Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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work of a Greek or Roman author, received in its stead, it might be, the absurd tales
of a monk, or the futile quibbles of a scholastic. This practice of deletion was known
in the time of Cicero ; and a manuscript thus prepared was termed Codex Palimpsestus
(TTa^ifixpfiarTOi) . Some MSS. of this kind have been deciphered.

Cic. ad Trebat. 4. 16. Cf CatuH. 22. 5.— See Archd. j\ares. Historical Account of Discoveries made in Palimpsest Manuscripts;
in the Transactions of the Royal Soc. of Literature, vol. i. Lond. IS29.— Cf. P. V. § 443.— iond. Quart. Rev. xvi. 331.— Hcirne,
Introd. to Study of Holy Scriptures, vol. ii. P. i. ch. ii. § 2, as cited § 107. 1.

§ 85. To notice particularly the civil history of the Greeks after the Christian era
would be foreign from the design of this glance at some of the circumstances attending
the decline of Greek letters. We ought, however, to observe, that they underwent a
geries of political changes, very few of which were calculated to exert any beneficial in-
fluence upon learning, while many of them were exceedingly unpropitious. Among the
former, the removal of the Roman Court to Constantinople was probably the most fa-
vorable. Among the latter, we may mention the early inroads of the barbarians ; the
encroachments of the Saracens; the capture and plunder of Constantinople by the
Latins; the internal dissensions after the recovery of the capital ; and finally the attacks
of the Turks, which were renewed from time to time until the final overthrow of the
Greeks. A. D. 1453. By the various disaster' .'•'"t^ suffered, the supremacy of the


Greek emperors was ere long confined to a narrow corner of Europe, and al last to the
suburbs ot Constantinople, and here learning found its only refuge.

Respecting the condition of Greek literature at Constantinople, see Berington't Lit. Hist, of Middle Ages. Appendix I. ai
cited 5 81.

1. On the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, many of the Greek literati fled
to Italy and oiher parts of western Europe, and by their oral instructions and their writ-
ings contributed greatly to the revival of letters, and especially to the study of tlie Greek
language in the west.

See Humpf. Hodius, de Graecis illustribus linguae Grsecse insfauratoribus. Lond. 1742. i.—Ch. Fr. Btmeruf, De Doctis homlni-
busGraecis, literaruDi Graecarum in Italia inslauratoribus. Lpz. 1750. 8.— Also ^efren, Geschichte, &c. cited & 53.— H. IJatlam ,
Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Century. Lond. 1S38. 4 vols. S.—T. Warton,
Diss, on the Introduction of Learning into England, in his Hist, of English Poetry. Lond. 1S24. 4 vols. 8.

2. Notwithstanding all the disasters above suggested, and a subjection of nearly 400
years to the tyranny of Turkish masters, the Greeks have still an existence. By a pain-
ful and protracted struggle, commenced A. D. 1820, they secured their independence.
Their present language differs i'rom that of classical times, both in pronunciation and in
structure, and contains as yet but a slender literature. The hope, however, has boon
awakened, that Greece may again rise to eminence in letters and in arts.

For an account of modern Greek literature, see Cours de Lilleratiure Grecque Modeme, donne a Geneve, par Jacovahy Rizo
t,^eroulos. (Publie par /can Humbert,) Genev. 1S28. 12. 2d ed.— On Mod. Greek language, Class Journal v. 401 ; xvii. 39; iv.
840. — E. A. Sophodet, Romaic Grammar, with a Chrestomatby. Hartf. 1842.— Cf. Encydop. Americana, vol. vi. p. 42.

V. — Of the Remains and Monuments of Grecian Literature.

§ 86. Besides the many valuable works which have been preserved, either
entire or in part, and published since the restoration of learning and the inven-
tion of the art of printing, there are extant still other written monuments of
Grecian antiquity, some acquaintance with which is important not only to the
antiquary, but to every lover of literature. We may arrange these under
three classes ; Inscriptions, Coins, and Manuscripts.

(a) Inscriptions.
§ 87. The study of inscriptions (irttypauua, inscriptio, titulus) is of great
utility in gaining a knowledge of language, and an acquaintance with criticism,
history, chronology, and archaeology. Considered as public and contemporary
monuments they form a class of historical evidence most worthy of credence.
Therefore since the revival of letters much attention has been devoted to disco-
vering, collecting, publishing, and explaining inscriptions, upon which we have
many writings.

Some of the principal works relating to Greek inscriptions we will here name.— GuJ. Roberts, Marmorum Oxoniensinm inscrip.
tiones Graecae. Oxon. 1791. 8. Cf. § 91. 4.— iJ. Pococke, cited § 130.— B. Pasiitmei, as cited ^ 130.— P. M. Paciaudi, Monumenta
Peloponnesia. Rom. 1761. 2 vols. i.—Edm. Chishull, Antiquitates Asiaticae. Lond. 1728. (o\.—Ed. Corsinus, Inscriptiones anli-
qujE, pleraeque nondum editae. Flor 1752. 4.— Rich. Chandler, Inscriptiones antiquae, plersque nondum edits in Asia Minore et
Graecia, praesertim Athenis, colleclae. Lond. 1744. fol.— Some inscriptions are noticed in E. D. Clarke's Greek Marbles at Cam-
bridge (Camb. IS09. 8) ; and also in his Travels through various countries of the East.— F. Osann, Sylloge Inscrip. Ant. Graec. et
Lat. Jen. 1822. hl—Bcckh, Corpus Inscriptionum Gra-carum. Berol. 1825-28. ss. fol. For the views of German critics respecting
this work, see Hermann, aber Prof. Bockh's Behandlung der griech. Inschriften.— The following may also be mentioned. Visconti,
(on the Elgin Marbles,) Catal. raisonne des inscript. Grec. de la collect, de myl. Comte d' Elgiru—H. J. Rose, Inscriptiones Graec.
Vetustissinije. Camb. 1825. S.—C. Vidua, Inscript. Antiq. in Turcico itinere collectae. Far. 1826. 8.— Inscriptiones Graecse
InediisB. Colleg. edit. L. Rossius HoUatus. Fasc. I. 1S3S. 4.

§ 88. These inscriptions are found upon columns, altars, tombs, vases, statues,
temples, and other ancient edifices. Their design is to narrate some memorable
event, or to point out the use and meaning of the object bearing them. Ordina-
rily they were in prose, sometimes in verse. The Greek inscription was ex-
pected to unite beauty, perspicuity, and vigor. It was from this circumstance
and from its taking sometimes the poetical form, that the name of epigram
(a7t(,'ypa^,ua) was applied to the species of poetry so called, designating a short
poem or stanza which expresses clearly and forcibly an ingenious, pithy senti-

^ 89 u. In order to form a correct judgment and decision upon inscriptions, there is
need of much critical care and examination, that we may not be deceived by pieces ot
doubtful authority or by false copies. There must be some familiar acquaintance with
what pertains to the subject, both philological! y and historically. In general we should
possess a knowledge of the written characters of antiquity, of the changes introduced


at different periods, and of what is called the lapidary style or manner of writing. We
should be able by means of historical information to compare the contents of the in-
scriptions with the circumstances of the persons, the times and the occasions mentioned.
We must be qualified also to appreciate with exactness and impartiality the proofs and
explanations that may be drawn from particular inscriptions.

Respecting the abbreviations used, consult Scip. Maffei, GrEecorum Siglae lapidarise colleclje afqne explicatae Veron. 1746. 8.—
Also the works already cited \ ST.— On the general subject, J. Franz, Elenjenla Epigraphices Graecae. Berl. IS40. 4.

§ 90/. From the multitude of ancient Greek inscriptions, which have been
discovered, copied, and explained, we will here mention only some of the more
Interesting and important. We notice first such as are of a date prior to Alex-
ander, B. C. 336.

1 u. The Fourmount inscriptions ; on marbles discovered by the Abbe Fottrmont at
Sklabochori (Sclavo-Chorio) , the ancient Amycise, in the year 1728. More than forty
were fjund among the ruins of a temple of Apollo ; of these one is the celebrated Amy-
clean Inscription. That which goes under this name, consists of two tablets which
mav, or may not have been connected, and is in the manner of writing called povarpo-
(prjodv. The tablets contain merely a list of the names of Grecian priestesses. The
precise date cannot be fixed, but most probably the inscription may be referred back to
about 1000 B. C. There have been doubts, however, respecting the genuineness of this
and the other inscriptions. They are regarded as authentic by SchoU and Raoul-Ro-

See Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. vol. xiv. p. 101, an account, by De Faurmont, of inscriptions found on three bucklers in the
temple of Apollo; and vol. xxiii. p. 394, on the inscription containing a list of Grecian priestesses, by Barthdtmy. — Heyne's
Sammluns antiquar. Aufsltze, St. \.—Nouv. Traite de Dipl. T. i.—KnistWs Ess. on Ok. Alph. § vi. — BlcWs Corpus. Inscr.
Grmc— Count Merdeen in Th. TValpok's Memoirs relat. to Europ. and Asiat. Turkey.— Racntl-Roc?ielte, Deux lettres a myl. Comte
d' Aberdeen sur I'authenticite des Inscr. de Fourmont Par. 1819. i.—Lo7id. Quart. Rev. xix. 243.

2. The Elian inscription ; on a brazen or copper tablet found by Sir W. Gell, in 1813,
under ground, in the region of Olympia, in Elis. It is a treaty of alliance between the
Elians and the Heraeans, in the J^ohc dialect. The date is supposed to be about 615
B.C. It presents the ^olic digamma, the Elians being named FAAEIOI.

Museum Crit. Cambridge, vol. i. p. B35.—Clats. Journal, vol. xi. 384. xiii. p. 113. xxiv. p. 104.— Lcmd. Quart. Rev. xiii. 349.
—SchCll, Hist. Litt. Grecque.livre ii. ch. i.

3. The inscription of Midas ; upon a very ancient monument, situated near the vil-
lage of Doganlu, in Phrygia, probably near the ancient Nacoleia, about 30 leagues east
of the ancient CotyaBum. It is a sepulchral monument dug in the rock, and ornamented
with a facade of very singular construction, near 70 feet in height. It bears two in-
scriptions, written from right to left. They are in Pelasgic characters, as far as appears.
Travelers have been able to decipher only certain words, among which are MIAAl and
FANAKTEI, to King Midas, which would seem to indicate a tomb of one of the kings
of this name. The princes bearing this name reigned between 737 and 5G0 B. C.
The Phrygian kings appear to have borne alternately the names of Midas and Gordius.
It is worthy of remark, that, at the point where the facade of this monument termi-
nates, there is an ornament of striking appearance, which represents a kind oiknot, and"
at once calls to mind the famous Gordian knot.

See ScKU, Hist. Litt. Gr. liv. iii. ch. vii.— B. JValpole, Travels in various countries of the East. Lond. 1820.

4 u. The Sigaean inscription. This was found upon a piece of marble supposed to
have once supported a statue. It has its name from the promontory and town of Si-
gceum, near ancient Troy, where it was discovered by Sherard, English consul at
Smyrna, near a village church. This inscription is written in the manner called povarpo-
<l>vSdv. It specifies a gift of three vessels {icparnp, viroKparfipiov, fiBfidi,) made by Phano-
dicus to the Prytanes or magistrates of Sigasum. It is referred to the period between
500 and 600 B. G.

See Cfiishull, Antiq Aa]3.t.— Chandler, Inscrip. Antiq.— A^ouu. Traite de Dipli}m.—Shucliford't Sac. and Prof. Hist. Connected,
bk. iv.— The marble is now in London in the collection of Lord Elgin.— ScAil/, Hist. Litt. Gr. liv. iii. ch. vil— Catalogue raisonne
des Inscr. de la collect, demyl. Comte Elgin, no. 53.— Cf. § 87.

There is a second Sieaean inscription, belonging to a later period, B. C. 278, which may he
mentinned here. It was discovered by Lord E. W. Montagu, on a cippus of marble, connected
with the walls of the same church before which the first was found. It is a decree of the senate
and people of the Sigasum in honor of Antiochus Soter king of Syria and his spouse. See Chand-
ler, Antiq. Asiat. p. 49.

5. The inscription called the Teian malediction {Teiorum Dins); by this inscription
found upon a stone lyin^ in the environs of Bodrion, the ancient Teos, the Teians de-
vote to the infernal deities the persons whoever may injure them by resisting their
mag'strates, plundering their territories, or hindering foreigners from bringing them
grain. An anathema is also directed against those who may deface the inscription.
It is worthv of notice that the letters are termed (poiviKfiia. Its date is placed by
i?cn611 between 450 and 500 B. C.

See Schl'll, Hist. Litt. Or. liv. iii. ch. vii.—Chishull, Antiq. Asiat.

p. IV.


6. We may place next in rank several obituary inscriptions ;" as that on the
tables of Pentelican marble found by Galland, 1678, in a church in Athens ; called
sometimes the inscription of Nointel, because they were sent by him to Paris ; called
also the marble of Baudelot, because once possessed by him; of a date about 458
13. C, and in honor of warriors that had fallen in different places: an inscription* in
six distichs on a monument belonging to Lord Elgin; in honor of the Athenians slain
at Poiida^a when their general Callias, B. C. 432, defied the Corinthians under Aris-
tffus, and purchased a victory by death: that*^ on a large slab of marble in the col-
lection of Elgin; supposed by Visconti to be a catalogue of the Athenian warriors
who fell in the battle of Delium, B. C. 424, in which Socrates is said to have saved
the life of Xenophon ; according to Osann, it refers to different battles.

o Nouv. Traite de Diplom. T. i. p. 633.— Z,c?toir'j Museum of French Monuments, Translated by Griffith, Par. 1S03. 8. p. 73,
Willi an engraving of the monuments as they are adjusted after the designs of j3. Lenoir, and of the titles in Ionic characters which
are upon \hen\.— Museum Crit. Canjbridge, No. vl. p. 394.— Desc. des Antiques du Musee royal, par Vuconti, et le Comie de Clarac
Far. IS20. p. 105.— 6 E. Q Visconti, Lettre du chev. A. Canova, et deux memoires sur les ouvrages de sculpture dans le collect, de
myl. c. d'Elgin. Lond. 1816.— Cioss. Journal, vol. xiv. p. 185.—" Visamti, Catal. raisonne, &c. as cited § 87.— Published in
D. Clarke's Travels through various countries of the East, vol. vi. p. 368.— Osann, Sylloge, &c. (as cited § 87) p. 20.

7. Next may be mentioned a nnmher of jina?icial inscriptions :o that discovered
by Chandler m the citadel of Athens, with the letters arranged croixn^ov, on a mu-
tilated stone, the remaining fragment of which was conveyed to England by Lord
Elgin; detailing the expenses of the state for a full year, B. C. 424 or 414, as dif-
ferently assigned by the critics: thatfc on the stone called the marble of Choiseul,
sometimes of Barthelemy, now in the Royal Museum ; containing an account of the
finances of the republic for the year B. C. 410; on the reverse of the same marble are
two other inscriptions, also relating to finances : several inscriptionsc among those
for which we are indebted to Fourmont, relating to the finances of x\thens : seve-
ral inscriptions, d pertaining to the condition or treasures of certain Athenian temples,
as the Parthenon and others : the inscription* upon what is called the Sandwich
garble, brought from Athens to London, 1739, by the earl of Sandwich ; it is an
account of moneys due to the temple of Apollo at Delos, and of the expenses of the
Theoria or deputation of the Athenians, and is of the year 376 B. C.

" Chandler, Ins. Ant. P. ii. No 2.—jlug. HCckh, Staatshaushaltung der Athener. Bert. 1SI7, vol. ii. p. 182.— 6 Barthilemy,
in the Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. et Belles-leit. vol. xlviii. p. 337, with a plate showing the inscription.— .4ug. B^'ckh, as just cited.
— " B'i'cliJi, ibid.— d IV. VCilkins, Alheniensia, or Remarlis on Topog. and Build, of Athens. Lond. 1S16. p. 192.— C/iond/er,

Insc. Any.— B'ch}i, Staalsh. &c.— ' Taylor, Commentar. ad Marmor. Sandwicense. Cantab. 1743. 4. Class. Journ. xi. 184

Barthelemy, in his Trav. of .inacharsis, ch. Ixxvi. note 13.

8. Finally, in speaking of inscriptions previous to the time of Alexander, we will
refer to the two metrical inscriptions, discovered in 1810, near Athens.

One of thegp is upon a marble cippiis, in memory of a hero, Python of Megara. who having
Blain seven foes with his own liand. led back throuph Boeotia (then hostile to Athens) three
Athenian tribes, who owned him as their deliverer. It is anterior to Alexander, pertiaps about
B. C. 3.5ti, consisting of nine hexameters, one pentameter, and a fragment of another line, with
the verses not separated, if we may trust to the copy sent to Paris by the French consul M. Fau-
vel, and not even the words distinguished.

The other is of uncertain date ; upon a sheet of lead, folded four times in the length and three
times in the breadth (its dimensions not given by Fauvel); found in a tomb j containing a for-
mula of incantation or enchantment against a certain Ctesias and his family, dooming them to
the infernal deities. "Visconti declares that nothing like this singular monument has been
f lund among palmographic relics. Tacitus, speaking {Annal. ii. fi9) of the evidence on which
Piso was cliarsed with causing the death of Germanicus, says that in the house of the latter
were found fragments of human bodies, not quite consumed to ashes, with magic verses, the
name of Germanicus graved on plates of lead, and a variety of those spells which, according to
the vulgar opinion, are of potency to devote the souls of the living to the infernal gods."

See Memoires de VInst. Roy. de Franc. Classe d'H'st. et Lit. Ancienne, vol. i. (publ. Par. 1815), p. 230, where the two inscrip-
tions are given.— Of. SchZll, Hist. Litt. Grecque, livre iii. ch. vii.

§ 91 1. Of inscriptions which beloncr to later periods in the history of the Greeks,
a greater number have been discovered. We will now mention some, engraved
between the time of Alexander and the Christian era.

1. The inscription on the pedestal of a statue to JupUer Urius (Ovpios). The pedes-
tal was found by the Engrhsh travelers Wheler and Spon, in a private mansion in
Chalcedony, and was conveyed to London. The inscription consists of four distichs,
presenting not only the name of the divinity to whom the statue was erected, but that
of the artist also, Philo?i, son of Antiparer, who was the one employed by Alexander
to execute the statue of Hephaestion. The date is of course about 330 B. C.

This monument is the more interesting on account of its relation to a passage in Cicero (\err
iv. 57). In speaking of the spoliations committed by Verres, he says, there were three cele-
brated statues of Jupiter surnamed by the Greeks Urius, all of the same kind ; one originally
found in Macedonia, and removed by Flaniinius to the Roman Capitol; another, still standing
at the entrance of the Thrarian Bosphorus (in Povti ore et avffustiis) ; and the third, that seized
by Verres at :*yracuse. These s.atues have all perished.; but the pedestal above tnentioned
undoubtedly supported the second of them, which stood at the entrance of the Bosphorus.

This iuscription is found in Chandler, Autiq. Asiat. p. 49.— See also the Miscellanea of Spar., p. 332; the voyage of tVhtter



p. 269 ; tbe Analecfa of SruiicX ; and the Anthology of Jacobs. A more correct copy, taken by F. Osann, is inserted in Fr. T,
Iriedemann, and J. D. G. Sabode, Miscellanea, max. part, critica, Hildesh. IS22. vol. i. p. 288.— A cojiy, fac-simile, and English
translation, are given in Shuckford, Sac. and Prof. Hist. bk. iv.

2 u. The inscriptions on the Herculanean tablets. In 1732, at or near the site of the
ancient Herculaneum, two brazen or copper plates were found below the surface of
the earth. They are interesting as among the most authentic monuments of the
Doric dialect. One of the tablets gives the dimensions and geometric or geodetic de-
scription of a portion of land consecrated to Bacchus, and the contract for it. The
second contains the description of another portion of land pertaining to Minerva Po-
lias. The plates are now in the museum of Portici ; the second is broken into two
pieces, one of which was formerly conveyed to England. The inscriptions are as-
signed to a date a little prior to B. C. 300.

See Mich. Maittairt, Fragment. Britannicum tabulae Heracleensis. Nap. \Ti5.—Ahx. Sym. Mazochi, Commentar. in aeneai
tahulas Heracleenses. Nap. 1754. (ol.— lVinckelmann., Sendschreib. von den Herculanisch. Alterthamern. (JVerke. bd. ii.) —
Heviiti, Opusc. Acad. v. ii. p. 233. — IVebb'i .Account of a copper plate, &c. discovered near Heraclea. Lend. 1732. i.—Pettingal,
Inscription on the copper table discovered near Heraclea. 1769. 4.

3. The inscription which may be called the Olbian decree. It is interesting as a
palaeographic monument of the Greek colonies on the shores of the Euxine ; and also
as furnishing some historical and geographical facts. It is a fragment, of nearly two
hundred lines in two distinct parts, of a decree of the senate and repubUc of Olbia, a
Greek city on the Hypanis or Bug, in honor of one Protegenes, magistrate and bene-
factor of the city. It is engraved on a cippus of marble, which is preserved at Stol-
noie, in the government of Tchernigov, Russia. Its date is not certain, but has been
placed between 278 and 250 B. C.

The inscription was published by P. de Ki'pptn, in the Wiener Jahrbiicher der Literatur, vol. xx. IS22, — also in the work
Ncrdgestade des Pontus, Wien. 1S23. S.— It appeared likewise under the title Olbisches Psephisma zu Ehren des Protegenes.
Wien. 1823. 8. — Malle-Brun has a translation of it in French, with corrections and observations, in the Jlnnales des Voyages, vol.
IX. p. 13'2.

4 /{. The inscription called the Chronicon Parium, in the collection of Arundelian
or Oxford Marbles, brought to England from the island of Paros, by Thomas How-
ard, earl of Arundel, and given by him to the University of Oxford. It is a monu-
ment of great value in reference to Grecian Chronology, as "it tixes the dates of the
most remarkable events from the time of Cecrops down to the age of Alexander the
Great." Its date is supposed to be about 268 B. C.

" The -^r^ivdelian marbles sufficiently prove for what a variety of purposes inscriptions on stone
were used among; the ancients. Some of the inscriptions on them record treaties ; others, the
victories or good qualities and deeds of distinguished pei^sons ; others, miscellaneous events.
Most of them, however, are sepulchral. Bv far the most important and celebrated is the Parian
Chronicle." {Libr of Useful Knowledcre, h\fe of Ca.xton.)

The editors Sdden, Pridcaux, and Mattaire (cited below), have n-.ade learned researches upon this subject ; so also Palmerius,
in his work en'iiled Exercitat. in Aitctores Griecos. Ultraj. 1694. 4. — Robettson has endeavoured to raise doubts concerning the
authenticity of Ihese inscriptions, in a work entitled The Parian Chronicle, with a dissertation concerning its authenticity. Lond.
178S. 8. In opposition to this, see Hewletl's Vindication of the authenticity of the Parian Chronicle. Lond. 1788. 8. ; Parscm't
Review of Robertson's Dissertation, in the Monthly Review. 1789. p 690; R. Gcnigh, Vindication, &c. in Archseologia (as cited-
§ 24'2. 3.) vol. ix. p. 1.57 ; and F. C. Wagner, Die Parisclie Chronik. Gott. 1790. 8.— The Chronicle was first published by SeWen,
yiirmora Arunde!iana. I^onJ. 1628. 4.; af^erwanis by Pridcaux, Marmora Oxoniensia. Oxon. 1676. fol. ; Afa»air«, Marmora
Oxoniensia. Lend. 1732. fol Append. 1733.; Chandler, Marmora Oxoniensia. Oxnn. 1763. fol.; Wagner, ia just cited; W.
Boliert.i. O.vf. 1791. The inscription is found with an English version in Hale's Analysis of Chronology. It is given also in ilf.
Russell, Connection of Sac. and Prof. Hist. Lond. 1827. 2d vol. p. 381, with a specimen of the manner of writing, p. 337.

5. We may notice here the Milesian inscription. It was found and copied by TV.
Sherard, among the ruins of a temple of Apollo Didymseus, near Miletus. It is a
letter of Seleucus CaUinicus, king of Syria, and his broiher Antiochus Hierax, king
of Asia, addressed to the overseers of the temple, when (243 B. C.) they had made
peace with Ptolemy Euergetes I. king of Egypt. It is accompanied with a catalogue
of presents consecrated by them to the god.

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