Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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Medic-il Arts. Lond. 1818. S.—Le Clerc, Histoire de la Medecine. Amst. 1723. 4.-7'. Mason Good, History of Medicine
Lood. 1795. l2.—lVm. Hamilton, History of Medicine, Surgery, and Anatomy. Lond. 1831. 2 vols. 12.

§ 24. Of mathematical sciences, arithmetic seems to have been the most
ancient. It probably consisted at first only of a few simple operations, of which
no theory had been formed. The first organization of civil society and division
of propertj' required the use of numbers, weight, and measure. The practical
part of this science therefore unquestionably must be very ancient, and probably
existed first among the Egyptians and Phoenicians, whose commerce and navi-
gation rendered its assistance indispensable. This must have been the case
also with the Babylonians, on account of their early attention to astronomy and
chronology. Pebbles, seeds of grain, and the like were used as the first helps
in enumeration; but ere long certain written characters were employed as indi-
cative of numbers ; of which there are various traces upon the earliest Egyptian

See Montuda, Histoire des Mathematiques.— C/u Bossiii, Histoire des Mathematiques. Par. 1810. 2 vols. 8. Translated by
Bonnycaslle. Lond. 1803. 8.— J. M. Poppe, Geschichte der Mathematik. TQbing. 1828. 8.

§ 25. The origin of astronomy likewise belongs to the earliest periods, since
some of its truths are necessary for the dividing and reckoning of time, and not
only in the management of navigation, but also in the orderly arrangement of
civil business, and in all the labors of agriculture. The Egyptians, and the
Babylonians and Chaldeans especially, were allured to the study of the heavens
by the mildness of their climate and the extent and openness of their horizon.
The early origin of astrology, which was so prevalent among the Chaldeans,
is full proof of their early observation of the stars. And the most ancient civil
histories show, that the idea of the constellations, and even the discovery of
the planets was a very early attainment of man.

See Weto, Untersuchung Qber d. Ursp. und. d. Bedeut. d. Sternnamen. Berl. 1809. 8. — / 5. £ai72^, Histoire de I'Astronomie
ancienne. Par. 1781. 4 — Delambre, Histoire de I'Astronomie. Par. 1817. 2 vols. 4,—Cassini, on the origin of Astronomy, in the
Mem. de VActuL des Sciences, vol. viii.— History of Astronomy, m the Library of Usejul Knowledge.

§ 26. Geometry^ in its practice, is very old, but was originally limited to a
few elementary principles and manual operations. It was at first probably con-
fined to longimetry, or the measuring of lengths and straight lines, which would
be indispensable in the rudest attempts at building. Flanimetry., or the mea-
suring of surfaces, was more ditficult, and required for its discovery a greater
degree of improvement and attention. The first occasion for it seems to have
been the division of lands. Stereometry, or the science of measuring solid
bodies, was probably last in the order of discovery, although the invention of
the balance, early in use, presupposes it. In these branches of science, the
Egyptians, Babylonians, and Phoenicians also led the way. Several mechani-
cal instruments must undoubtedly be referred to a ver}'^ high antiquity, as for
instance, the balance, the lever, and also the sledge and the wheel carriage.

§ 27. The origin of geography must be ascribed to the necessity, which
would soon be felt, of determining the situations and distance of countries
already known and inhabited. The use of certain marks or memorials for
recognizing places visited and left, the tracing of journeys from one spot to
another, and the establishing of public routes, all conduced to a development
of this branch of knowledge. Of its existence to some extent, there is proof
both in the conquests, and in the travels by sea and by land, which took place
in the earliest times. It was hovi-ever then, as in fact it was in the later and
more enlightened periods of antiquity, exceedingly limited and defective.
Neither the historical and statistical, nor the physical and mathematical parts
(if this science were so regularly and carefully cultivated as were other sciences.

/. Blair, History of Geognphy. Lond. 1784 12.—/. R. Joly, Ancienne Geographie, comp. a la nioderne. Par 1801. 2 vols. 8.
■ IV I'iftcenl, Commerce and ^'avigation of the Ancients in the Indian Qrean. Lond. 1807. 2 vols. 4.— C. Hawkins, Obieisa.


fions on the Tin Trade of tjie Ancients. Lond. 181 1. ?.—M'Phnson^s Annals of Commerce. Lond. 1805. 4 vols. 4 — /. P. Geo-
tdin, Recherches sur la Geographic Systematique e! positive dcs anciens, pourservir de base a I'histoire de la Geographie Ancienne.
Par. I7&4. 4 vols. 4 — Also, Recherches sur la Geographie Ancienue, in the A/em. de lliislilut RoyaX Classe (f Hist, tt Lit.
Sncimnt, vol. i. p. 41.— Especially, M. C. Sprengel, GeschicLte der wichtigslen geographischen Entdeckungen. Halle, 17b2.
2d e-l.

§ 28. It appears from the foregoing remarks, that the first seat, and, as it
were, the cradle, of the sciences was in Asia and Egypt. The cause is to be
found in the numerous population of the countries, and the early organization
of their civil state, so that the primary wants of life were easily supplied, and
the human mind enjoyed freedom and leisure for improvement. These coun-
tries also were not disturbed by tumult and war; Egypt particularly enjoyed a
long period of happy tranquillity. The intercourse of the Phcenicians with
other people, by means of their commerce and navigation, was peculiarly favor-
able to their advancement in knowledge. In general, however, the progress
in the arts and sciences was far less rapid in the first ages, than afterw-ards.
The proper helps were comparatively few, and there was especially wanting
the means of an easy and ready intercommunication of knowledge, until the
invention of alphabetic writing furnished one so appropriate and so°useful.

II. — The importance and usefulness rf a knowledge of classical literature and art.

§ 29. From Asia and Egypt the arts and sciences were introduced into
Greece. Here they attained that culture and perfection, which renders ancient
history and literature so agreeable and so valuable a branch of modern know-
ledge. Through the Greeks, the Romans afterwards came into possession of
the same treasure. These two nations preeminently distinguished themselves
by their merits and accomplishments in literature and the fine arts. Hence it
is that there is so much in what pertains to Greece and Rome that is worthy
of our admiration and study.

Much has been written both for and against classical studies. The various argu-
ments cannot be presented here. Bat some references ought to be given.

1. Shortly after the revival of letters the famous question respecting the comparative
merits of the ancients and moderns began to be agitated. The earliest writers were
Italians. In France the controversy began in 1687, and advocates were found for both
sides. In England the discussion commenced shortly after the formation of the Royal
Society, and soon called forth eminent writers. In Germany the subject has not been
much canvassed, except as involved in the controversy of the Humanists and Phi-

The following references pertain to the controversy.— In Italy; A. Tas?oni, Pensieri diversi. Carp. 1620. 4. (lOlh B.)—
S. Lnnctlolto, L'og;idi, ovvero gl'ingegni nioderni non inferior! a'passati. Ven. 1653. S.—P. Beni, Comparazione di Tasso
con Honiero, &c. Pad. 1612. 4.— In F ranee; CA. .''efTaidf, Le Sitcle de Louis le Grand. I6S7. By Same, Parallele des Anc
etModernes. Par. 16S8.—io7i£repieTre, Disc, sur les Anciens. Par. 16S7. 12.— /". 2J. /fuef, Lettre sur le merite des Anc. et Mod.
(in his Pieces fug. d'Hist. et de Lilt. Par. 1702. 12.)- BoiVeau, Rtrflei. Crit. in his Trans, of Longinus. Par. 1694. \2.—Tourneil,
Disc, de la fameuse Quest, sur le Mer. des Anc. et des Mod. (in bis Works. Par. 1721. i.)—La Motte, Disc sur Homere, (in bis
Works. Par. 1734. \2.)—Gedoyn, Comp. merits of ancients and moderns, in the Mem. Acad. Iiucr. xii. SO.— JUarf. Dacier, Das
causes de la corrupt, du gout. Par. 1714. 12.— In England; Sir Win. Temple, Essay upon the ancient and modern learning, —
m his Miscellanies. Lond. 1696. 9.—Wm. IVotton, Reflect, on anc. and mod. Learning. Lond. 1705. 8.— Swift, Battle between
ancient and modern Books, in his IVorks. N. York, 1812. 24 vols. 12. (3d vol. p. 200.)— Addiscm, Disc, upon anc. and mod. Learn-
ing. Lond. 1739. 4.— See also/. OenniJ, Advancement and Reformation of mod. poetry. Lond. 1701. 8.— In Germany; Holler,
Quantum Antiqui eruditione et industria antecellant Modernos. Bern- 1734. 4. — /. B. Carpzow, De antiq. et recent, doctrinae
compar. Helmst. I74S. 4.—G. E. GroddecK, Ueb. d. Vergleich d. alien, besond. d. griech. mit der deutschen und neuem schfinen
Lit. &c. Berl. 17SS. 8.

2. Liberal learning was designated among the Romans by the term humanitas.
Hence, on the revival of letters, the study of classical literature was very naturally
called studium humanitatis. In Germany the lovers and advocates of the ancient
classics received the name o? Humanists {Humanisten) ; and their views on this subject
were followed in the general system of education, until the middle of the last century.
After that period, different views were advocated by a class of reformers in education,
who obtained the name of Philanthropists; several of whom estabhshed schools on
their peculiar principles and called them Philanthropina. Basedow, the leader of the
Philanthropists, opened his school at Dessau in 1774. Salzniann opened another at
Sclinepfenthal in 1784. Classical studies were nearly excluded from their system. In
other respects also they proposed to amend the former modes of histruction.

The vieusof the Philanthropists are presented and advocated in the following vporks; Sojedoio'j ElementamerK. 1774
Compe'j Revisionswerk. Hamburg, 1785 ss. 16 vols. 8. (a sort of periodical.)- rrayp'j PaeJagogik, 1780, and Ueber den L'nter


richt HI Sprachen. Bninsw. 17SS. S.— Cf. J. IVtiizd, Was soil man lernen ? OJer Zueck desUnterrichts. Lpz 1S28. 12. i in European schools too much liir.e is devoted to Latin and Gieck. T he views of the Humanists in the followins"

/'u)iA, Ueher den Nutzen richlis; gelnebener Pliiloiogie. 17»4.— A'cirAa/n?n£r, Streit des Philauthropismus und des Hunianismus.
Jena, 1S08. S.— For a fuller notice on this subject, Schwartz's Erziehungs-Lehre, vol.2d.— Cf. American Journal of Eduaition,
Kew Series, vol. i. No. 6.

3. 'J'he utility of classical studies has been strongly controverted in this country.
But the general conviction is settling firmly in their lavor. The Greek and Latin
classics are now considered as indispensable in a good education, more generally than
before the public discussions of the question.

The following are some of the many pieces relating to this topic T. Grimhe, Address before Lit. and Phil. Sec. of S. Carolina.
Charleston, \S21. —Runiford (signature of unknown writer^ in the Bnston Centinel, 1S25, or 6.— Pax (signature of an anonymous
vriter), on the Course of Study in the Oneida Institute, A'. F, Ohterver, vol. xii. 1834.— Sifc Riptsitmy, Oct. 1832.— .imer. Jour
of Science, vol. xv. p. 297.— Chris. Spec. 1826, p. 456.— Af. Stuart, in Quar. Journal Amtr. Ed. Soc. July, 1828.— iJ. B. Patton,
in the £:b. Repository, No. xxv. Jan. 1837. p. 46.—/. Packard, in Bib. Repository. No. ixix. Jan. 1839, p. 28.— £. D Sanborn,
in Bib. Repository, }\i]y, 1S41, p. 56.— .4m«ric. Eclectic, vol. i. p. 428.— See also Bcechtr's Plea for Colleges. 1836. 18.— For an
(ccount of classical learning in this country in the last century, see Millar, Retrospect of the Eighteenth Century. New York,
1803. 2 vols. 8. Cf. Classical Studies, cited P. V. § 6. 4.

4. Respecting the peculiar excellence and spirit of the ancient classics, we refer to
the following.

Mbe Dubus, Reflections critiques sur la Poesie et la Peinture. Tranrf. by A't/fcnf. Lond. 1743. 3 vols. 8. Dugald Stewart
pronounces this " one of the most agreeable and instructive works that can be put into the hands of youth." — A. Blackwall, Intro-
duction to the classics. Lond. 1727. 8 ; publ. also in Latin under the title, De Prxstantia Class. Auct. Lips. 1735. 8.— G Man-
waring, On the Classicks. Lond. 1737. 8.-0. F. Gcllert, sammil. Schriften. Th. 5th.— Z). Jetiisch, Geist der Alien. Berl. 17&9.
?.— We may add also, on the utility of classical learning,— Qrejon/'j Letters. Phil. 1809 —Fie. Knox, Liberal Education, or Pract
Treatise on the methods of acquiring useful and polite learning. l.ond. 1789. 2 vols. 8. (in the Introduction.)- D. G. HuUer,
Werih der class. Schriftsleller in Rucksicht auf Bildung des Geistes, &c. Bresl. 1800. ».—Bitaube, Sur I'etude des anciens, Mem,
de VInstitut, C 1 a s s e de Lit. et Beaux Arts, vo. i. p. 259.— .Fu/irman?i, SI. Handbuch, p. 5-9, as cited P. V. § 7. 9.

§ 30. In what we term the Archseohgy of Literature and Jirt, among the
Greeks and Romans, it is not designed to enter into very minute details. The
object will be to give a correct general view of the subject, presenting the most
important circumstances of the origin and progress of refinement in these na-
tions, and enabling the reader to form a just idea of the actual state of letters
and arts among them, as well as of the monuments which they have left to
posterity. This object cannot be accomplished fully, if the history of know
led^e and art is wholly separated from what may be called their antiquities.

§31. The utility of such archaeological information cannot be questioned.
It furnishes us with the best illustrations of many passages and allusions in
the Greek and Roman authors. It helps us to understand the peculiar excel-
lences and beauties of their writings and those also of the works of art. It
puts us in a situation to foriTi more correct opinions on these and kindred topics.
In short, it serves in respect to our own literary taste, not only to secure to it a
solid basis, but to impart refinement and delicacy.

§32?i. The following works may be consulted for further details on the subjects
presented in this introduction, and hkewise on some of the topics of the subsequent
archaeological sketches.

1. On the origin and progress of civilization and knowledge; Ant. Y. Goguct. De I'Origine des Loii, des Arts et des Sciences chei
les anciens Peuples. Par. 1758. 3 vols. 4. 6me ed. corr. Par. 1S20. 3 vols. 8. Eng. Trausl. Edinb. 1775, 3 vols. 8.— ScAiiicr 'j Thalia,
vol. 9, p 3, ss.—Adelung, Versuch einer Geschichte der Cultur des menschlichen Geschlechls. Lpz. 1800. S.—Chrisloph. Meinert,
Gesrhichte des Ursprungs, Fortgangs und Verfalls der Wissenschaften in Griechenland nnd Rom. Lemgo, 1781, 2 vols. 8. Not
finished.— By Same, Grundriss der Geschichte der Menschheit. Lemgo, I7S6. 8. " Not Critical."— i. Duteris, Recherches sur
I'origine de decouvertes attribues aux .Modemes, &c. Par. l~66.—Bailly, Lettres sur I'Origine des Sciences. Par. 1777. 8.—
/r«'i7ig, Versuche Uber den I'rsprung der Erkenntmss d. Wahrheit u. d Wissenschaften. Berl. 1781. S.—Virey, Hist. Natnr. do
Genre Humain. Bruxelles, 1827. 3 vols. 12.— flin, L'Histoirede I'Esprit Humaindans I'Antiquite. Par. 1S29 2 vols. 8.— Cramer,
Geschichte der Erziehung und des Unterrichts im Alterthume. 1836. 2 vols. 8.— C. Rollin, History of the Arts and Sciences of the
Ancients, in his Aruxent History, New York, 1835. 2 vols. %.—Beckmann, History of Inventions and Discoveries. Lond. 1S14.
4 vols. 8.

2. On language and writing; Herm. Hug-o, De prima scribendi origine ; cui notas adj. Trotziut. Traj. ad Rh. 1738. 8.— CA.
de Brasses (le President), Traite de la formation mechanique des langues. Par. 1801. 2 vols. 12.— TTio. Astle, The Origin and
Progress of Writing. Lond. 1S03. 4.-7'. L. Hug, die Erfindung der Buchstabenscbrift, ihr Zustand und frQhester Gebrauch im
Alterlhum. Ulm, 1801. 4.— C/ir. Fried. fVtber, Versuch einer Geschichte der Schreibkunst Gott. 1807. 8.—/. L. Saalschutz,
Forschungen in Gebiete der Heb. iEgypt. Archlologie. First Part, on the History of Letters, the Hebrew, Phoenician, Greek, and
Tgypfian. KoLigsb IS3S.

3. On various topics of Arch;eology ; T. H. Christ, Abhandlungen Qber die Literafur und Kunstwerke, vomehmlich des Alter-
tbunis, durchgesehen und mit Anmerkungen begleitet von 7 K. Zcune. Lpz. 1775. 8.—/. A. Ernesti, Archseologia literaria, Ed.
U. emendata atque aucta opera et studio O H. Martini. Lipsioe, 1790. 8.-7. 7. Rambach, archiologische Untersuchungen. Halle,
1778. 8. As third volume to his Translation of Poltefs Archaeol. Graeca.- 7. C. L. Schaaff. Encyklopldie der classischen Alter
humskunde. jMagdeb 1826. 2 vols. 8. 3d ed. 41h ed. 1837. " Very valuable." —7JaotiJ-7JocAfI(e, Cours d'Arcbeol. Par. 1828. 8.


4. Onart!i)orepar!icularly;/jA. frinckdmann. Grechichte der Kunst des Al'erthums. Neue Aufl. Wien, 1776. i.—Siine \a
FreDCh, Histiire de I'Art chez Les Anciens avec denotes hisloriques et critiques de differens auteurs. Par. An de la R^p —.-j' ,ck-
ebnann, Slmmlliche Weike, ed. by Feniow, Meyer, and S:':ulze. Dresd. lSOS-17. 7 vols. S, «ith an index by SUMit. DresJ.
I8M. S. and Supplement by ForUer. Berl 1S25. 3 vols. S. '• Winckelmann the greatest critic in ancient ait in his tin,e. but row
8una.<sed ^—Seroui d' A^inaiun, Histoire de I'Art par les Monumens Jepuis la decadence au IVme Siecle jusqu' a son renouvelle-
Dieot au XVIme pour servir de suite a I'hUloire des Arts chez les anciens. Par. ISIO-23. 6 vols, fol.— C. G. tfryne, Einleitun; in
das Studium der Aniike. Gott. 1772. S.— .}. F Bllschin^, Entwcrf einer Gescbichle der zeichnenden Kanste. Han.bur?, 1791.8.
— Orbis An'iqui MoDunientis Suis Illustrati PriniK LiciSE. Iterum duiit LI Gb^rliuut. Argeutor. 1790. i.~P. F. d Nitfdi,
Einleilun^ in das Studium der alten KuLSlwerke far Kansiler und Kunstliebhaber. Leipz. 1792. i.—A. L. MHlrn, IntroducUon a
I'Elude des Monumens Antiques. Ed. 2. Par. 1798. S — Same. Monumens Antiques Inedits. Par. ISCi-2-1 2 vols. i.—T. Ph.
Sieletaca, Kandbuch der Archlologie, oder Anleituc? zur Kenntniss der Kunstwerke des Allerthums und zur Gejcbichte der KunsI
der alten V'Iker. Zwei Abtheilungen. Narnb. 1799. u. iSCO. 8. "Dncritical."— r. GutUII, Einleiiung in das Studium der
Bchonen Kunst des Alterthunis. Ma?ieb. 1759. 4.-PehTScn, Allg. Einleit. in das Stud, der Archiol. &c. trans from the Danish.
Lpz. 1829 ~K. 0. MvlLr, Dei.kmiler der aiten Kunst. Gbtt. 1834-7. 2 vols. 4.-K. 0. MUllcr, Hacdbuch der Archiolngie der
KunsI. Lpz. 1S35. S. 2d ed.— .Jam*, translated into English. Lond. 1837. 8. "Best Manual by far."— .a. Hirt, Geschkhte der
bildenden Kanste bey d. Alten. Berl. IS33 " Very valuable."

5. There are soii.e periodical works to which reference is occasionally made in the Part of the Manual treating of the Archsolc^
of Literature and Art, and also in othtr Parts.

The Society of Antiquaries at London nas ricorporated in 1751. One of the works published by them is enlit'ed yetusla Monu-
menta. Another, which was commenced in 1770, and is still coDtinued, is entitled Arckieclogia, or Miscellaneous Tracts pertaiuii^
to Antiquity, comprising 26 volumes, quarto, frrm 17T0 to 1836.

The R^yal Society of Literature for the United King-Jom of Great Britain was established about the year 1830. Its periodica]
publication is entitled Transactioiu of the Royal Snaely of Literalure, &c., comprising, down to 183S, 5 volumes quarto.

The Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres at Paris was commenced in 1663, and suppressed by the national assembly in 1791
Very valuable are the essars published by this body in the work entitled Mem, de I'.icad des hismftions, which consists of 50
volumes in the Paris edition in quarto. The Institut de France was established in 1765, and is still continued, consisting of fiot
branches or classes, each of which publishes its labors under the general title of Memoires de I'fnstilut.

A glance at the progress of archsological studies maybe found in the following work; Rapport Hittoriqtte smt )e Progres rf«
VHistoire el de la Litterature Andenne depuis 1»S9, tc Par. 1810. 4. It belongs to the Memoira de VIiuHiut de France ; h.iving
been prt-sented to the Institute in 1805.

The Classical Journal, an English publication of considerable value to the scholar, was commenced in 1810, and issued in numben^
forming usually two volumes a vear For the first 20 70lume« there is a separate Indei.





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I. — Of the origin and first steps of Grecian culture.

§ 33.* The most ancient traditions, that have been preserved respecting the
first population of Greece, exhibit the country as occupied in various parts, by
a race called Pelasgi. There is some concurrence of testimony, that they were
the primitive inhabitants. fStrabo, 1. viii. § 10.) According to other accounts,
they were emigrants from Asia, located first in Thrace, afterwards extending
themselves through Thessaly even to the Peloponnesus. Almost impenetrable
darkness, however, hangs over their origin. But, whether they were originally
natives of the land (avrox^ov^i), or emigrants piimarily from countries beyond
the Mediterranean, it is certain, that more than 1800 years before Christ they
were dispersed over Greece, and a part of Italy. They consisted of a great
number of independent tribes.

See Habert Marsh, Horae Pelasgicse. Carnb. i8\o.—Raoul-Rochette, Histoire Critique de I'etablissement des Colonies Grecques.
-Gilbert, Les premiers habitants de la Grece, in the Mem. Acad. Inter, vol. 25. p. l.—Geinoz, Origine des Pelasges, in the same,
Mem.kc. vol. 14, p. 154, and 16, p. 106.— Dupuis, Sar les Felasges, Mem. de Vliutihit, Classe de Zi(. et Beaux Arts, vol. ii.
44, and iii. Zl.—Karl OUf. MUUer, Geschicbte d. helleuischen Stimme. Breslau, I&2S. 3 vols. H.—aavier, Histoire des premiers
iemps de la Grece, &c. Par. 1S22. 3 vols. S.—Prichard, Pliys. Hist, of M^iikmd (cited § 12. 1), B. 5. Ch. 4.—H Leo, Lehrbuch del
Universal Geschichte. Lpz. 1835. S.—H. G. Plass, Vor-undUr-geschichte dor Hellenen. Lpz. Ifc31. S.—Schlosser, Univers. Ueber
Bicht d. Geschichte d. alteu Welt, kc. CI. P. V. § 7. 7. (d).

§ 34.* It is the general representation of the ancient writers, that the inhabit-
ants of Greece, in the earliest periods to which tradition extended, were in
a condition of extreme barbarism. Their food is said to have been the fruit
of the earth spontaneously produced and gathered by accident or under the im-
pulse of hunger; their sexual intercourse to have been regulated by no law but
animal passion ; and their science and art insufficient even to direct them to the
use or discovery of tbe common element of fire (§ 7). There is no evidence,
that they made any advances from such a state, independently of the colonies
from Egypt, or Phoenicia, or other eastern countries, which ere long were plant-
ed among them. There seem to have been two periods of this colonization,
somewhat distinct; the first about 1800 years, and the other about 1500 before

1. From the first of these periods civilization began to advance. If the Pelasgi
were the original inhabitants represented as once so barbarous, they were from this
period elevated somewhat above their previous state. If the term Pelasgi was a com
mon name to designate all the early occupants of Greece, that had come fiom beyond
the sea, and so included the colonists of this very period, then we must say, that the
Pelasgi from about 1800 B. C. were in a state more elevated than the previous inhabi-
tants. Or, whatever may be the truth as to the Pelasgi, some advancement in civiliza-
tion actually took place among the people of Greece not far from this time.

By some writers on this subject, especially the more recent, the Pelasgi are de-

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