Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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South of the Po where the territories of the Ligures ; chief towns, Genua (Genoa) ,
on the Sinus Ligusticus (Gulf of Genoa) ; Portus Herculis Monceci (Monaco), and
Nicaa (Nice); the territory of the Boii, containing Bononia (Bologna); Mutina
(Modena), where Brutus was besieged by Antony ; Parma, and Flacentia; and the
country of the Lingones, whose chief town was Ravenna, where the emperors of the west
held their court, when Rome was possessed by the barbarians.

^ 34. Cisalpine Gaul contained the beautiful lakes Verhanus (Maggiore) ; Benacus
(Di Gardi), and Larius, the celebrated lake of Como, deriving its modern name from
the village Comum, near Pliny's villa.

The rivers of this province were the Eridanus or Padtis (Po), called by Virgil the
king of rivers, which rises in the Cottian Alps, and receiving several tributary streams,
especially the Ticinus (Tesino) and Mincius (Mincio), falls into the Adriatic; the
Athesis (Adige), rising in the Rhaetian Alps; and the Eubico?i (Rugone), deriving its
source from the Apennines, and falling into the Adriatic.

$ 35. The inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul were, of all the Italian states, the most hostile to the
power of Rome; they joined Hannibal with alacrity when be invaded Italy, and in the Social
war they were the most inveterate of the allied states in their hostility.— When the empire of
the west fell before the northern tribes, this province was seized by the Longnbardi, from whom
the greater part of it is now called Lombardy. In the middle ages it was divided into a number
of independent republics, which preserved some sparks of liberty, when freedom was banished
from the rest of Europe.

§ 36. Etruria extended along the coast of the lowej or Tuscan sea, from the small
river Macra, to the mouth of the Tiber.

The most remarkable towns and places in Etruria were : the town and port of Luna,
at the mouth of the river Macra; PiscB (Pisa); PZore^i^/a (Florence); F onus Herculis
Lehurni (Leghorn); Pistoria, near which Catiline was defeated ; Perusia, near the
lake Thrasymene, where Hannibal obtained his third victory over the Romans; Clusium,
the chy of Porsenna; Vohinii (Bolsena), where Sejanus, the infamous minister of
Tiberius, was born; Falerii (Palari), near mount Soracte, the capital of the Falisci,
memorable for the generous conduct of Camillus while besieging it; Ve.ii, the ancient
rival of Rome, captured by Camillus after a siege of ten years ; Cczre, or Agylla (Cer
Veteri), whose inhabitants hospitably received the Vestal virgins, when they tied from
the Gauls, in reward for which they were made Roman citizens, but not allowed the
privilege of voting, whence, any Roman citizen who lost the privilege of voting was
said to be enrolled among the Cceriles; Centum CellcB (Civita Vecchia), at the mouth of
the Tiber, the port of modern Rome.

^ 37- The principal rivers of Etruria were the Armis (Arno) , rising in the Apennines
and falling into the sea near Pisa ; and the Tiber, which issuing from the Umbrian
Apennines, and joined by the Nar (Nera) and Anio (Teverone) , running in a south-
westerly direction, falls into the sea below Rome.

The Etrurians were called by the Greeks, Tyrrheni; they are said to have come originally
from Lydia in Asia Minor, and to have preserved traces of their eastern origin, to a very late
period. From them the Romans borrowed their ensigns of regal dignity, and many of theii
superstitious observances, for this people were remarkably addicted to auguries and soothsaying.
They attained distinguished excellence in art (of. P. IV. $ 109, 110;; interesting monuments of
which still exist (cf. P. IV. $ 173).

'§ 38. Umbria was situated east of Etruria, and south of Cisalpine Gaul, from which
it was separated by the Rubicon. The principal river of Umbria was the Metaurus
(Metro) , where Asdrubal was cut off by the consuls Livius and Nero while advancing
to the support of his brother Hannibal. Its chief towns ; Ariminum {Rimini) , the first
town taken by Caesar, at the commencement of the civil war; Pesaurum (Pesaro)-
Senna Gallica (Senigagha), built by the GalU Senones ; Camerinum; Spoletium (Spo
letto), where Hannibal was repulsed after his victory at Thrasymene.

The memory of this repulse is still preserved in an inscription over one of the gates, thence called Porta di Fuga. " Here also is
a beautiful aqueduct carried across a valley, three hundred feet high." fV. Fiske^ p. 343, as cited P. IV. § 186. 6.

§ 39. P i c e n u m lay to the east of Umbria, on the coast of the Adriatic. Its principal
towns were, Asculum ^Ascoli), the capital of the province, which must not be confound-
ed with Asculum in Apulia, near which Pyrrhus was defeated ; Corfinium (San Ferino),
the chief town of the Peligni ; Suh?io, the birthplace of Ovid; and A/icona, retaining its
ancient name, founded by a Grecian colony.

Close to the harbor of Ancona is a beautiful triumphal arch erected in honor of Trajan ; the pillars are of Parian marble, and still
retain their pure whiteness and exquisite polish, as if fresh from the workmen's hands. The celebrated chapel of Loretto is near

South of Picenum and Umbria, were the territories of the Marsi and Sabini. The for
mer were a rude and warhke people ; their capital was Marruhium, on the Lacus Fucinus.
This lake Julius Caesar vainly attempted to drain. It was afterwards partially effected
by Claadius Caesar, who employed thirty thousand men for eleven years, in cutting a

ssaoc foi the waters through the mountain^ from tJie lake to the river Liris ; when


every thing was prepared for letting off the waters, he exhibited several splendid nava.
games, shows, &c.; but the work did not answer his expectations, and the canal, being
neglected, was soon choked up, and the lake recovered its ancient dimensions. — The
Sabine towns were Cures, whence the name Quirites is by some derived (cf. § 53);
Reate, near which Vespasian was born; Amiternum, the birthplace of Sallust ; Crus-
tumeriian, and FidencB. Mons Sacer, whither the plebeians of Rome retired in their
contest with the patricians, was in the territory of the Sabines. In these countries were
the first enemies of the Romans, but about the time of Camillus the several small states
in this part of Italy were subjugated.

§ 40. Latium, the most important division of Italy, lay on the coast of the Tuscan
sea, between the river Tiber and Liris ; it was called Latium, from lateo, to lie hid,
because Saturn is said to have concealed himself there, when dethroned by Jupiter.

The chief town was Rome (see S> 51 ss). Above Rome on the Tiber, stood Tibur
(Tivoli), built by an Argive colony, a favorhe summer residence of the Roman
nobility, near which was Horace's favorite country seat (P. III. § 3-26) ; south of Rome,
Tusculum (Frescati), remarkable both in ancient and modern times, for the salubrity
of the air and beauty of the surrounding scenery ; it is said to have been built by Tele-
gonus, the son of Ulysses; near it was Cicero's celebrated Tusculan villa: east of
Tusculum, Prcsneste (Palestrina), a place of great strength both by nature and art,
where the younger Marius perished in a subterranean passage, while attempting to
escape, when the town was besieged by Sylla : south of Tusculum. Lo?iga Alba, the
parent of Rome, and near it the small towns Algidum, Poedum, and Gabii, betrayed to
the Romans by the well-known artifice of the younger Tarquin. — On the coast, at the
mouth of the Tiber, stood Ostia, the port of ancient Rome, built by Ancus Martins;
south of this were Laurentum, Laviuium (built by ^Eneas and called after his wife La-
vinia), and Ardea, the capital of the Rutuh, where Camillus resided during his exile.
South of these were the territories of the Volsci, early opponents of the Romans ; their
chief cities were Ajitium, where there was a celebrated temple of Fortune; Sucssa
Pomelia, the caphal of the Volsci, totally destroyed by the Romans; and Corioli, from
the capture of which Caius Marcius was named Coriolanus.

South of the Volsci, were the town and promontory of Circeii, the fabled residence
of Circe ; A?ixur (Terracina), on the Appian Way ; the town and promontory Caieta,
deriving its name from the nurse of jEneas, who was there interred; FormicB, near
which Cicero was assassinated by command of Antony; and, at the mouth of the
Liris, Minturnce, near which are the Pontine or Pomptine Marshes, in which the elder
Marius endeavored to conceal himself when pursued by his enemies. The Pontine
Marshes extended through a great part of Latium, and several ineffectual efforts have
been made to drain them. The exhalations from the stagnant water have always made
the surrounding country very unhealthy. — On the confines of Campania were Arpimcm,
the birthplace of Marius and Cicero, the rude soldier and the pohshed statesman
Aquinum, the birthplace of Juvenal ; and Sinuessa, celebrated for its mineral waters,
originally called Sinope.

"5> 41. The principal rivers of Latium were the Anio (Teverone) ; the Allia, on the
banks of which the Gauls defeated the Romans with dreadful slaughter ; and the
Cremera, where the family of the Fabii, to the number of three hundred, were de-
stroyed by an ambuscade, while carrying on war at their own expense against the
Veientes ; these three rivers fall into the Tiber ; the Liris (Garigliano), which divided
Latium from Campania, falls into the Tuscan sea. — I'he principal lakes were named
Lacus Albulns (Solfatara). remarkable for its sulphurous exhalations, and the adjoin-
ing grove and oracle of Faunus ; Lacus Regillus, near which Posthumius defeated
the Latins, by the assistance of Castor and Pollux as the Romans believed ; and La-
cus Albanus. near which was Mount Albanus where the solemn sacrifices called
Feriae Latinee were celebrated.

The capital of Latium, in the reign of King Latinus, was Laurentum ; in the reign of iEneas,
Lavinium; in the reiirn of Ascanius, Longa Alba; but all these were eclipsed by the superior
grandeur of Rome. The several independent states were subdued by the Romans in the earlier
ages of the republic.

<5i 42. (2) Geography of the Southern portion of Italia. The southern part of Italy
was named Magna Grcecia. from the number of Greek colonies that at different periods
settled there. It was divided into Campania, Samnium, ApuUa, Calabria, Lucania,
and Bruttium.

C a m p a n i a, the richest and most fertile of the divisions of Italy, extended alon^
the shores of the Tuscan sea, from the river Liris to the river Silarus, which divided
it from Lucania.

The chief city was Capua, so named from its founder Capys, celebrated for its nches
and luxury, by which the veteran soldiers of Hannibal were enervated and corrupted.
North of it were Teanum, celebrated for the mineral waters in its vicinity, and Vena-
fritm, famous for oUves. — South of Capua was CasUinuin, where a garrison of Pre-
nestines. after having made a most gallant resistance, and protracted the siege till
they had endured the utmost extremity of famine, were at last compelled to surrender


uext to this was Liternum, at the mouth of the httle river Clanius, where Scipio Afri-
canus for a long time lived in voluntary exile. — Farther south was Cumce, founded by
a colony from Chalcis in Eubcea, the residence of the celebrated Cumean Sibyl, and
near it the town and promontory Misenum, so named from Misenus, the trumpeter of
^neas, who was buried there. — Below the cape were BaicB, famous for its mineral
waters ; Futeoli (Puzzoh) , near which were the Phlegrsei-campi, where Jupiter is said
to have vanquished the giants ; Cimmerium, whose early inhabitants are said, by Ho-
mer, to have lived in caves. After these we come to Parthenope or Neapolis (Naples).
This beautiful city was founded by a colony from Cumae, and for a long time retained
the traces of a Grecian original ; it was called Parthenope from one of the Sirens said
to have been buried there. Close to the town is the mountain Fausilypus (Pausilippo),
through which a subterranean passage has been cut, half a mile in length and twenty-
two feet wide ; neither the time of making nor the maker is known ; a tomb, said to
he that of Virgil, is shown on the hill Pausilippo ; here also are ruins called the villa
"f Lucvllus. — At the southern extremity of the Si?ius Puteolanus (bay of Naples),
were Siabice, remarkable for its mineral waters, and Surrentum, celebrated for its
wines ; near the latter was the Promontorium Surrentinum or Athenceum (Capo della
Minerva) ; east of Naples was Nola, where Hannibal was first defeated, and where
Augustus died. In the south of Campania was Sahrnum (Sale'-no), the capital of the
Picentini. — Between Naples and Mount Vesuvius wero HercwZayieMJW ^Yi6. Pompeii,
destroyed by a tremendous eruption of that volcano, A. D. 79.

The remains of these towns were accidentally discovered in the beginning of the last century, and the numerous and valuable
remains of antiquity give us a greater sight into the domestic habits of the Romans Ihan could previously be obtained. "Above thirty
streets of Pomjieii are now (1840) restored to light. The walls which formed its ancient enclosures have been recognized ; a mag-
nificent amphitheatre, atheatre, a forum, the temple of Isis, that of Veuus, and a number of other buildings, have been cleared."
Houses, shops, cellars, with all their various furniture, are found just as they were when buried under the volcanic mass. — See the
works on Herculaneum and Pompeii cited P. IV. § 243. 2.— Cf. P. III. § 329.

^ 43. The principal Campanian rivers were the Vultvrnvs (Vulturno) ; Stlethus
(Sebeto), now an inconsiderable stream, its springs being dried up by the eruptions of
Mount Vesuvius ; and the Sarmts (Sarno). — The principal lakes were the Lucrinns,
which by a violent earthquake, A. D. 1538, was changed into a muddy marsh, with
a volcanic mountain, Monte Nuovo de Cinere, in the centre ; and the Averjius, near
which is a cave represented by Virgil as the entrance of the infernal regions. It was
said that no birds could pass over this lake on account of the poisonous exhalations ;
whence its name, from a (not) and dpv'ii; (a bird).

Upon the invasion of the northern nations, Campania became the alternate prey of different
barbarous tribes ; at length it was seized bj' the Saracens in the tenth century. These were ex-
pelled by the Normans, under Tancred, who founded the kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

^ 44. East of Latium and Campania was S a m n i u m, including the country of the
Hirpini. — The chief towns were Samnis, the capital ; Beneventum (Benevento), at
first called Maleventum, from the severity of the winds, but when the Romans sent
a colony here they changed the name, from motives of superstition ; near this town
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who had come to the assistance of the Samnites, was totally
defeated by the Roman army, commanded by Curius Dentatus ; Caudiiim, near which
are the CnudincB Furculce (Forchia d' Arpaia). a narrow and dangerous defile, in which
the Roman army, being blocked up by the Samnite general, Pontius, were obliged to
surrender on disgraceful conditions ;_ dJ\^ AlfenicE, remarkable for its manufactory
of earthenware. — Among the Hirpini, were Equotuticum, whose unpoeiical name is
celebrated by Horace ; Trixicum and Herdonia (Ordonia), on the borders of Apulia. —
Near Herdonia was the celebrated valley of Ajnaanctus, surrounded by hills, and re-
markable for its sulphurous exhalations and mineral springs ; on a neighboring hill
stood the temple of Mephitis, the goddess who presided over noxious vapors, whence
the valley is now called Moffeta.

§ 45. The principal rivers of Samnium were the Sahatus (Sabato), and Color (Ga-
lore), both tributary to the VuUumus.

The Samnites were descended from the same parent slock as the Sabines, and for many years
contended with the Romans for the empire of Italy ; at length, after a war of more than seventy
years, durinsr which the Romans were frequently reduced to great extremities, the fortune of
Rome prevailed, and the Samnites were almost totally extirpated, B. C. 272.

§ 46. Apulia, called also Daunia and Japvgia, but now La Puslia, occupied the
greater part of the east of Italy, extending from the river Frento to the Bay of Ta-

Its chief towns : Teanitm, named Apulum to distinguish it from a town of the same
name in Campania; Arpi said to have been built by Diomede, after his return from
the Trojan war ; north of Arpi is Mount Gargamts (Saint Angelo) , in the spur of the
boot to which Italy is commonly compared ; "east of Arpi were Uria, which gave the
ancient name to the Simis Urii/g, and Sipontum (Manfredonia, which gave to the Sinus
Tlriv.s its modern name, Gulf of Manfredonia) ; on the borders of Samnium stood
Lncerii, celebrated for its wool; Salapla (Salpc) : and Asculum, called Apulum. to
di' it from a town of the same name in Picenum. — Near the river Aufidus


Stood the village of Cannes, where Hannibal almost annihilated the power of Rome ;
through the fields of Cannas runs the small stream Vergellus, which is said to have
been so choked with the carcasses of the Romans, that the dead bodies served as a
bridge to Hannibal and his soldiers; Canusium, a Greek colony, where the remains of
the Roman army were received after their defeat. — Venusia (Venosa), near Mount
Vuhur, the birthplace of Horace ; Barium (Bari), where excellent fish were caught in
great abundance ; and Egnatia, on the Matinian shore, famous for bad water and good

The principal Apulian rivers were Cerhalus (Cerbaro), and Aufidus (Ofanto), remark-
able for the rapidity of its waters ; both falling into the Adriatic.

§ 47. Calabria, called also Messapia, lay to the south of Apulia, forming what is

called the heel of the boot. Its chief towns on the eastern or Adriatic side, were

Brundusium (Brindisi), once remarkable for its excellent harbor, which was destroyed
m the fifteenth century; from this the Italians who wished to pass into Greece gene-
rally sailed ; Hydntntum (Otranto), where Italy makes the nearest approach to Greece ;
Castrum Minervoe (Castro), near which is the celebrated Japygian cape, now called
Capo Santa Maria de Luca. On the west side of Calabria were Tarentum (Tarento),
built by the Spartan Phalanlhus, which gives name to the Tarentine bay ; B.udicB, the
birthplace of the poet Ennius ; and Callipolis (Callipoli), built on an island and joined
to the continent by a splendid causeway.

The principal river of Calabria was the Galesus (Galeso), which falls into the bay of

§ 48. Lucania lay south of Campania, extending from the Tuscan sea to the bay of
Tarentum ; in the middle ages the northern part was named Basilicata, from the empe-
ror Basil; and the southern part was called Calabria-citra by the Greek emperors, to
perpetuate the memory of ancient Calabria, which they had lost.

The principal towns on the Mare Tyrrhenum (Tuscan sea), were, Laus, on the
river of the same name flowing into the Sinus Laus (Gulf of Pohcastro) ; Buxentum,
called by the Greeks Pyxus, on the Lausine bay ; Velia or Elea, the birthplace of Zeno,
the inventor of logic, founded by a division of the Asiatic colony, that built Marseilles
(cf. § 17) : in the vicinity of Elea, near Mount Alburnus (Postiglione, or Alburno),
jPcsslum, called by the Greeks Posidonia, celebrated in ancient time for its roses, in
modern far its beautiful ruins.

On the m'ms o( Pxsturrt, cf. Eustace, as cited P. IV. § 190. l.—TVincMmann, Histoire, &c., vol. iii. as cited P. 17. § 32. 4.— De-
lagardette, Les Ruines de Psstum, cited P. IV. § 243. 1,

In the interior of Lucania, were Atinum, on the Tenagrus ; Aternum, on the Silarus ;
Grumentum, on the Aciris ; and Lagaria, said to have been founded by Epeus, the
framer of the Trojan horse.— On the shore of the Sinus Tarentinus (Tarentine bay),
were Metapontum, the residence of Pythagoras during the latter part of his life, and
the head-quarters of Hannibal for several winters ; Heraclea, where the congress of
the Italo- Grecian states used to assemble ; Sybaris, on a small peninsula, infamous for
its luxury ; and TAwrHiOT, at a little distance, whither the Sybarites retired when their own
city was destroyed by the people of Crotona. The plains where these once flourishing
cities stood are now desolate ; the rivers constantly overflow their banks, and leave
behind them muddy pools and unwholesome swamps, while the few architectural re-
mains contribute to the melancholy of the scene, by recalhng to memory the days of
former greatness.

The principal rivers of Lucania were the Tanagrus (Negri), which, after sinking
in the earth, breaks forth near the beautiful valley of Alburnus, and uniting with
the Silarus falls into the Sinus Pcestanus (Gulf of Salerno) ; Melpus (Melfa), which
empties itself into the Latis Sinus (Gulf of Policastro, so called from the number of
ruins on hs shores) ; ihe Bradanus, dividing Lucania from Calabria, and falhng into
the Tarentine bay ; the Aciris (Agri), and the Sybaris (Coscile), small streams on the
Tarentine coast.

'^ 49. The south-west of Italy, below the Sybaris, was named Bruttia-tellus or
B r ut I i u m, but is now called Calabria-ultra. — The principal cities of the Bruttii, on
the Tuscan sea, were Pandosia, where Alexander, king of Epirus, who waged war in
Italy while his relative and namesake was subduing Asia, died ; Consentia (Cosenza),
the capital of the Bruttii ; Terina, on the Sinus Terino'us (Gulf of St. Euphemia) ;
and Vibo, or Hippo, called by the Romans Valentia (Monte Leone). — On the Sicilian
btrait, were the town and promontory ScyU(Bum (Scylla), whose dangerous rocks gave
rise to the fable of the sea-monster Scylla (cf P. II. <5> 117) ; opposite to the celebrated
whirlpool Charybdis on the coast of Sicily : Rhegium (Reggio), so named by the Greeks,
because they believed that, at some very remote period, Sicily was joined to Italy, ana
broken off here by some violent natural concussion ; it was founded by a colony from
Chalcis, in the island of Eubcea, and the surrounding country was celebrated for its
fertihty ; not far from Rhegium were the village and cape Leucopetra, so named from
the whiteness of its rocks, now Capo dell' Arnai.

On the Tarentine bay were Petilia, the city of Philoctetes ' Crotona, founded by
some Achceans on their return from the Trojan war, where Pythagoras established h





celebrated school of philosophy ; the people were so famous for their skill in athletu
exercises.', that it was comnionly said "the last of the Crotoniates is the first of the
Greeks"; south of this was the Promonlorium Lacinium, where a very celebrated
temple of Juno stood, whence she is frequently called the Lacinian goddess ; from the
remains of this temple, the promontory is now called Capo della Calonne ; ScylaccBum
(Squillace), founded by an Athenian colony on a bay to which it gives name ; Caulon
(Costel Vetere), an Achaean colony, almost destroyed in the wars wuh Pyrrhus ; south
of it, Neryx (Gerace), near the Promoutorium Zephyrium (Burzano), the capital ot the
Locrians, who at a very early period settled in this part of Italy. — The cape at the
southern extremity of Italy was named Promo7itorium Herculis, now Spartivento.

The principal rivers of the Bruttii were the Cratkes (Crati), and Necethes il>ien), vyhich
received its name from the Achaean women having burned their husbands' ships tg
prevent their proceeding further in search of a settlement.

$ 50. A great proportion of the Greeks who colonized the south of Italy, were generals, whb
on their return from the Trojan wars, found that they had been forgotten by their subject?
and that their thrones were occupied by others. The intestine wars tliat almost continually
devastated Greece, increased the number of exiles, who at ditfer^nt times, and under various
leaders, sought to obtain, in a foreien country, that tranquillity and liberty that had been denied
them at home.— These different states were internally regulated by their own laws ; but an
annual congress similar to the Aniphictyonic council of Greece, assembled at Heraclea, and
united the several communities in one great confederacy.

Sybaris seems to have been, at first, the leading state, but after a bloody war, it was destroyed
by the jealousv of the people of Crotona ; the Sybarites did not yield to despair ; five times they

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