Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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and familia was, that the former was more general, denoting a whole tribe or
race; the latter more limited, confined to a single branch of it. — The daughter
commonly received the name of the tribe or race, e. g. Cornelia, and retained it


after her marriage. Sisters were distinguished by adding to this name the
epithets major and minor, or prima, secunda, terfia, &c.

1. Sometimes the Romans had a fourth name, which has been styled the agnomen;
this however was only an addition to the cognomen, and may be properly included
under it. — 'I he order of the names was not invariably the same, although they usually
stood as above stated. Under the emperors the proper name of the individual was
frequently put last.

2 u. Even from the first estabhshment of the city, some among its heterogeneous
inhabitants were of noble descent, and the number of noble families was increased by
the adoption of plebeians among the patricians. The following were some of the
most distinguished races; Fabia (gens), Junia, Autonia, Julia, Emilia, Pumpeia,
Tullia, Horalia, Ociavia, Valeria, Posthumia, Sulpicia, Claudia, Papiria, Cornelia,
X>Ianlia, Semproiiia, Hortensia.

The names of families were often derived from the employment of an ancestor (cf. P. V. $483).
Names were also applied to individuals by way of ridicule ; that which was at first a mere nick-
name, or sobriquet, became permanently attachied to a person.

See Mafiudtl, De I'Autorite que les Sobriquets ou Surnoms burlesques peuvent avoir dans I'histoire, in the Mem. Acad. ImcT,

vol. xiv. p. 181. On the Roman names, and illustrious families, see Scholl's Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. iv. p. 367, and references there

given.— Gifc6o/i, Dec. and Fall of Rom. Emp. ch. xxx'u—Boindin, Les nonjs des Remains, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. i. 154.— Port

Ruyal Latin Gram. bk. viii. ch. I.— Cf. Castalio, De antiquis Puerorum Praenomimbus, in Grxvius, vol. ii. On the subject of the

races {genles), see A'teAfcuAr's Rome, i. 234.— Maiden's Hist, of Rome.— G<HUi7ig, as cited § 242.

§ 312. The increase of these races was much promoted by marriages, in
regard to which the Romans aimed to preserve a complete separation between
plebeians and patricians, until B. C. 445. Marriage was held to be a duty of
every Roman, and those who neglected it were obliged to pay a fine or tax.
Citizens were forbidden to marry strangers, except by permission specially
granted. Certain degrees of consanguinity were considered as interdicting
marriage. Marriage took place at an early age among the Romans, the male
being sometimes hat fourteen and the female only in the twelfth year.

1 u. The ;».f Quirifium conferred only on Roman citizens the right of marrying a
free-born woman. To freed men this was prohibited, until the enactment of the
Poppsean law (A. D. 9) ; by this law the free-born, excepting senators and their sons,
were allowed to marry the daughters of freedmen.

The Lex Papia Poppcea was an enlareing and enforcement of the Lex Julia " de maritandis ordi-
nibtis;" by it, whoever in the city had three children, in other parts of Italy four, and in the
provinces five, was entitled to certain privileges ; while certain disabilities were imposed on
those who lived in celibacy. This subject is alluded to by Horace, Carm. Sbbc. vs. 20.

2. A legal marriage was termed Justcs Nuptia:, or Justum Matrimonium. The word
connulium was tised as a comprehensive term including all the conditions requisite to
the contracting of a legal marriage. Generally it may be stated that there was con-
nubium only between Roman citizens. There was no connubium between slaves, but
only what was called contubernium.

See Gierig, Excursus de Contuberniis Romanorum, in Lemaire's Pliny, as cited P. V. § 470. 4. vol. 2d. p. 23\.—Ayrer, Diss, de
jure connubioiuni apud Romanos. Gbtt. 1737.

§ 313. Tbe marriage was always preceded by a solemn affiance or betroth-
ment, in which the father of the bride gave his assent {stipulatio) to the request
{spnnsii)) of the bridegroom. This compact and the ceremonies attending it
were called spunsalia ; it often took place many years before the marriage, even
in the childhood of the parties betrothed. The bridegroom was not always pre-
sent at the betrothing, which was sometimes effected by means of letters, or by
an empowered substitute. In early times the father's consent was necessary
only for the daughter, but afterwards also for the son. The mutual consent of
the parties was the most essential. Friends and relations were usually present
as witnesses; the marriage contract was written and sealed (Jes^iiimac tabellas) ;
the bride received from her betrothed a ring as a pledge of his fidelity ; and the
whole ceremony was concluded with a feast.

§ 314. In fixing the day of marriage, care was taken to select one of those
esteemed lucky or fortunate. The transferrence of the bride from her father's
power to the hands of the husband was called conventio in manum, and was
accompanied by a religious ceremony, and a sort of consecration by a priest
[confarreafio). Marriages contracted in this form were the most solemn, and
could not be dissolved so easily as in other cases. Two other forms or modes
are mentioned ; one was by prescription {usus), the bride being taken home and
living with the bridegroom for a year (usucapio) ; the other by a purchase (co-


empiio), in which each party gave to the other a portion of money, repeating
certain words.

^ 315 u. On the day of marriage, the bride was adorned whh a sort of veil or pe-
culiar ornament of the head (luteum flammeum), and a robe prepared for the occasion
{tunica recta), which was bound around the waist with the marriage girdle {cingulum
laneum). The sacrifice ordered on the marriage-day was a sheep of two years of age,
presented especially to Juno as the goddess ot marriage.

The conducting of the bride to the residence of the husband, which took place in
the evening, was attended hkewise with ceremonies. She was taken, as it were
forcibly, from the arms of her mother, or if the mother was not living, of the next
near relative. She went with a distaff (coins) in her hand, and was careful to step
over or was hfted over the threshold of both houses, as it was ominous to touch it
with the feet. She was supported by two youth, one on each side ; a third preceded
her with a hghted torch or flambeau, and sometimes a fourth followed carrying in a
covered vase {cumerum) the bride's utensils {7iubentis ulensilia) and also various toys
(crepujidia). She bound the door posts of her new residence with white woollen fil-
lets and anointed them with the fat of wolves (hence uxor, quasi unxor). She then
stepped upon a sheepskin spread before the entrance, and called aloud for the bride-
groom, who immediately came and ofiered her the key of the house, which she de-
livered over to the chief servant. Both now touched fire and water, as a symbol of
purity and nuptial fidelity. The house was already adorned with garlands of flowers,
the work of the preceding day. After their arrival the marriage banquet (cce7ia nup-
tialls) was held, which was accompanied whh music and song. The husband after
supper scattered nuts among the youth and boys present. Finally the pair were con-
ducted to the bed-chamber, by the door of which the nuptial hymns (epithalamia)
were sung by young men and maids. The next day the bride presented a thank-
offering to the gods, and the husband gave an evening entertciinment {repotia), aird
distributed presents to the guests on their departure.

§ 316. Divorces {divortia) were, especially in latter times, quite common.
When the espousals and the marriage had been solemnized in full formality,
especially with the confarreatio just described, particular solemnities were requi-
site for a divorce, and these were called diffarreatio. In case of a less formal
marriage contract, the divorce was called remancipaiio or usurpatio. On
account of the frequent abuses of divorce, it was restrained by law; and pro-
perly the men only enjoyed the right. The formula with which one dismissed
his wife was tuas res tibi haheto. Sometimes the separation took place before
marriage, after the espousals, and then it was called repudium ,• the customary
formula was as follows : conditione tua non utor. If a woman was divorced
without having been guilty of adultery, her portion or dowry was returned
with her.

The situation of the Roman woman after marriage was in some respects better than that of the
Greek woman. The Roman matron presided over the household ; she superintended the educa-
tion of her children (cf. P IV. $ 125); as being the viaterfamilias, ?he shared in ttie honors paid
to the husband. Yet, generally speaking, the condition of females among the Romans was sin)i-
lar to their condition in Greece. The social elevation enjoyed by females in modern limes is
very justly ascribed in a great degree to Christianity.

See § 181, and references there ?iven. On the regard to the sex as illustrated by the writings of TibuUus, Ovid, Senecii, &c. cf.

Ramdohr, Venus Urania. Lips. 1798. 8. On the influence of Christianity, see Euckminster's Sermons — Citshing, Social Influ-
ence of Christianity, in £ibl. Repos. Sec. Series, vol. i. p. 195.— Cf. P. IV. § 83. 2.

§ 317. Among the Roman customs connected with the birth of children, that
was the most remarkable which left it to the arbitrary will of the father whether
to preserve his new-born child or leave it to perish. In reference to his decision
of this point, the midwife always placed it on the ground ; if the father chose
to preserve it, he raised it from the ground, and was said toUere infanienii this
was an intimation of his purpose to educate and acknowledge it as his own.
If the father did not choose to do this, he left the child on the ground, and thus
expressed his wish to expose it (exponere) ; this exposing was an unnatural
custom borrowed from the Greeks, by which children were left in the streets,
particon the subject of glass-making among the ancients. The vast collection
of bottles, vases, glasses, and other utensils discovered at Pompeii, is sufficient to show that the
ancients were well acquainted with the art of glass-blowing." It has bepn suggested, that these
vessels may not have been manufactured in Italy, but imported from the East, especially from
Tyre, the place where glass is supposed to have been first made. Another room belonging ta
the same baths "was lighted by a window two feet six inches high and three feet wide, in the
bronze frame of which were fotind set four very beautiful paves of glass fastened by small nuts
and screws, very ingeniously contrived, with a view to remove the glass at pleasure."

1 /. M. Suarcsiiis, De Foraininibus lapidum in priscis JF.d\ficns, in Salleiigre, as cited § 197. vol. i. 2 Eechraann, History of

Inventions, cited P. IV. § 32. 1.— Cf. Vngely Gefchichle der Eifindungen von der altesten bis zur neuesten Zeit. Leipz. 1&4I. 12.
3 Pompeii, as cited P. IV. § 226. I. p. 162. Cf. also § 26«. 4.

4. Paintings in stucco on the walls, and fret-work (Inquearia) on the ceilings, were among the
decorations in Roman houses. The various ornaments were frequently of a character exceed-
ingly unfavorable to purity of mind.

On architectural ornaments, &c. cf. P. IV. § 239.— On the mosaic of the ancients, P. IV. §§ 167, 169, 220.

5 u. The names of the various parts of a Roman house are known to us much bet-
ter than their exact design and use. The following were the principal parts. (1) The
veslibulum or fore-court, an open space between the house-door and the street. From
'Lis, one entered through the door or gate {janua or ostium) of the house into (2) the
atrium, aula or hall, in which on both sides were placed the images of ancestors in
niches or cases (armaria). From this, one passed directly through into (3) the implu-
vium; called also compluvium and cavaedium., which was a court, commonly uncovered
ivhdivale). where the rain-water fell. In this was the proper dwellin?-house, which


had two wings with a covered colonnade or portico in front, in order to pass unexposed
from one apartment to another of these side-buildings. Of these apartments the
principal was (4) the triclinium or dining-room; the others were termed cellce, having
distinctive names from their u?e ; as cella vinaria, coquinaria, penuaria, &c. Besides
these there were attached to the larger houses various other appendages ; colonnades,
baths, gardens, and the hke. — In general, almost all the apartments were on the lower
floor; but detached houses or blocks, wbich were mostly occupied by tenants on
lease (and called insitlcE), were higher and had more stories.

As the population of Rome increased, the houses in the eity were raised to such altitudes as to occasion danger, and a maximum of
height was established hy law ; in the reign of Augustus it was enacted, that the height of private edifices should not exceed seventy
feet from the ground.-Giiion, vol. 3d. p. 216, ed. N. Y. 1622.

C. The gate or door (janna) was sometimes made of iron or brass, often highly ornamented,
and usually raised above the ground, so that steps were necessary to ascend to it. On festival
occasions it was hung with green branches and garlands. It turned on hinges (cardines), and was
secured by bars {obices, claiistra), locks {serce), and keys (claves). Knockers {murcidi, viallei) or
bells (tintinnabula) were attached to it.

Fig. a, of Plate XXXII. represents a key found at Pompeii. — Fig. b, of the same Plate, is a door-bolt, found also at Pompeii.

In the atrium was anciently the kitchen {eulina). Here also the mistress of the house and
servants carried on the spinning and weaving. In this was the family hearth (focus), near the
door, with a constant fire of coals, and the lares (cf. P. II. $ 111) around it. The Roman houses,
as well as the Greek, seem to have had no cliinuieys, but merely an opening in the ronf to let
off the smoke ; hence the epithet /?<77io.>'<E applied to the images in the atrium ; to avoid smoke as
much as possible, the wood was carefully dried and anointed with lees of oil : yet it is said that
chimneys have been found in the ruins of ancient buildings'. Portable hearths or furnaces
(foculi), in which charcoal was burnt, were used for warming the different apartments; a sort
of stove (cainiuus), in which wood was usually burnt, was also used, larger than the furnace or
brasier, and fixed in one place. In later periods, houses were warmed by a furnace below, with
pipes passing from it to the rooms^. — The atrium was sometimes divided, in later times, into dif-
ferent parts separated by curtains.

1 Becker's Gallus, i. 102. Cf. Hor. Sat. I. v. »l.~-(^itruv. vii. 3. 2 Beckmann, Hist, of Inventions. Cf. Plin. Ep. ii. 17.—

filen. Ep. 90.

In the open court, or impluvium, was often, if not usually, a fountain. The apartments around
it, excepting the dininjg room, were usually small and ill constructed, and properly called celln.
Those designed for sleeping were termed c«ftie)//a. The tablintim was the room for the family
records or archives. The pinacotheca was the gallery for pictures. The solarium was a room on
the portico for taking the sun. — The covering or roof was protected by large tiles {.tegulce), and
was generally of an angular form ; the highest part was called fasiigium, a term also used to
designate the whole roof— Under the better class of houses w-ere very capacious cellars (cellaria),
which were specially prepared for storing various sorts of wines. — Staircases do not appear to
have been considered of much consequence; they are found in the buildings at Pompeii.

In Plate XXXII. fig. 1, is the plan of a Roman house, given in Stuart's Diet, of Architecture as
according to Vitruvius: '^ a is f]\c vestibulvm ; b, the atrium ; c, the tablinum ; d,</, the alee; e,e,
cellag familiaricje; /, cavsdium ; ^, vernal t'iclinium ; g, summer triclinium; ^, winter tricli-
nium; Hi, baths; k k k, cubiculse; w. pinacotheca; v, bibliotheca; o, peristyle; q, Cyzicene
(ECUS ; r r, courts of the offices ; s, exedra ; 1 1, gardens ; u, rooms for embroidery ; v v, sudato-

On the Roman house, cf. TVilkins, Transl. of Vitruvius, cited P. IV. § 243. 4—/. Minutolus, de Roman, domibus, in Sallengre,
cited § 197.— fr. M. Grapaldi de partibus ^diqnj liber. Farm. 1506. i.—Hirl, Geschichte der Baukunst, cited P. IV. § 243. 4 —
iSazois, Ruines de Ponipei.— Merouir, Le Palais de Scaurus, ou Description d'une Maison Romaine. Par. 1822. S.— Smith, Diet,
of Antiquities, p. 494.

7. Among the various articles of furniture mentioned are chairs (se7?<j), tables (menscB),
couches (hcli), lamps (iucerncB), &c. ; besides the numerous utensils for culinary
purposes (cf '^ 329. 3), and articles pertaining to the bathing-room and the toilet (cf.
^ 338).

Several varieties of tables are mentioned; as the cilliba, a round table with three legs ; the "
monnpodium ; the sigma or mevsa hinata, &c. (cf. $ 329. 2). — Chairs of different forms have been
discovered in the excavations at Pompeii, and other varieties are represented in the fresco paint-
ings. — Anion? the couches were those used at meals, accuhiia, or lecli tridiviares (cf $ 329. 2);
and the lecii cubicnlares or beds for sleeping; the latter had costly frames, sometimes of metal,
with feet (fulcra) sometimes of silver, bearing a matress or bed of feathers (culcita, tortis), with
rich coverings (vestes straffulce, peripelasviata, perisiromata conchyliata). — A great number of
ancient lamps have been found, particularly at Ilerculaneum and Pompeii ; of various forms and
size?., and different materials, from the most common to the most costly; many of them, espe-
cially those ill bronze, are of the most beautiful workmanship. They were wrought into the
most whimsical images and shapes; and were attached to supports of various kinds, or sus
pended from the ceilings.

Several specime^is of ancient lamps are given in our Plate XXXII. at the bottom ; in Nos. 1
and 3, they are suspended from a stand or branch (lychnurus) ; in Nos. 2 and 4, they are placed
upon a low tripod ; in No. 5, on a small erect pillar or stick (columella) called candelabrum. Fig.
d is a conch, from an Egyptian monument, showing the cushion or bed, and the pillow.

H. H. Baler, Antique Vases, Lamps, Tombs, Vrns, &c. Lond. 1836. 4. co; laining one hundred and seventy plates ensraved bj
H. Moses; with descriptions.— See also Mmitfiucon (as cited P. V. § 13), vol. v. p. 202— /-e Antichi cCErcolano, cited P. IV.
5 243. 2. one vol. of which treats particularly on this subject— The Muko Borbonico (cited P. IV. § 212), contains representation!
of very tasteful ancient chairs.

§ 326. The villas, or country seats, of the Romans were much more splendid usually
than the houses within the city. A complete establishment of this kind included seve


ral parts. 1. The villa urbana was the chief edifice, with its courts, b^ths, porticos,
and terraces, for the residence of the lord. 2. The villa rustica was the name applied
to the buildings designed to accommodate the steward (villicus), and numerous slaves
of the establishment ; and those for various kinds of live stock ; e. g. gallinarium, for
hens; aviarium, for bees ; suite, for swine, &,c. 3. The villa frucluaria was another
part, including the structures designed for storing the various products of the farm;
as wine, corn, oil, and fruits; often comprehended under villa rustica. A. The hortus
was the garden, upon which in later times great care was bestowed: being planted
with trees, shrubs, and flowers, which were often turned into fantastic shapes by
slaves called topiarii ; watered sometimes by means of pipes and aqueducts; adorned
with walks and statues. 5. There was sometimes a sort of prirk, of many acres,
chiefly designed for deer or other wild beasts, theriotrophium, in which was the fish-
pond i^piscina) and the oyster-bed {vivarium).

Many of these villas, owned by distinguished Romans, are alluded to in the classics. Cicero
had a beautiful one at Tusculum, besides several in other places further from the city (cf Mid-
dleton's Li(e of Cicero, sect. xii).—Hortensius possessed sumptuous villas at Tusculum, Bauli,
and Laurentum ; the Piscina Mirabilis, a subterraneous edifice, vaulted and divided by four rows
of arcades, under the promontory of Bauli, is supposed by some to have been the fish-pond of
this distinguished orator. (Dunlop, Hist. Rom. Lit. ii. 128.) In his Tusculan villa he had a
sinfile painting, the Argonauts, by Cijdias, for which he paid, according to Pliny (Nat. Hist. xxxv.
12), 144,000 sesterces, i.e. above $5,000. — Horace is supposed to have owned a villa at Tibur, not
BO splendid, yet affording a retreat delightful to the poet. {Anthon's Remarks in his ed. of
Horace.)— Pliny (Ep. ii. 17), has given a description of one belonging to himself at Laurentum,
of great e.Ttent and grandeur. (Stuart's Dictionary of Architecture.)— But the villa of the empe-
ror Adrian, near Tivoli, was probably the most magnificent ever erected; its buildings and
plantations covered an area, it is said, of at least six miles in circumference ; its ruins have
survived to modern time, and have furnished many of the finest remains of ancient art. (Cf.
P. IV. $$ 173, 188.— Stuart's Diet.)— Ruins, called the Villa of Liiculhis, have been discovered at
the extreme point of Pausilypus (cf P.I. $42), in ground used for vineyards, two feet below the
surface ; the buildings are said to have been found in good order. (Gent. Mag. Ap. 1842.)— The
excavations of Pompeii have brought to light a specimen of a villa just without the walls of the
place, supposed to have belonged to one Diomedes. (See a lively description of it in Johnson's
Philos. of Trav. p. 235, as cited P. IV. $ 190.)

Rob. Castell, The Villas of the Ancients illustrated. Lond. 172?. (o\.—Sulzer's Theorie, i. 305.— G. Grenius, Be Rusticatione

Romanorum, in Salleiigre, cited § 197. vol. i. On remains of Roman villas discovered ii England, .Srchsologia, (as cited P. IV.

b 243. 3), vol. viii. p. 363. vol. xviii. p. 2C3, and six. 176, with plans.

§ 327. The manner of life among the Romans undei went many changes in
the course of their history. In the early periods these were favorable to their
morals, but in later times highly injurious. Their constant prosperity exerted
its influence on their feelings, and these affected their private life and manners,
their pursuits, social character, and amusements. At first, and even down to
the first Punic war, their domestic manners were characterized by simplicity in
thought and action, and united with this there was moderation in the gratifica-
tion of the senses, which they but seldom and sparingly indulged. From their
primitive rudeness, they gradually advanced in refinement and urbanity, and
f-re long passed into an opposite extreme. The more they became acquainted
with the conveniences and pleasures of the people they conquered, especially
the Greeks and Asiatics, and the more their riches and abundance increased in
consequence of these conquests, the more prevalent became pride and luxury in
private life. In place of their former heroic virtues, their bravery and self-denial,
now appeared effeminacy, vanity, and idleness. Magnificence in buildings,
luxurious indulgence in food and liquors, fondness for dress and entertainments,
followed of course.

§ 328. It is not easy to decide what was certainly a uniform course of daily
avocations, among a people presenting a great variety in pursuits, conduct, and
manner of life. There was, however, a sort of regular routine in the succession
of daily employments among the Romans, particularly with the more respect-
able and orderly citizens.

1 u. The morning hours were appropriated to religious worship in the temples, or
their own houses. In the morning, also, persons of the lower class were accustomed
to call upon their superiors with salutations, especially clients upon their patrons.
About the third hour (cf. § 228) the business of the courts, comitia, and other assem-
blies were commenced. Between this hour and noon were the promenades for plea-
sure or conversation in the porticos, the forum, and other pubhc places. About the
sixth hour or mid-day, they had a slight repast, after which it was customary to take
a little rest or sleep. The afternoon was spent mostly in amusements and recreation,

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