Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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Thasian, among the first ; cf "S 161. Different kinds of wine were used at the same
isanquet ; and sometimes the guests were treated with different sorts according to their


rank. — 7. From th& fact that the wines were so often inspissated, it was common to
dilute them for actual use, among the Romans as well as among the Greeks; for this
purpose warm or hot water seems to have been frequently used. The mixture was
made in a large vase called crater. From this it was poured or conveyed by a ladle
{cyathus) into cups (pocula), of which there were almost countless varieties.

Some of the names employed to desigjiate varieties of the driiikine-cup were the following;, phialw, scjjphi, cyvibia, batiol(P. They were made of wood (fagina pocula), or of earth
(fictilia); of glass (vitrea), and of amber (succina); also of bronze, silver, and gold, with various
ornaments (toreiimata,vasa sculptn) ; of gems or precious stones, and of the subsiance called
murrhii (cf P. IV. $ 195. 4). The specimens of these articles still remajning show great skill in

In our Plate XXXV. are seen a number of the vessels connected with the ancient use of wine.
Fig. a is a jar tilled with grapes, copied from paintings on the walls of an edifice found at Pom-
peii and called the Pantheon.— Fig. 6 is drawn from an Egyptian monument; and shows a mode
of obtaining the juice by treading on the grapes collected in a vat.— Fig. 2 is copied from the
painting mentioned above as found at Pompeii; it shows a mode of carrying wine about for
sale; a slave is filling an amphora fro.nn the leathern vessel in the carriage, and another slave
holds a second amphora to be filled. — Fiss. h, c, and d, are wine-vessels, from Egyptian monu-
ments ; c very exactly resembling the Roman amphora ; and b, a form still in actual use in
Esypt for water.— Figs, e,/, o-, i, represent glass vessels found at Pompeii ; /; is probably a drink-
ing-cup.— Figs, n and o are also drinking-vessels ; n is the drinking-horn, Kcpag, /jvtov ; several
specimens have been found at Pompeii ; o may illustrate the Greek crater ; cf. Boyd's Potter,
p. 699. — Fis. T shows two elegant ^lass cups which seem to have been cut, or else cast in a mold.
— Fig. 5 pre.sents, in the hand of the Bacchanal, a cup of another form, probably the calii, KvXt^;
wiiie-vessels also appear on the small table.which stands by the splendid cuuch on which he
reclines with a garland on his head and the thyrsus in the other hand ; a monument from Pom-
peii.— Fig 3 is a' vessel of form like one of those seen on the table of the Bacchanal, given on a
larger scale, and showing its ornaments; it represents the patera, often used in libations.

Cf. Povmall, OQ a Roman " drinking-cup wrought of solid crystal," Archxolcgia, cited P. rv. \ 32. 5. vol. vii. p. ISO. On the

topics of the above section, Henderscni's Histon- of Wines, cited § 161.— £. Barry, On the Wines of the Ancients. Lond. 1775. 4.—
Jl. Tumebtis, De Vino ac ejus Usu et Abusu, in Gronovius, vol. ix. — ji. Saccius, De Conviviis Veterum, iu Gronovius, vol. ix. —
Pliny, Hist. Nat. xiv.—ColurntUa, xW.—B. Parsons, Anti-Bacchus; an Essay on Intoxicating Drinks! Repr. K. York, 1810 12.
p. I99ss.— iJ. B. Grindrod. Bacchus; an Essay on Intemperance. Repr. N. York, 1840. 12. p. 192,245. The last Ivfo "works
valuable as advocating perftct temperance."

§ 332. The fashion of dress among the Romans underwent changes in differ-
ent periods, but less in respect to form than the quality and expensiveness of
the materials, and the ornaments. — The most general and peculiar garment of
the Romans was the toga, a national characteristic, whence the Romans were
termed Gens fogata, and Togati, while the Greeks were termed Palliali. It w-as
a loose robe or sort of cloak, extending from the neck to the feet, close below up
to the breast, but open above the breast, and without sleeves. It was therefore
not put on, properly speaking, but thrown over the body. It was commonly of
wool, and white in color; black, toga pulla, being used only on funeral occa-
sions. The toga worn in the house was less loose and ample {ioga reslrida) \
that used in going out, commonly larger and flowing with many folds {fusa).

1. Some of the priests and magistrates wore it bordered with purple (toga prcetexta) ;
this was also worn by freeborn youth, who, at the age of seventeen, exchanged it for
the toga virilis or (because generally white) pura, which was assumed in a very formal
manner before the Praetor, in the Forum. — The trabea is described as a toga orna-
mented with purple horizontal stripes ; that worn by the augurs (cf ^ 209) is said to
have been of purple and saffron color. — The angular extremities of the toga were
termed lacinicB.

2. A statue of one Marcus Tullius, by some supposed to be a descendant of the great Cicero,
was found at Pompeii; "he is represented clothed in a toga pratexta, the robe of otfice of the
Roman magistrates; and, which adds value and singularity to the statue, this robe is entirely
painted with a deep purple violet color. This seems to give reason for believing that the prae-
texta, instead of being a garment with only a purple hem, as it is usually e.xplained, was entirely
dyed with this precious color; at least in the later times of the republic. The price of this pur-
pie was enormous; the violet, though the less costly sort, is said by Pliny to have been worth
one hundred denarii (about £3, 4s. ~d.) the pound; the red is valued by the same authority at
one thousand denarii. It was obtained from the murex, a shell-fish found in various parts of the
Mediterranean." Pompeii, p. 205.

On the age for assuming the toga, cf Dodwell, de aetate tog. vir. sumenda;, in his PrsUct. Acad, (cited P. V. § 542. 7.) p. 245.— Oo
the color of the toga, Amtilhon, sur la teinture des anciens, as cited § 26S. 4. (e).

§ 333. The garment which the Romans wore under the robe, was the tunic
{tunica). It was worn close to the body, without sleeves, and extending almost
to the knees. It was entirely open, and fastened by means of a girdle above the
hips. It was commonly, like the toga, white. In later times the tunic was
worn with sleeves. — With slaves and the poorer classes of citizens generally,
this was the only clothing, except the linen under-garment or shirt {indusium
subucula) which had small sleeves. The higher classes never appeared abroac


without the addition of the toga. In winter the latter often wore another gar-
ment under it, called tunica interior or interula.

1 u. Senators and their sons wore a tunic bordered in front on the right side with a
stripe of purple, called davits ; knights {eqiii'es) had two such stripes, but narrower;
whence the tunic of the senators was called laliclavia, that of the knights angusti-

1. The emperors exercised the prerogative of bestowing the distinction of the latidave upon
such persons as they considered worthy of the honor. Cf. Pliny, Ep. ii. 9.

§ 334 /. The women used the tunic, with a girdle, as well as the men; only
that of the women reached down to the feet. They wore also an over-gannent
extending to the feet, called stola, having a broad border or fringe {limhus) called
instita. Some consider the pall a to be a robe worn over the stola ; others think
them both the same garment. The women sometimes wore a fine robe of a cir-
cular form called cyclas. The mourning robe of women was called ricinium or
rica, covering the head and shoulders. The amiculum was a short mantle, or
vail, worn by the women.

" A female statue, of the size of life, was found within the cellar of the temple of
Fortune at Pompeii, clothed in a tunic falling to her feet and above it a toga. The
border of the former is gilt ; the latter is edged with a red purple bandeau, an inch and
a quarter wide ; the right arm is pressed upon the bosom, with the hand elevated to
the chin, while the left hand holds up the toga."

§ 335. There were other kinds of outer garm.ents more or less in use. The
fena was a thick woolen over-coat, used in journeying; this name was also
given to the purple robe of the Flamines (cf. § 214), which was fastened about
the neck with a buckle or clasp. The paludamenium, or chlamys, was a long
Grecian cloak of scarlet color bordered with purple, used specially by generals
and high military officers. The sagum was a soldier's cloak of red color, cover-
ing only the back and shoulders, fastened by a clasp. The lacerna was a kind
of rain cloak, very broad, and usually with a hood or covering for the head
(cucullus, capifiunt). The pceimla was a robe similar to the toga, and more
frequently used under the emperors.

I'he materials of which the Roman garments were made, were chiefly linen and
woolen. Silk was unknown to them until the close of the republic. The Romans
seem to have remained ignorant how silk was produced, for a long time after the article
'■'as introduced them by importation from the country of the .Sere^. Nor did
they at first use it without intermixing hnen or woolen in texture with it; for which
purpose even the silk stuffs, which were brought from the east in a woven state, were
unraveled ; cloth of this mixed texture is said to have been first fabricated in the island
of Cos. The Cotm vestments {vesles Cocs) appear to have been of a very loose texture^
almost like muslin or gauze ; hence called ventus textilus, woven wind. The Seric
vestments (vestes Sericce) are supposed to mean such as consisted of pure silk. The
term boinhyci?ia was sometimes applied to both, although it seems to have been consi-
dered as more appropriate for the Coan article; as that was at length known to come
from a worm {i36fi0ol, homhyx), while the Seric was siill imagined to be gathered from
the leaves oi Xrea?, {Virg. Georg. ii. 121). Silk was considered as proper chiefly for
the garments of females. In the reign of Tiberius the senate {Tacit. Ann. ii. 33) is
said to have decreed (A. D. 16) that men should not disgrace themselves by wearing
silk apparel {vestis serica). The emperor Heliogabulus (slain A. D. 222) is severely
condemned as being the first who wore a robe of pure silk.

Cf. Article Seres, in Anthon's Lempriere, and Sericum, in Smith's Diet, of Antiquities. On the Roman costume, see 0. Ferra-

rius, De Re Vesliaria, in Grsvius, vol. \\.— Becker. Callus, vol. \i.— Maillot and Martin, cited § \^1 —Jlmeilhon, L'usa»e des Soie
Chez les anciens, in the Mem. Acad. Jnscr. vol. ilvi. p. ioi.— Gibbon, Rom. Emp. ch. x^.—Mahudel, Origir.e de le Soie. in the

Mem. SfC vol. V. p. 218.—/. R. Foster, De Bysso Antiquorum. Lond. 1776 8. For some illustrations, see Plate XXV. ; cf. § 169

for explanations.

§ 336. The Romans usually went with the head uncovered, or drew over it a
part of the toga; except at sacred rites and festivals, on journeys, and in war.
At the festival of the Saturnalia, particularly, they wore a sort of bonnet or
woolen cap (jo/'/eus), which, however, was allowed only to the free by birth or
manumission, but forbidden to slaves. The petasus was a sort of broad-brirnmed
hat', used in journeying. — There were various coverings for the feet. The cal-
cei were somewhat like our shoes, and covered the whole foot, and often with
their lacings {corrigia, ligula) covered the ankles and the lower part of the leg.
Shoes of strong untanned leather were termed perones. The caligx were a kind


of half-boot, worn by soldiers. The soless and crepidx were sandals, covering
only the bottom of the feet, and were fastened by leather thongs and bands {vin-
culo) passing above.

The shoe of senators came up to the middle of the leg, and had on the top of the foot
a golden or silver crescent, or letter C (hence lunata pellif^, patricia lujia). 1'he shoes
of the men were usually black ; those of women commonly white, sometimes of a red,
yellow, or other color. The mullei were of a reddish dye ; worn first by the kings, afier-
wards by those who had borne any curule office. Sometimes the Romans used socks
made of wool or goat's hair, udones. The thighs and legs were sometimes bound around
with a sort of scarfs (fascia), which were all in the Roman dress that corresponded to
modern pantaloons or breeches {fimoralia) and stockings {tibialia). — The shoes of
comedians were termed socci ; those of tragedians, cothurni (cf. § 69); those ol panto-
mimes, or the rattling appendages to them, scahella. The soccus was a mere slipper,
very frequently of yellow color ; the crepida seems to have been nearly the same ; the
haxa was a sandal made of vegetable leaves or twigs ; and the haxa and crepida were
used by comedians as well as the soccus. ^

1 The liead-covering termed petams, is seen in our Plate XXIV. fig. 3. 3 See P. V. %§ 317-319.— D. V.iulnayt, as cited P. V.

§319. I. Various forms of coverings for the feet and legs are given in Plate XXIV. ; see the explanation, § 169. 2.

§ 337. The hair, both of the head and beard, was allowed by the more ancient
Romans to grow freely, and was but seldom cut. In the fifth century after the
building of the city, it first became a common custom to cut the hair more fre-
quently, and also to frizzle and anoint it. Young persons were accustomed to
draw the hair backwards and bind it together in a knot, for a sort of ornament.

1 u. When the toga virilis was assumed (cf § 332), the hair of the youth was shorn
and a part of it cast into the fire in honor of Apollo, and a part of it into the water in
honor of Neptune. It was also customary, on ihe first shaving of the beard, to conse-
crate it to some deity. Under the emperors false hair were used, by a contrivance like
a peruke {capillamoitum, galericulum).

2. Among the ornaments of the youth was the liilla, a sort of ball, which
from the neck on the breast. The boys, who were sons of citizens of the highei
ranks, wore one of gold (bulla aurea) ; it was usually a hollow sphere ; but other forms,
and particularly the image of a heart, were introduced. I'he sons of Ireedmen anc
poorer citizens used only a leathern ball {hiiUa scortta). This ornament was laid aside
when the toga virilis was assumed (cf. § 332), on which occasion the luUa was conse-
crated to the lares or other divinities.

Fig. 1, of our Plate XXV. is an altar-shaped box, worn by loose women of the Hindoo temples
upon tlieir necks ; richly ornamented with jewels. Boxes like this, or hags, seem to have been
formerly worn on the neck to contain perfumes. Cf. Isa. iii. 20 (the tablets), and Sol. Sovg, i. 13
— The figure may serve to illustrate the Roman bnlla, as hung from the neck.

See Mmitjaucon, Antiq Expl. as cited § 13. vol. v. p. G'i.—Baudelot, BuUe que les enfants Rom. portoient au cou, in the Mem.
Jlcad. Inscr. vol. iii. p. 211.

§ 338. Still greater care was bestowed by the women upon the dress of their
hair, which they frizzled, plaited in locks and curls, and adorned with golden
chains, with pearls, rings, and ribins. The most modest fashion was the use
of a broad ribin or fillet {vitta), by which they gathered and bound the hair in a
bunch or knot. Besides the ointments by which they made their hair more
glossy, it became fashionable in later times to color it, and even to scatter gold
dust upon it.

1. The Roman women often used paint (fucics) to improve the color of the face as
well as the hair; both white (cerussa or creta) and red (minium). Various ointments
(ungiienta), cosmetics, and washes (medicamina, smegmata), were likewise used for a
similar purpose. Effeminate men did the same. Of the various cosmetics we mention
the following : amuracinum, iasminum, nardinum, cesipum, metopium, rosaceum,

The mirrors {specula) used at the toilet were made of polished metal, commonly brass or steel,
also of silver ; sometimes of glass iPlin. Hist. Nat. xxxvi. 26, SB). Cf. Menard, cited $ 169. 6; cl
also $ 268. 4.

Among the personal ornaments of the Roman ladies were ear-rings, necklaces, and
finger-rings. The ear-rings (inaiires) were of gold, pearls, and gems, sometimes of
immense value. Necklaces (monilia) were often of gold set with gems; several
splendid gold necklaces found in Etruscan tombs are now in the British Museum.
The men also used an ornament for the neck, which was a sort of twisted chain
{torques), or a circular plate (circulus auri). Finger-rings (annuli) were of various
forms and devices, commonly set with engraved gems (cf P. IV. ^^ 205, 206), and
used not merely for ornaments, but for seahng papers, caskets, and even large packages
or vessels ; hence perhaps they obtained the name of symhola. The ring was a very
common ornament among the men ; originally only senators and equites (cf ^ 256. 2) were


allowed to wear gold rings ; plebeians could wear only iron rings except by special
allowance ; those who triumphed also wore an iron ring {ferreus shie gemma). — Jewels
and other female ornaments were kept in a casket [pyxis, ox pyxidula) made of gold,
tortoise-shell, ivory, or other precious material.

2. Specimens of most of these ornaments have been found at Pompeii. A gold ring, with an
engraved gem set in it, was found near a temple, in a box along with forty-one silver coins and
above one thousand of brass. In several of the houses were found skeletons with rings, brace-
Ipts (armillip), necklaces, and other ornaments. Of these specimens we only mention further an
e;ir-ring of gold, which had two pearl pendants ; and a breast-pin, to which was attached a Bac- figure, with a patera in one hand and a glass in the other, having bat's wings joined
to his shoulders, and two belts of grapes passing across his body. This curious breast-pin is
given in our Plate XLVII. fig. i. — In the same Plate, figs. o. and h, and r, are ear-pendants, from
Montfaucon. Fig. 4 shows the ring which was passed through the ear. — Fig. ^ is a pendant with
a pin to attach it to a bandeau or some part of the bead-dreJs.— This Plate also shows a variety
of rings : cf P. IV. $ 206.— The torques is seen in fig. 1, of Plate XLIV., cf. P. IV. $ 186. 9; and
the mnnile or necklace, probably, in fig. 5, Plate XXXV.— A mirror, with a box of pins, &c. upon
a toilet-table, is seen in Plate XXV. figs. 3 and 4. Fig. 2 is a metallic purse for coins and jewels,
from an Egyptian monument. This plate also shows various forms of the head-dress.

Cf. R. A B ttiger, Sr>.bina, oder Morgenscenen im Putzzimmtr einer reichen RomeriLn. Leipz. 1806. 2 Ih. S.—Kadal. Luxe des

dames Ro.iiaiaes, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. iv. p. 227. — Becker, Gallus. On rings and their use, /. Kirchmann, De Annulis.

Lug. Bat. 1672. 12. — P. Eurmann, De Jure Annulorum. Ultraj. 1734. — C. Bariholinui, De luauribus Veterum. Amst. 1676. 12,

3. The following passage, from a letter by a traveler visiting Naples and Pompeii, may be
pertinent here. " What is admirable to us, barbarians of the nineteenth century, is the exiiuisite
delicacy of shape of all the utensils which served in Roman domestic life. One must see those
candelebras, lamps, vases of all sizes, those charming little bronze calefactors (for every thing
was of bronze), those tripods, scales, beds, chairs, those graceful and so ingeniously wrought
shields, which fill up whole rooms at the Naples Museum. One must, above all, see tiie toilet
arsenal of the Roman ladies, their combs, toothpicks, curling-irons, and the pols of veg-^table and
mineral rouge found in a boudoir. Thus the Roman ladies used rouge and deceived people;
they wore, like our ladies, those necklaces, rings, and ridiculous ear-rings, which add nothing
to beauty and diminish not ugliness. How times resemble one another, in spite of the space thai
separates them '."

§ 339. It remains yet to mention some of the more remarkable features in the
funeral customs of the Romans. The dying received from their relatives and
friends present the last tokens of love by embraces and kisses. As soon as they
were dead, the nearest relatives closed their eyes and mouth, and drew the rings
from their fingers. The corpse was then washed in hot water, and anointed by
the .slaves (pollinctores) of the person taking charge of funerals {libilijiarius).
It \^as then covered with clothing suitable to the rank of the deceased, which,
like that of the mourners, sometimes (cf. § 340. 4) was white. Such as had
been distinguished by a victory were adorned with a crown of palm leaf. The
corpse was then brought into the vestibulum of the house, placed on a bier, and
there left for some days. This exposure was termed cullncalio. and the couch
or bier, lectusfera/is. During the time of this exposure, there were frequent and
loud outcries {condamatio), accompanied by the strongest expressions of grief
and sorrow. A branch of cypress or pine was usually fixed before the door of-
the house. — Children and youth of both sexes were interred by night, with
lighted torches, without attendants; but adults, on the other hand, by day, and
with more or less ceremony according to their rank.

Claude de Guichard, On the Funerals of the Ancients. Rom. 1600. 4. — J. Kirchmann, De Funeribus Romanorum (Libri iv.
Lub. 1672. 12.

§ 340. Among the Romans, both interring and burning were practiced from
the earliest times. The ceremonies connected with the funeral (^elatio, exequiae.)
were the following, chiefly. The funeral of a distinguished person was pre-
viously announced in the city by a herald, and therefore called /u7ius indictivuniy
and, if the expenses were defrayed by the chy, funus publicum. In the proces-
sion, the musicians {cornicines, tibicines) and women hired as mourners (^prsejicae)
advanced first, uttering lamentations and singing the funeral songs {lessus, menise,
cf. P. V. § 333 h) ; then came those who bore the images of the ancestors ; next
the relatives, all in black, with other indications of grief; then followed playor?,
mimics, and dancers {ludii, histriones), one of them {archimimus) imitating the
words and actions of the deceased, and others quoting pertinent passages f'om
dramatic writings; after them followed the corpse, carried by bearers; Aud
lastly, a train, frequently very numerous, of both sexes.

1 u. The corpse was borne in a couch (Lectica) on the shoulders, usually by the fr-saJ-
men of the deceased, but often, in case of high rank, by senators and the most Ji:'-
linguishea citizens. In the case of the poorer and lower classes, the corpse was b >rne
ou a small bier isandopila), by ordinary coffin-bearers (ve.<ipillo?ies , sandapilarii).


j]o|J^|o| loMoLiJ lllMol iOIIOin, '~n:'MfTf rTo'




The rich and noble amon? the Greeks and Romans were exposed, and carried to their burial,
on elegant and costly couches, sometimes made of ivory, and gilded with gold; designated by
the name of ftretrum or capuhuv. That of Herod is said m have been all of gold, and inlaid with
precious stones. In our Plate XVIII. fig. e, we have a funeral couch, which will illustrate these
remarks ; it is given by Roberts as used now in India. The Jews seem to have used sometimes
for a bier the aopoi or coffin (cf Lnke vii. 14); yet the Septuagint has the word K\ivrj, or couch,
for the bier of Abner (cf. 2 Sam. iii. 31).

2 u. The procession, when formally conducted, passed through the forum, where,
if the deceased had been a person of distinction, the body was laid before the place
of harangue {rostra}, and a eulogy (laudatio) was delivered by some relative or friend,
or a magistrate, sometimes by appointment of the senate.

One is struck with the difference between Roman and Egyptian customs. The Egyptians
brought the deceased to a trial, instead of a eulogy. Cf P. II. $ 34. 3.

3, Women were sometimes honored with the funeral eulogy as well as men. Foi
exatnple, Junia, the sister of Brutus and widow of Cassius, received the honor of a
public funeral and a panegyric spoken from the rostrum. The images of not less than
twenty illustrious families were seen in the procession; viginti clarissimarum familia-
rum imagiiies ant el a I cb sunt. {Tac. Ann. iii. 76.) — The images of ancestors, which
were thus used at funerals, were the busts which the higher class of Romans kept in
their halls (cf. P. IV. § 164).

In j?7Jf/ion's Horace, in a note on Sat. i. vi. 17, is the following remark : " One particular rela-
tive to the mode in which these images were exhibited, deserves attention. They were not car-

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