Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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See Chishull, .Autiq. Asiat. p. 6o.—Schi:il, Litt. Gr. bk. iv. ch. xxvi.

6'. The inscription of Cyretiae. It was discovered in the valley of Titaresius, not
far from Larissa in Thessaly, by Col. Leake, who published a notice of it in the year
1815. It is a letter of Titus Quintius Flaminius, addressed to the people of Cyretise,
bestowing certain favors upon them. It is without dale, but is assigned to about 195
B.C.; and is interesting chiefly as a monument relerring to the Roman conquests in

This inscription was published by Visconti in the Journal des Savans, 1816. p. 21.— Also by Leake in the Classical Journal.
Ct vol. xiii. p. 158. xiv. p. 339.

7. One of the most interesting inscriptions is that known by the name of the Ro-
<«etta Inscription, or the Rosetta Stone. It was discovered during the expedition of
Bonaparte in Egypt about the year 1800. As a party of French troops were digging
'or the foundations of a fort at Rosetta, they disinterred a large block of black basalt


containing the remains of three inscriptions. This stone afterwards fell in'o the hands
of the English, and was deposited in the British Museum, London. A considerable
part of the first inscription was wanting; the beginning of the second and end of the
third were mutilated. The third only was in Greek.

It is a sort of decree of the Egyptian priests in honor of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, its date being
the year in which he began his reign, B. C. 193. It recounts the memorable deeds of his minority,
and pledges the erection of a statue to him in every temple ; and what is especially remarkable
on account of the results to which it has led, adds, that this decree was ordered to be engraved
in three different characters, viz. the Oreek, the Enchorial, (i.e. the common Egyptian letter),
and the Sacred or Hieroglyphic. This triple inscription, therefore, presents a specimen of hiero-
glyphiis with an authentic translation : and is the foundation of the celebrated discoveries of
Cliaiupollion (J 16). The proper names, Ptolemy and Cleopatra, occurring in the inscription, fur-
nished the clue, and the phonetic hieroglyphs which form these names were first discovered. By
means of these hieroclyphs, other names of Grecian kings and queens written in hieroalyphic3
were deciphered, and thus at length the value of all the phonetic pictures or signs was ascer-

For a more full account of the various efforts and steps connected with this discovery, see ScKll, Hist. Lilt. Gr. liv. iv. ch. xxvi.-
Sluari's Translation of Greppo, cited § 16.— .^TTier. Quart. Riv. No. ii.—Ft/r. Quart. Rev. No. viii. xiiv. xxxii.— £diiii. Rev.
No. Isxxix. xc— Supplement to Encydop Britann. Art Egypt.— C(. Bill. Repos. and Qiiart. Obs. July, 1S36, p 2i9.—instminst,
Rtv. July. 1S41; April, IS42.— Marquis Spineto's Lectures, Lend. 1819.— Count Roliano, Etudes sur I'Ecrilure, &c. de l'Eg)-pte.
Par. 1834. — Sharpens E^ypiiaa Inscriptions, Lond. 1836 —Jaiindli, Tabulse Roseltanae Hierojlyphica", &c. Neap. 1830. — Jannelli,
Fundan-.enla Hermeneutica Hieroglyphicas crypticae veterum gentium, &c. Neap 1830. Of. Cullimore, 33 cited § 16. 1.

The Greek inscription was published by Granville Peiin, under the title, The Greek Va-sion of the Decree of the Egyptian Priestf,
ic from the stone inscribed in the sacred and vulgar Egyptian, &c. Lond. 1802. — Subsequently, the three inscriptions were engraved
by the Loiidmi Society of Antiquaries, each inscription of its original size. From these engravings, lithographic copies were pub-
lished under the title, Inscriptio perantiqua, &c. in lapide nigro prope Roseltara invento, &c. Monachii, 1837. fol. — A copy of the
inscription is also contained in F. SchlichtefroU, Ueber die bey Rosette gefundene dreyfache Inschrift, MQnchen, 1818. 4.

8. The inscription on the pedestal of the obelisk of PhilfE. This stone was discovered by JV.
J. Baiikes in 1816; and, with the obelisk, was transported to England by Belzoni. Like the
Rosetta stone, this monument contains also an inscription in hieroglyphics; which, although
not a repetition of the Greek, yet has afforded aid in deciphering the hieroglyphic system of tlie
Egyptians. The Greek is a memorial addressed to Ptolemy VII. Euergetes and to his wife and
sister Cleopatra, by the priests of Isis in an island near Philse in the Nile, rpqiiesting proteclicn
for the temple and servants of the goddess against the civil and military officers.

It was published in the Journ. det Savans. 1821. p. 657. 1822. p. 212.— Also by Letronne, as cited § 92. 3.

9. The inscription of the Marbles of Cyzicus. The French consul, de Peysonnel, in
ihe latter part of the last century conveyed to France a number of marbles, which are
known by this name. The exact date of their inscriptions is not ascertained ; but
they are monuments belonging to the period of the Macedonian supremacy, not long
before that of the Romans. The most interesting of the inscriptions is a decree of the
senate and people of Cyzicus, passed on the request of three colleges of priestesses,
authorizing the erection of a statue in honor of a priestess of Cybele.

.See Crnmt de Caylus, Recueil d'Antiquites, vol. ii. p. 193. pi. lis.

In connection with the marbles of Cyzicus, it may be proper to refer to a marble found at the
site of ancient Cius, which was near to Cyzicus. It was removed to France by Count de Choi-
seul-Gouffier, and is now in the Royal Museum. The inscription consists of nine hexameters
well preserved and two nearly effaced. The date is uncertain, but belongs to the time of the
Ptolemies in Egypt; and the inscription is chiefly interesting as illustrating the connection
between several of the Egyptian deities and those of the Greeks.

It was published inaccurately, by Pococke, Inscrip. p. 30, and by Miiratori, Insc. Antiq. T. i. p. 75, as cited § 130. Three timet
by Jacobs, Anihol, voi. xii. p. 298. vol. xiii. p. 789. Anthologie Palatine, vol. ii. p. 846. — See also L. J. J. Dubois, Catal. d'Antiques
etc. formant la collect, de feu M. le Comte de Choiseul-Gcritffier,— Fir. 1818. 8. p. 74.

10. The Acarnanian inscription. It is on a stone discovered by Pouqueville, at Ac-
tium, in 1813, and acquired celebrity from its having found a learned expositor in
France. It pertains to the time when the Roman armies appeared in Greece. It is a
decree of the senate and people of Acarnania, proclaiming the brothers, Publius Acihus
and Lucius Acihus, as their friends and benefactors.

The inscription is given in F. C. H. L. Pouqueville, Voyage de la Grece, (Par. 1836. 6 vols. 8. avec cartes, &c.) vol. iii. p. 446.—
The comments of Boissonade are found in his edition of the letters of Lucas Holatenius, Paris, 1817. S.— Cf. also Classical Journal,
xvii. p. 3t:6.

11. The inscription called the decree or Psephisma of Cuma. It belongs to the time
of Augustas. It is a decree of the senate and people of Cuma in .iEoHa, in honor of
Lucius Labeo, a Roman citizen, who refused divine honors and the title of frtVri/j pro-
posed by them, and to whom therefore they determined to erect statues and assign th*'
first place at public spectacles. It consists of sixty fines, and was the largest inscrip
tionof the kind known to have escaped the ravages of time before the discovery of ih^
Olbian decree noticed above (3).

See Comte de Caylus, Recueil d'Antiquites, vol. ii. pi. 58, p. 179.

§ 92 /. We notice in the last place a few of the Greek inscriptions which have
been preserved belongingr to periods subsequent to the Christian era.

1. That on the tablet called the Marble of Colbert. This tablet is tM'o feet six inches


long and one foot six inches wide ; it was found at Athens in the 17th century. The
inscription belongs to the reign of Tiberius. It is interestiisg as it contains a hst of the
magistrates of Athens, the archon, the basileus or king, the polemarch, the thesmothe-
taB,"the heralds, &lc., who were in office in the consulship of Drusus, A. D. 15.

A faulty copy of this inscription is found in Spon'i Voyage, vol. iii. p. 106 ; one more correct in Montfaucon, PalaeographU
GiEca, p. 146.

2. The inscription respecting the Galatian spectacles. It was discovered by Tourne-
fort at Ancyra in Galatia, and belongs also to the reign of Tiberius. It commemorates
the games and sports given to the people of Galatia during the space of a year. 1'he
first part of the inscription, which probably contains the date and occasion of the shows
is illegible.

This inscrijjtion may be found also in Montfaucon, Palaeographia Graeca, p. 154.

3. The Egyptian inscriptions in honor of Roman emperors. Several have been dis-
covered ; asa that on the portico of the celebrated temple of Isis at Tentyra, near
modern Denderah, in honor of Augustus (as interpreted by Letronne) ; thatt on a
temple at 'i'entyra, dedicated to Venus, in honor of Tiberius ; thaic in honor of Nero
found in the vicinity of the Pyramids ; those in honor of Trajan, d one upon a portico
at Chemnis or Panopolis, another on a gate of a temple of Isis and Serapis at Cysis, in
the grand Oasis ; that* on the pedestal of the celebrated column called Pompey's
Pillar, supposed by many to be in honor of Diocletian.

" Hamilton, JE^ypthcsi.— LetronJie, Recherches pour servir a I'histoire de I'Egypt pendant la domination des Grecs et des Ro-
Diains. Par. 1&23. 8. &c. p. \35.—Champollion-Figeac, Lettre aM Fourier, sur I'lnsc. grecque de Denderah. Grennble, 1806.—
*9m. Quart vnl. iv.— !> Niehuhr, Inscripliones Nubienses. — Ltlronne, Recherches, &c. p. 172. — Hamilton, .Sigypliaca, p. 206. —
'Letronne, p. 3S8.— Q«ar(. Rev. 1821. p. 179 —<( Lamnne, p. 192, 2\0.—Clasiical Journal, 1821.— « ClasncalJonr„al, vol. xiii.
— £. D. Clarke's Travels in various countries, &c. pt. ii. § ii. ch. vii.— Leake, Greek Inscription Pompey's Pillar, Archxologia (»,
cited § 32. 5), vol. xv. p. 59.

4. The inscriptions on the pillars of Herodes Atticus. These two pillars, of green
marble {cipoUhw verde) called by the ancients marble of Carystus, were found at the
beginning of the 16th century, on the Appian Way, about 3 miles from Rome, near
the place called Triopium. They were removed to the gardens of Farnese, and are
often called the Farnesian Columns. One of the inscriptions consecrates a certain
portion of land to Ceres and Proserpina, and the other states that the land was
the property of Annia Regilla, the wife of Herodes. The former, in which the an-
cient Athenian manner of writing is followed, has occasioned much discussion. The
inscriptions belong to the age of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ; Herodes died A. D.

These inscriptions are found in Montfaucon, Palaengr. Grsec. lib. ii. p. 135;— ia)i:t, Saggio sulla lingua etrusca, pt. i. ch. 6;—
Itcrlzzioni greche Triopee. con versioni ed osservazioni di E. Q. Fiscojitt, Rom. 1794. 4;— and in the Remains of Herodes Atlicusi
i-diled by R. Fiorillo, Leipz. ISOl. 8. See also Nouv. Traxte de Diplomatique, ii. p. Q'ii.—B'ckh, Corpus, Uc.—DohsmL's Uratorei
.tittici, vol. iv. (Cf. P. v. 5 119.) — A specimen of the characters, in Spelman, Transl. of Dionys. Hal. vol. ii. p. 300, as cited
P. V. § 247. 3.

There are two other inscriptions, relating to Herodes, which are considered as very elegant.
They are upon two square tablets of white marble (eipolltno bianco), the Pentelican of the
ancients, quarries of which are said to have belonged to this distinguished orator. One of them
was found in 1607, on the Appian Way, not far from Rome ; and the other a few years later in'
the same place. They are now in the Royal Museum at Paris. The first inscription, in thirty-
nine he.\ametfTs, consecrates a sepulchral field to Minerva and Nemesis; the second, in fifty-
nine verses, celebrates the virtues of Regilla.

These metrical inscriptions were published by CI. Saumaise (Salmasius),Inscript. Herod. Attic. Par. 1619. 4. They are inserted
in J. Spon, Miscellanea erud. Anliquilatis. Lugd. I6S0. 4 j—Mcntelatici, Descrizzione della Villa Borghese (where the tablets were
formerly lodged in a small temple). Rom. 1700; — MaXtaire, Miscell. Graec. aliquot. Scriptorum Carmina. Lond. 1723. 4;— and io
the Anthologies of Brunch and Jacobs.

5. The Nubian inscriptions. We refer particularly to those designated by the
names oi Monumenl of Adulis, Munument of Axum, and Memorial of Silco. They are
chiefly interesting as they evince an intercourse between the Greeks and Christians
of Constantinople and the countries of Abyssinia and Nubia, in the third or fourth

The Mnnument nf Jtdulis designates two inscriptions, which were first described by the geo-
grapher Cosnias (cf P. V. ? 20T) as e.visting at Adulis. One of thein was upon a throne or armed
chair of white marble. The other was upon a tablet of basanite (paaaviTov) or touchstone,
placed near the chair. The latter related to the conquests of Ptolemy Euergeies. Cosmas sup-
posed both to refer to the same monarch ; the inscriptions, as thus presented by him, have
seemed to critics to involve such difficulties as to justify them, since the monument itself is not
now found, in charging Cosmas with credulity or imposture. But the discovery, in recent times,
of thf! Monument nf.Szum\s thought to have removed the difficulty, as it has suggested the idea
tliat the inscription on the chair did not refer to Ptolemy, but to a Nubian or Ethiopian prince as
late perhaps as the third cei.tiiry. — The Monument of Azum is an inscription which was found
rtmoiig the ruins of Axmn (cf. P. \. } ITS) by Mr. Salt, who accompanied Lord Valentia in his
travls in these regions. It commemorates the victories gained by a brother of king Aizanas
over a reliellinus nation, and furnishes evidence of an intercourse in the fourth century beiw^en
("Constantinople and Abyssinia. — The Memorial, of Silco was found on a temple in upper Ethiopia.
)t It IK honor of iht victories of Silco, a king of Nubia and Ethiopia; a long inscription, and

r. rv. COINS and medals. 849

interesting particularly from its reference to the introduction of Christianity into these

The two inscriptions of Ad u I i s were published as one, by L. Allatiw, Rom. 1631. 4. before the Topngrapliy of Cosmos had
been printed.— They are given in Chiahtill, as cited § ST.— The best text is by Buttmatm ; see the Museum clcr Altertbums-Wis-
tenschafl, vol. ii.— Salt's Travels in Abyssinia.— The inscription of Axu m is published in the Travels of Lord Yakutia.— AUo
in the Class. Joum. vol. i. p. S3. Cf. iii Ul.—Lond. Quart. Rev. ii. 116.— Oe Sacy, sur I'inscription d'Axum, in Malle-Brwi's
Annales des Voyages, vol. xii. p. 330.— The inscription of S i I co is given in B. C. Niebuhr, Inscript. Nubiensis. Rom. 1820. 4.—
Litronne, Exanien de I'inscript. grecque dans le temple de Talniis, &c. par le roi Nubien Silco, in the Mtm. de f/jiJliruf, Classo
d'Hittotre et Lit. Ancienne, vol. ix. p. 128.— Cf. Gau. Aniiq. de la Nubia, cited § 243. 3.

(b) Coins and Medals.

§ 93. An acquaintance with ancient coins affords assistance in the pursuits
of classical literature in several ways. We shall here consider them chiefly
with respect to the inscriptions they bear. In this point of view, the Grecian
coins, which now remain, present some of the most ancient specimens of Greek
written characters, and serve for evidences of the different changes these have
undergone. But coins and medals may also, by the inscriptions, legends, and
impressions on them, cast very considerable light upon language, criticism,
history, geography, chronology, and even natural history.

1. " Such a number of events have been recorded by ancient medals," says
Priestley in his Lectures on History, " and so great has been the care of the moderns
in collecting and preserving them, that they now give great light to history. It is
remarkable that history scarce makes any mention of Balbec, or Palmyra, whose
ruins are so famous ; and we have little knowledge of them but what is supphed by
inscriptions. It is by this means that Mr. Vaillant has disembroiled a history which
was lost to the world before his time. For out of a short collection of medals he has
given us an entire chronicle of the kings of Syria."

See J. F. f^aMant, Seleucidarura Imperium, sive Historia Regum Syriss, ad Fidem Numismatum accommodata. Hagse Com.
1732. fol. Par. 16S1.— The same author attempted the elucidation of Parthian and Egyptian history by the aid of coins and medals ;
/. F. Vaillant, Arsacidarum Imperium, sive Regum Parthorum Historia, &c. Par. 1728. 8.— By sarru, Historia Ptolemasorun:
Egypti Regum. Amst. 1701. fol.— He also wrote upon Roman coins; see § 138.

2. A peculiar source of interest to the fancy in studying medals is furnished by the
various symbols impressed upon them. Some of these symbols represent the ancient
deities ; e. g. the laurel is a symbol of Apollo ; ivy and grope, of Bacchus ; the poppy,
of Proserpine ; cor7i, of Ceres; the olive and also the owl, of Minerva; the dove, of
Venus ; a torch, of Diana. Other symbols represent countries or cities ; as pomegra-
nate flowers, Rhodes; owl, Athens; tortoise, Peloponnesus; wolf's head, Argos ;
bulVs head, Baeotia; crescent, Byzantium. Others represent abstract qualities or
offices; as a caduceus, peace; a cornucopia, abundance; an altar, piety; the lituus,
or twisted wand, augurship ; the apex, or cap with strings, Pontificate. — See the coins
represented in Plate XL,

3. "Medals have likewise been a means of transmitting to us a more perfect knowledge of
many things which we are desirous nf foiming an idea of, than any history, by means of verbal
description, could possibly give us. We find upon them traces of customs and manvers,xhe figures
of ancient buildings, instruments, habits, and a variety of things which show the state of the
or<s and conveniences of life, in the age wherein Itie medals were struck; and many things in
nature which historians have passed unnoticed, as being familiar in tlie times in which they
wrote, or have omitted as not being aware that they would ever engage the curiosity of after

"It is also very amusing to view upon medals the features of the great men of antiquity;
which, if they were struck in an age in which the arts flourished, as is the case with many of
the Roman, and particularly of the Grecian medals, we can have no doubt but that they are
sufficiently exact. And even if they were struck in an age which did not excel in the arts of
painting, statuary, and carving ; yet, as faces are cfiiefly drawn upon coins in profile, any person
who has taken notice of shadows, may conceive that a very striking likeness may eMsilv be hit
off in that way. However, in general, so extremely exact are the drawinss of most single
objects upon the old medals of the best ases, that even those famous painters Raphael, Le Bruyn,
and Rubens, thought it worth their while thoroughly to study them, and preserve cabinets of
them. And indeed the generality of figures on many of the Grecian medals have a design, an
attitude, a force and a delicacy, in the expression even of the muscles and veins of ir^man
figures, and they are supported by so high a relief, that they infinitely surpass both the Roman
medals and most of the moderns." (.Priestley, as above cited. Lect. vi.)

§ 94. We cannot determine, with certainty, either the precise time when
money was first coined in Greece, nor the country where it was first introduced
Ancient writers differ in their accounts. The point of precedence has bee»

2 G



asserted by different authors in favur of the Lydians, the ^ginetans, the Thessa-
hans, and the Phoenicians, as being the first, who used coined money.

1 u. Homer makes no mention of coined money ; which renders it probable that
during the age of this poet, or at least in the time of the Trojan war, such money did
not exist, and that exchanges were made by barter, or by the use of pieces of metal,
whose weight and value were determined at each exchange, or by the merchant's
mark. The earhest notice of such a use of metal is in a passage of Genesis (xxiii. 16)
referring to the bargain which Abraham made with king Abimelech, for a portion of

2. The Lydians, says Mifford, "were the first people known to the Greeks to
have exercised retail trades, and the first who struck coins of gold and silver. Coins
are singularly adapted to convey to late ages and distant countries exact information
of the progress of art and taste ; and the exact couis of the Lydian kings, the oldest
known to exist, exhibit remarkable proofs of the elegant taste and excellent work-
manship of their early era."

See H'achlerii Archseologia Dumaria. Lip. 1740 4. — Eckhd, Doctrina Num. Vet. Prolej. cap. iii. cited § 99. 1. — JahnU Heb.
Antiquities, bv Upham, § llD.—Hecren'i Reflect, p. 193, as cited 5 40.

§ 95. Of the Grecian coins still existincr, some authors regard those of
Phidon, king of Argos, who lived shortly after the time of Homer, as of the
highest antiquity. Strabo (lib. viii.) and the Arundelian Marbles testify that
this king coined money in the island of ^'Egina. But it is doubtful whether the
silver coins stamped with his name, of which there is one in the royal collection
at Berlin, were struck during his reign, or after his death for the purpose of
perpetuating his memory.

1 71. The coins of Amyntas, king of ^Macedonia, who hved about the time of Cyrus,
if genuine, may be considered as among the most ancient which have been preserved.
The characters which we find upon their reverse, B.AMIMTOY.M. (cf. Plate XL. fig. 4.,
may be explained thus, Bao-jAE&j 'A/ii>rf)T; MukcSoviov. A golden Cyrenaic coin of De-
monax, who was sent from Mantinea to settle the affairs of Cyrene, in the time of
Pisistrafus, would seem to be still more ancient, had it not the appearance of being a
medal stamped at a later period as a memorial.

2 u. When the characters upon Grecian coins are found written from right to left,
it is quite probable that they are of high aniiqiuty, particularly when the devices upon
them show a rude state of art. Of this class there are a number of coins of certEun
cities in Magna Graecia, as Sybaris. Caulonia, Posidonia, and some ancient Sicihan
coins from the cities Leontium, Messina, Segesta, and Syracuse. But there are
many coins bearing the names of Theseus, Achilles, Hector, Ulysses, &c., which are
certainly not of a very ancient stamp.

See fV. Jacnb, Histor. Inquiry into ttie Pr..duciion and Consumption of the Precious Metals. Lond. 1S3I. 2 vols. 8. (Vol. i.
p. 145.)— Especially see Midler, Archlologie derKuiist, cited § 32. 4.

3. The following table, from the British Encyclopaedia, presents a chronological
classification of ancient Greek coins.

"1. Those without imprsssion. — 2. With one or more hollow indented marits on one side,
and an impression in relief on the other. — Of Chalcedim on the Hellespont, Lesbos, Abdera in
Thrace, Acanthus in Macdon, those said to belong to jE?ium in Arhaia or iEffina, having the
figure of the tortoise. Tliis class continues from about 900 to 700 B. C— 3. With an indented
square divided into spguients, havina a small figure in one of them, the rest blank, with a figure
in relief on the obverse.— Of Syracuse and oth^r places adjacent.— Continue from 700 to 600
B. C— 4. Coii\s hollow on the reverse, with figures in relief on the obverse. — Of Caulor»ia. Cro-
tona, Metapontum, <fcc. Sti!)nosed bysouie to be a local coinage of Magna Grsecia : but probably
of equal nntiquity with the fi)rmer. — 5. Coins in which a square die is used on one side or both
sides. — Of Athens, Cyrene, Argos. &c. — Of Alexander I. and Archelaus I. of .Macedon. Disused
in the rei^n of the latter, about 420 B. C. — 6. Complete coins, both in obverse and reverse, occijr
first in Sicily in the time of Gelo, about 491 B. C— Coins of Alexander the Great and his suc-
cessors. About the lime of this hero the Greek coins began to attain to perfection, and were
struck of uncommon beauty. It is remarkable, that on the coins of this monarch his own image
seldom occurs. After his death many coins bore his portrait. Trebellius Pollio informs us that
some coins, particularly those of Alexander, used to be worn as amttlets ; and many medals are
met with in cabinets seemingly with that intHiuion.— 8. Coins of the successors of Alex-
ander. — Those of the Syrian moTiarclis alnmst equal the coins of .Mexander himsi-lf in beauty.

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