 200
projecting blocks of stone, with holes cut to receive the ends of the spars, which ran up
through holes cut in the cornice.

2. In our Plate XXX. fig. 7, is a plan of the amphitheatre of Pompeii. Its extreme length,
from outside to outside of the exterior arcade, is 430 feet; its greatest breadth is 335 feet. It
consists chiefly of the rough masonry called opus incertum, with quoins of squared sione, and
some trifling restorations of rubble. Tliis rude mass was probably once covered with a facing
of hewn stone.— At each end of the ellipse are entrances into the arena for the combatants;
through these also the dead bodies were dragged out into the spoliarium. On the podium were
found several inscriptions containing the names of the duumvirs who had presided ; there were
also fresco-paintings, which soon disappeared on being exposed to the atmosphere. There are
twenty-four rows of seats ; and the building, as has been estimated, would accommodate above
10,000"persons sitting, besides such as might stand.

Comte de Caylus, Theatre of Curio, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. xxiii. 369.— Cf. Pompeii, as cited P. IV. § 226. 1. On various

existing ruins of amphitheatres, StuarVs Diet, of Architecture. Lond. 1S32. 3 vols. 8.— A. Gordon, History of the Ancient Amphi
theatres, translated from the Italian of Maffei. Lond. 1730. 8.


§ 240. In order to understand properly the civil constitution of Rome it is
necessary to consider distinctly the different periods of its history; particularly
to notice the three different forms of government which were successively es-
tablished, the regal, consular, and imperial. The first continued 244 years to
B. C. 510; the second 479 years, to B. C. 31 ; and the third 506 years to the
overthrow of the western empire, A. D. 476, and afterwards in the eastern. —
Under the Kings the government was of a mixed character, and we should esti-
mate the powers of the kings by a reference to the early kings and princes
among the Greeks, the chiefs of particular tribes (§ 34), rather than according
to more modern ideas of an unlimited authority. The essential prerogatives of
the Roman kings were the control of the religious worship, the superintendence
of the legislation and of judicial decisions, and the assembling of the senate and
the people; yet even in the exercise of these prerogatives, they were in most
cases much restrained by the part which the senate and the people had in the
public concerns.

1 u. The ensigns of regal dignity were borrowed from the Etrurians, and consisted
of a golden crown, a chair {sella) of ivory, or highly ornamented with ivory, a scepter
of the same material, with an eagle on its extremity, a white robe {toga)v>'hh. purple
embroidery or borderings, &c., a body of twelve attendants (lictores), who went before
the king, carrying each a bundle of rods (fasces) whh an ax {securis) in the middle.

In our Plate XXXI. fig. I, is a cut representing the securis bound up in the fasces. The fasces
are often represented on the consular coins. — Fig. 3, is a group of royal scepters, drawn from
Egyptian monuments ; showing various forms and ornaments at the extremity. Cf. Plate XI.
fig. 1, and fig. 3, where scepters are seen in the hands of Jupiter and Juno.

2 u. The time, during which the regal form is said to have continued, is too long for
the probable reigns of only seven kings, which is the number specified in the traditions
respecting this period. But it must be remarked that the whole of the early Roman
history is at least uncertain, and is by some considered as purely fabulous. Cf P. V. $510.

§ 241. On the abolition of monarchy the constitution became aristocratical.
Two magistrates were annually chosen, with the authority and influence which
the kings had possessed, and called Consuls (consules). No particular age was
originally requisite for this office, but a law {lex annalis) was enacted 180 B. C,
that it should be held by no person under forty-three. Those, who sought
the office, were called candidati, from their peculiarly white shining robe {toga
Candida). The election took place, in the assembly of the people, voting by
Centuries, usually towards the end of July or the beginning of August. From
that time until January of the following year, the person chosen was called con-
sul designatus, and then he entered upon his office under many solemnities.
The two consuls had equal power. At first, both were chosen from the patri
cians ; afterwards, however, one was often taken, and sometimes both, from the

1 u. Their badges of office were the same as those of the kings, excepting the golden
crown, and the robe with purple ornaments; the latter was allowed them on certain
public solemnities, as e. g. a triumph.

2 u. The duties of the consuls consisted in taking the auspices, assembling the senate,
declaring the votes, among which they first gave their own, in proposing business to


the senate and the people, fixing the comitia, appointing the judges, and preparing de-
clarations of war. They were also usually commanders of the army, and were required
to attend to all its wants, and inform the senate of all important occurrences. After
completing the year of their office they were usually proconsuls or governors of pro-
vinces. I'he power of the consuls was gradually diminished, partly by the institution
of the office of dictator and tribunes, and partly by the law which authorized appeals
from the decisions of the consuls to the people. Under the emperors nothing more
than the mere name remained ; they were merely the agents to execute the imperial
will, to whom a few privileges were secured. In the later ages also, their number was
increased, and the term of continuance very short. The office was preserved until

A. D. 541 (after the overthrow of the western empire, of. P. I. § 214. 6), when it was
conferred upon the reigning emperor for life.

§ 242. The issue of the battle of Pharsaha, B. C 48, between Pompey and Ctesar,
prepared the way for introducing the imperial government ; which was established in
the hands of Augustus by the issue of the battle of Actium, B. C. 31. The government
now became in fact, a military monarchy ; although the first emperors adhered, in form,
to the old usages and customs in a great degree. But under Tiberius, the immediate
successor of Augustus, the real nature of the change began plainly to appear, and under
succeeding emperors became more and more obvious. As the emperors concentrated
in their own persons many of the offices of the state, and various new offices were
created for adherents and partizans, the whole system of government was at length
turned into a grand scheme for individual aggrandizement and luxury.

De la Bletterie, on the Roman Government nnder the Emperors, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. xix. 357, and iii. 299, power of
Emperors; vol. xxiv. 261, power of Consuls; vol. xv. 392, of Tribunes; xxvii. 438, of Senate.— GoJWing, Geschichte der Rom.
Staalsverfassung. Halle, 1840.

§ 243. Prsetor was in early times the name for any magistrate, sig-nifying
merely an overseer, superintendant, or leader (from prseire). But, in the year

B. C. 365, the name was appropriated to an officer appointed to attend to the
administration of justice. The Praetor was at first chosen from patricians,
when the consulship was communicated to the plebeian.s. Two Preetors were
chosen after the year B. C. 243, one to attend to the business of the citizens
(Prsetor urbanus), the other the business of strangers {Prsetor peregrinus).
Afterward there were four Praetors, and six, then ten, fourteen, sixteen, and even
eighteen, until Augustus, it seems, limited the number to twelve.

1 u. The dignity of the city-Praetor was next to that of Consul, and his principal
business was holding courts of justice in the Tribunal {in or pro tribunali), a building
appropriated to the purpose in the Forum (§ 261). The Praetor on entering upon his
office, always pubhshed a statement of the rules and principles by which he should be
guided in his trials and decisions; this was called his edict {edictiim Pra-toris). The
usual form in giving his decisions was do, dico, addico. — In the absence of the Consul,
the city-Praetor took his place : he could also call meetings of the senate and hold Co-
mitia ; he had the care also of some of the great public games. — The insignia of the
Pragtor were the toga proBtexta, a sword and a spear (g/arfj^/s et kasta), and an atten-
dance of six hctors. In the provinces the Propraetors had similar rank and authority,
in the same manner as the Proconsuls took the place of Consuls.

2, Besides the general edict above mentioned, the Preetor pubhshed particular
edicts from time to time. Such as he copied from those of his predecessors were
termed tralatitia; those framed by himself, nova. An edict published at Rome,
ediclum urbanum; in a province, provinciate; sometimes named from the province, as
ediclum Siciliense. Other magistrates Qionorati) published edicts also. The law de-
rived from, all the various edicts was termed jus honorarium; this term or phrase, in
later times, was applied to a collection of Praetor's edicts regularly arranged by order
of the emperor Hadrian; the same was also called edictumperpetuum.

Buuchard, Sor les Edits des magistrals Remains, Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. xxxix. 279, edicts of Consuls ; vol. xli. p. ]• of Prsitors;
xlii. 149, of JEdiles ; xlv. 439, of Praefects.— O. E. Schrader, Die Prtltorischen Edicte. Weim. 1815.— iJein, Das Romische Privat-
recht, &c. Leipz. 1836.

§ 244. Xdiles were the magistrates, whose principal duty was the care of the
buildings (jsedes). They were of two classes, plebeii and curuks, two of each.
The former were created first, B. C. 493; the latter, B. C. 266. At a later
period, Julius Caesar added two others, called Cereaks who had the oversight
")f the stores of grain and provision. In the Roman provinces, also, there were
Ediles whose office was usually but for a year. — The office seems to have con-
tinued until the time of Constantine the Great.

] u. The Ediles Plebeii had originally the care of the public and private buildings ;
and were required to make arrangements for the public games, see to the prrspn'nti-'a


of the public roads, regulate the markets, prove the justness of weights and measures,
and in short attend to the pohce of the city.

2 u. The JEdiles Curules were distinguished from them by the toga prcBtexta, and
the sella airuUs. They were at first taken solely from the patricians, but afterwards
also from the people. Their chief care v/as of the great public games. They had also
the oversight of the temples, except that of Ceres, which always belonged to the
plebeian ^diles, with whom the Curules probably shared, without distinction, the
business of the police.

for ihe history, duties, &c of the ^diles, see Schubert, De Romanorum 5;dilibu3. Regiom. 1S2S. 8.

§ 245. 'Of the Tribunes there were different kinds. The Tribunes of the
people {tribuni phhis) were the most remarkable. The office originated from
the general disaffection and secession of the plebeians, B. C. 493. The number
was first two, then five, finally ten. One of them always presided at the Com-
itia for electing tribunes. Their proper object was the protection of the people
against the encroachments of the Senate and Consuls. In order to obtain this
office, patricians allowed themselves to be adopted into plebeian families. In
the earliest times, the tribunes could not enter the Senate, but had their seats
before the door of the Senate-room, where they heard all the deliberations, and
could hinder the passage of any decree by the single word veto. By the Atinian
law, B. C. 131, it was decreed that the Tribunes should be of the rank of Sena-
tors. Their power and influence constantly increased, although it was confined
to the city and the circuit of a mile around it, beyond which they could not be
absent over night.

1 u. The Tribunes had no lictors, nor any insignia of office, except a kind of beadles
called viatores, who went before them. Their persons were regarded as inviolable.
Sylla abridged their power; he took from them the right, which they had exercised, of
assembling the people by tribes, and thereby passing enactments (plebiscita) binding
upon the whole nation, and left them only the power of their negative or intercession
[intercedere). Their authority, however, was afterwards elevated again, but under
Julius Caspar it was small ; it became still more insignificant under the emperors (cf.
S 24-2), who appropriated to themselves the tribunitial power, so that the tribunes an-
nually elected had but merely the name and shadow of it. The office was abohshed
ui the time of Constantine the Great.

2. The office of the Military Tribunes was highly important, but is not ranked among the
permanent offices. Cf. $ 248.

§ 246. The Quaestors were among the earliest magistrates of Rome, first ap-
pointed by the kings, then by the consuls, afterwards by the people. They
were charged with receiving and managing the revenues, and with the scrutiny
of certain kinds of bloodshed. Those for the city were called Quaestores urbani;
those for the provinces, Quaestores provinciales ; and those for the examination of
capital offences, Quaestores rerum capitalium, or parricidii. Originally there
were but two, afterwards four, and then eight; Sylla raised the number to
twenty, and Julius Caesar to forty.

Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 52 of 153)