Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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fit only for slaves.

^ 113 u. Even in this period, however, there appear a few traces of a dawning culti-
vation. We may specify as particulars, the care which, in the time of Tarquin the
Proud, the civilian Papirius employed in preparing a collection of the laws; the em-
bassy sent to Athens, about 454 B.C., to examine the institutions of Greece, which resulted
in the establishment of the laws of the twelve Tables ; the preservation of the national
history in the pontifical books called Annales, or Commentarii, parts of which were
written in verse, and were sung upon public days; and finally the introduction, about
B. G. 363, of the Etrurian plays, called ludi sceiiici, in which originated the Roman
drama. These plays at first consisted of nothing but dancing and pantomime accom-
panying the music of the flute.

After the Romans had extended their conquests over Italy, they began to bestow
more attention upon the arts and sciences. There were in Italy at this time two na-
tions particularly, by whom the arts had been especially cultivated ; the inhabitants of
Eiruria and oilSIagna Grcecia. (Cf. ^ 109. 3, and § 111.) Both these nations were sub-
jected to the Romans more than 250 years before Christ ; the former about B. C. 283 ;
the latter, B. C. 266. The Romans were thereby brought into greater intercourse
with them. The influence of this intercourse upon the culture of the Romans was
favorable, but was not very great until the close of the first Punic war, B.^ C. 241.

§ 1 14. The origin of the Latin language cannot be traced to any one primitive
longue, because Italy in the early periods was occupied by so many people, and


it is SO uncertain 'vvhich of them were the most ancient. Among the earliest
occupants were no doubt the Celtee, or the Pelasgi, who came from Thracia and
Arcadia, and seem to have been of the same race as the aborigines. Grecian
colonists subsequently planted themselves in the middle and lower part of
Italy; where also, as well as in Sicily, Phoenicians and Carthaginians after-
wards settled ; as likewise did the Gauls in the northern nart of the country.
The first foundation of the Roman tongue was probably the dialect which has
been termed Ausonian or Oscan (^Lingua Osca). Romulus was perhaps educated
among the Greeks, and seems on this account to have introduced into his city
the Greci-an language, while the native tongue, not having fixed rules and analo-
gies of its own, must have been liable to arbitrary changes, and would borrow
many peculiarities from other dialects. We find in the derivation of many Latin
words, and in the general structure of the language, frequent traces of the Greek,
especially the tEoHc dialect. The resemblance between the Greek and Latin
alphabets has already been mentioned (§ 110).

1 u. Properly speaking, the Latin and the Roman languages are not the same. The
former was spoken in Latium, between the I'iber and the Liris, until the abolition of
the regal government in Rome ; and was introduced at Rome after that period. The
laws of the twelve Tables were in this dialect.

2. "The population of Ital}' beinu composed of various people, there were of course various
languages and idioms in the country, as the Ombrian, Etruscan, Sicanian, Latin, and others.
The Latin was the primitive language of the people of Latium, and gradually took the jtlace
of all the rest. The ancient inhabitants of Latium constituted a part of the Aborigines, but this
term indicates scarcely more than that their real origin was unknown. They are sometimes
also called Aiisonians. According to Dionysius Halicarnasseus, they were Arcadians. But it
is more prnbalile they were Illyrians, or Celtre, or rather a mixture of these two races with
the Pelasgic colonists. In fact, we may see in the Latin language two fundamental idioms, the
Celtic, and the Greek of the -Colic and Doric dialects, which nearly resembled the ancient Pe-
asgic. Every thing in the Latin which is not Greek is from the Celtce, and especially the
Ombri. Dionysius therefore had reason for his remark, that the ancient idiom of Rome was
neither entirely Greek nor entirely barbarian. As Latium contained anciently several inde-
pendent tribes, there were several dialects, among them those of the Osci, the Volsci, the Latini,
and the Samnites. All these dialects gradually disappeared, and were sunk in the Roman lan-
guage, as the Romans became masters of Italy. The use of it was regarded as an acknowledg-
ment of their supremacy, and when the allies made an attempt to throw off the Roman yoke,
they resumed their primitive languages on the money they stamped The Julian law, passed
shortly after, B. C. about 90, bestowing upon these states the rights of Roman citizenship, struck
a mortal blow at all these idioms, as it forever banished them from public transactions. The
Etruscan alone survived for any considerable time, being favored on account of the respect
affected by the Roman government towards the rites of the Tuscans."

See Sdi'lt, Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. i. p. 37, as cited ^ i09. 1.— On the origin of the Latin laneua^e, see also Dunlop, Hist Rom. Lit.
vol. i. p. 42, as ciled 5 109. I.—Niebiihr, Hist, of Ronje, vol. \.— Class. Juuni. iii. 217 ; vi. 375 ; ix. 219 ; xviii 3od—Funccius,
Deorigine Lat. Ling. Traclatus, Giesss, 1720; De Pueritia L. L. Tractalus. Marb. 1720; De Adolescentia L. L. Trad. Marb. 1720.
Tliese are separate portions of a History of Latin Literature, by T. N. Funk, of Rinlein, published at .Marburg, between 1720 and
1750, in 8 vo^s' 4. For the other portions, see P. V. § 299. 8.— We refer also to /. C. F. Bdhr, Geschichte der Rom. Literatur.
Carlsr. 1832. 8. p. 1.— 7aM,GermanischerUrsprung der Lat. Sprache, &c. Bresl. 1S30.— Cf. For Quart. Rev. No. sx —Pauli/io di
S. Bartolomeo, De Lat. Serm. origine, &c. Rom. 1802.— Compare the remarks on (he families of languages, in § 36, and rtferencts
there given — Sears, Hist of Lat. Lang, in Classical Studies, cited P. V. § 6. 4.

3m. During the period preceding the close of the first Punic war, the Roman lan-
gtiage was in no settled state. It was necessarily exposed to be a mixture of various
idioms, from the diversity of foreigners who composed the early population of Rome.
Traces of the old forms of the language are found in fragments of the earliest poets,
and also in the comedies of Plautus. It was not until the close of the period of which
we have spoken, that any attention was paid to the regular settling of the principles
and forms of the language, and not until a still later time that any approved author
labored upon the cultivation of style. During all this time, therefore, the language
continued in a changing state.

4. There are still extant some monuments of the language during the period pre-
ceding the first Punic war. To these it will be proper briefly to advert.

The earliest specimen is supposed to be as ancient as the time of Romulus, the Hymn chanted
iy the Fratrts Arvales. It is given by Dunlop, with an English version, as follows :
Enos Lases juvate Ye Lares, aid us! Mars, thou God of Mieht I

Neve luerve Marmar sinis incurrer in From Murrain shield the flocks, the flowers from

pleoris. blight.

Satiir fufere Mars: limen sali sta berber: For thee, O Mars! a feast shall be prepared;
Semones allernei advocapit cunctos, Salt, and a wether froAi the herd :

Eiios Marmor juvate; Invite, by turn, each Demigod of Spring;

Triumpe, Iriumpe Great Mars, assist us! Triumph! Triumph sing!

The hymn is explained somewhat differently by different interpreters.— See Dunlop, Hist. Rom. Lit. vol. i. p. i\.—Sch:U, Hist.
Rnm. Litt. vol. i. p. i\.—Bdhr, as above ciled, p. 61.— Eustace, Class. Tour id Italy, vol. iii. p. 416.— Comp. Hermann, £lem
Doct. Metric, lib. iii. c. iz. 6, where be gives an interpretation in the Uter Latin. — Edinb. Rev. No. 80. p. 395.

46 2 H


The next specimeiK belong to the time of Numa, and consist in the remains of the Carmen
Saliare, and of the Laws of J\riima. Of the former, vvliich was the hymn sune by the Salic priests
appointed under Numa to guard the Sacred Shields, there remain only a Yew words, cited by
Varro (De Ling. Lat. lib. vi. 1, 3.) Of the latter, some fragments are preserved by Festus. The
following is an example ; Sei cuips hemnnem loebesom doln sciens mortei diiit pariceidad estod sei in
imprudens se duln malnd oceisit pro capited oceisei et vateis eiius evdo covcinued arietsm subicitod:
Which is interpreted, in the later language, as follows; Sj quis hinninem liberum dole sevens morti
dcderit, parririda estu ; Si eum imprudens, sine dolo walu, occiderit, pro capite occisi et natis ejus in
cniiciunem arietem subjicito. -Festus has preserved also a law ascribed to Servius TuUius, fifth
king of Rome.

After the fragments of the Reiral Laws, we have no montimeiit of the language until we come
to the Laws of the Tirclve Tables, B. C. 450. It may be doubted whether the genuine original
reading has been preserved invariably in the fragments which are now extant.

For specimens, see Sch.ll, Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. i. p. io. — Cf. P. V. § 561.

Additional monuments of the language in the period now spoken of are the Duillian, Sdpian,
and Eugubian Inscriptions, which will be mentioned on a subsequent page. (Cf. $ 133.)

5. It may be worthy of observation that, in the time of Cicero, there seem to have
been mari<.ed differences in the Roman language according as it was spoken in the city,
or in the country, or in the conquered provinces ; the language of the city being de-
signated as the sermo urhunus; that of the country, the senno rusticaiius i and that of
the provinces, tlie sermo per egrinus. — Cic. De Urat. iii. 10 — 14

II. — Of the Roman Alphabet^ Method of Writing, and Books.

§ 115. Ancient Grammarians do not altogether agree concerning the nature
and number of the original Latin or Roman letters. Marias Victorinus men-
tions the following; A, B, C, D, E, I, K, L, M, N, 0, P, Q, R, S, T; 16 in
number. Of these, Q is not found in the Greek alphabet, but corresponds to
the Greek xoTirta (§ 46); C was sometimes equivalent to it. V, used both as a
consonant and as a vowel, was subsequently added ; originally I or was used
instead of V as a vowel ; and instead of B as a consonant the tEoUc Digamma
F was employed. It was in this way that F obtained its place as a letter.
H, G, X, Y, Z, were also added at a later period.

Conip. Dionys. Hal. Ant. Rom. i 36. Plin. N. H. vii. 56, 57.— roc Ann. xi. 14.— On the subject of tlie Roman alphabet, se«
also Port Royal Latin Grammar, bk. ix —On its origin, Lanzi. Sa»»io di Lin?. Etrusc— £dAr, p. 12, as cited § 114. 2. and refer-
ences given by him. He considers the Roman alphabet as derived from the Greek.

§ 116. The ancient orthography differed from that of later times, from the
fact that the pronunciation was much changed. To see this clearly, it will only
be necessary to compare with the modern orthography, the original of a passage
in a decree of the senate respecting the Bacchanales (§ 133), which is one of the'
most ancient monuments of Roman writing, about B. C. 186. The passage in
the original form is as follows: neve, posthac. inter, sed. coniovrase. neve.
coMvoviSE. neve, conspondise. neve, conpromesise. velet. neve, qvisqvam.


QVISQVAM. FECISE. VELET. In the later Orthography, as follows: Neve -posthac
inter se cunjurasse, neve convovisse, neve conspundisse, neve comprojuisisse vellet,
neve quisquam Jidem inter se dedisse vellet, sacra in ucculto ne quisquam fecisse
vellet, neve in publico, neve in privato, neve extra urlem sacra quisquam fecisse

Rejpectini this decree, see § 133. 4.— On the various changes in orthography, see Duitlop, Hist. Rom. Lit. i. p. 48.— Port Royal
Lat. Gram. bk. \x.—Funccius De Pueritia Ling. Lat. c 5. and De Adolescentia Ling. Lat c l.—Teirasm, Hist de la Jurispru-
dence Rnm. pt. i.

§ 117. Not only in ancient times, but even in the later and most flourishing
period of their literature, the Romans wrote only in capital letters. The small
Roman letters did not come into general use until the beginning of the middle
ages. If small letters (literae minutas) wer'e employed earlier, it vras only a
smaller size of the capitals.

1. A writer in the Ardiceotogia of the London Antiquarian Society (for 1836) has
made an attempt^ to show that minuscule writing (i. e. v/riting in the small letters) was
practiced by the ancients ; although this is contrary to the opinion, which had previously


been generally re'ceived. — The view of this writer seems to be confirmed by the sped-
mens2 of writing found on some of the ruins of Pompeii ; and more fully by the inscrip-
tions on the waxen tablets^ discovered in Transylvania in 1607 and first pubhshed in

1 See W^ r. OttleyU account of the MS. of Cicero's Aralus, as mentioned § 142. 2.—* Of. C. Wordsworth, Specimens and Fac-
similes of ancient writing found on the walls and streets of Pompeii. Lond. 1838. 8.-3 See account of the Daciau Tablets, § 13,1. 7.

2 M. When the writers wished to take down a spoken discourse, or to note something
in the margin, they formed abbreviations {notoi) by using the initial letters, or some of
the principal letters, of the words, or by using particular signs for the syllables of most
frequent occurence, or arbitrary characters standing for whole words. The most re-
markal)le of these signs or characters are the notcB TironiancB, the invention of which
is ascribed to Annasus Seneca, and to Cicero's freedman Tiro ; from the latter of whom
they derived their name. Gruter and Car-pentier have collected and attempted to ex-
plain these characters; it has been done more completely by Kopp in treating of the
Tachygraphy of the ancients. Some have imagined that our small numericaffigures
derived their origin from these characters, instead of being, as is commonly believed,
an invention of the Arabians ; but there is no ground for the supposition.

3. There are manuscripts in existence of great antiquity, written in short hand. Some of
hese are in Greek. According to Kopp, the Greei< notes or abbreviated signs are more easy and
imple than the Tironian, and in appeaiance more similar to modern short hand.

See Carpentier, Alphabetum Tironianum. Par. 1747. fol. — U. F. Kopp, Tacliygraphia Veterurn exposita et illustrata. Manheim,
17. 2 vols. A.—Gi-uUr, as cited § 130. -The Roman nolx are also exhibited in GrutcrU Seneca, cited P. V. § 469. 4.— Cf. Class,
cnirnal, vol. xxxix. p. IS2.

§ 118. The books of the Romans, both the more ancient and those of later
imes, resembled, in form and material, the books of the Greeks. (See § 56, 57.)
The rolls among the Romans were called vo/umina,- the leaves composing them,
vaginae (from the word pangere, to put together); the sticks upon which they
were rolled, cyUndri, also bacilli, surculi ; the knobs or ornaments at the ends
of the sticks, umbilici or cornua ; and the edges of the xoWb, fnmtes. In writing
the first draft of any thing, whether in accounts or letters, the Romans commonly
made use of tablets covered with wax {tabiilx ceratae, cer-ee,). They also had
books, made and folded in the same manner as ours, of square leaves of vellum
or papyrus, which they called codices. Their instruments for writing were the
style {stylus, graphium), and the reed {calamus, arundn). They used ink of
several dyes or colors. And coypists introduced the same ornaments in writing
manuscripts as among the Greeks. Comp. §§ 55, 58, 104.

1. A mode of adorning manuscripts frequently practiced was to place on the first
page a portrait of the author {Mart. xiv. 186).

The paper used by the Romans was formed from the Egyptian papynis, a species
of rush, which was procured on the banks of the Nile ; where it grows to the height
often feet and more. The term 6/?)Z//s (/3i/?Aos) was also applied to the same plant.
Hence we have our words paper and Bihle. The papyrus was used for purposes of
writing at a very early period (cf § 107. 5) . Manufactories of the paper existed at
Memphis, it is stated, more than 600 years before Christ. At the time of the conquest
of Egypt by the Romans, it was made chiefly at Alexandria.

Pliny gives a description of the manner of making the paper. One layer of the fibrous mem-
branes {■philyrm) was placed crosswise upon another layer; they were then moistened with the
water of the Nile, pressed, and dried in the sun. Bruce atiirm.'? that the water of the Nile is
not glutinous, and that the strips of papyrus adhere together solely by the saccharine matter
contained in the plant, and that the water must have been used only to dissolve and diffuse this
matter equally. After being dried, it was pounded with a mallet and polished with a tooth,
shell, or other smooth substance. It was then cut into sheets or k.-ives {jilagidic, schedce), which
were of various Qualities and kinds. A number of sheets were joined together to form a roll or
volume; the number was never greater than twenty ; the term seupvs was employed to desig-
Tiate collectively any number thus joined. The sheets were glued together for a volume or ma-
nuscript by slaves, termed glutinatores (i. q. libmrum compact ores, /3iP\ioTrr)y6i). — The papyrus
manuscripts lately found in Egypt (cf. $ 107. 4. 5) appear to have been prepared in the manner
here described.

See Pliny. Nat. Hist. xiii. 11, \2.—Mmtfauc<m, sur la plante appelle Papyrus, &c. in the Mem. de TAcad. des Inscrip. vi. p. 592.
Caylus, also, in the same Mem. &c. xxvi. 267 .—Schwartz, as below cited.— 7. Bruce, Travels in E;ypt, Abyssinia, &c. Edii,
1790. 5 vols. 4. vol. y. p. 1, with a plate showing the papyrus in full growth. See our Plate XXXVIII. fig. C.

2. The ink commonly used was black {airamenlum librarium). But a vermilion
termed minuim was employed in marking titles and heads; a purple {coccus, purpura)
was used for the same purpose: and also a red called ruhrica, whence originated the
modern word rubric. The basis of the common ink was, according to Phny, the black
taken from burnt ivory, and soot from furnaces and baths.

"The black liquor of the cutlle-fish (sepia) is also said to have been used as ink, principally
on the authority of a metaphorical e.xpression of the poet Persius (Sat. iii. 14). But of what-
ever ingredients it was made, it is certain from chemical analysis, from the solidity and black-



ness in the most ancient manuscripts, and from an inkstand found at ITerculaneum, in which
*.iie ink appears like a thick oil, that the ink was much more opaque as well as encaustic than
that used at prpsent." — The atramentum tectorium or pictnriinii was a sort of varnish used by
pointers; the atramentum siitorium, a dye used by shoemakers and leather-stainers.

On the whole subject of ancient books, and the materials and instruments of wri'in? amone the ancients, see Ch. G. Schwartz, De
Ornanuntis libroruin et varia rei literarias veterum supellectile dissertationes. Lips. 1756. 4.— See also Becker, Gallus, i. p. 163;
Taylor, as cied § 58 ; and references given § =3.— On ink, see Caneparius, De Atramentis cujusque generis. Lend 1660.

In Plate XXXVIII. fi;. a, we have a fine specimen of the ancient M.S. roll ; it is a Hebrew synagogue roll, belonging to the British
Mu-eum ; said loconsi-tof forty brown African skins attached together; written in one hundred and fifty three columns, twenty-two
in hes deep, and five inches wide ; each column having sixiy-hree lines. The reader passed from column to column, unrolling the
volume from one stick and rolling It upon the other, the ornamented ends of the sticks serving for handles.

The fi:;ures rf, £,/, of the sime Plate, are from remains found at Pompeii ; t, a boy holding a closed roll or volume ; d, a girl with
a tlyle and a set of lableLs called pugillares ; and /, another girl reading a roll partly opened.

3. It seems proper here briefly to notice and explain some other Latin terms and
phrases used in reference to the subject now under notice.

Adversaria, note-hooks, memotandums ; re-
ferre in adversdria. to take a menioraniiuin.

JilbiuH, a tablet on which the praetor's edicts
were written.

Atramentarinm, used by later writers for ink-
stand {tiiXav£6xo<;); in Plate XXXVIL amon?
he figures grouped under No. 1, is an inkstand
with a reed (ralamns) lyingjipon it, as drawn in
paining found at Herculaneum.
Jliitoffraiihus, aiitogra|)h. a manuscript writ-
en by the author's own hand; i. q. idio^raphus.

Bibliupola, a bookseller (/3i0XioTrioXr];, 0l/3-
Xto/caTTr/Aof). Among the chief places occupied
jy booksellers at Rome were, the street called
Jlrffileium (Mart. Ep. i. 4); the victis Sundaiarius
(Ji'ul. Gdl. xviii. 4); the vicinity of the temples
of Janus (Hor. .Sat. L iv. 71) and Verlumnus.

Bibliotheca, a library, see J 126.

Capsa, a place for keeping books, paper, or
instruments for writing, an escritoir, a case;
i. q. scritnum, arcula, Inr.ulus. The capsa is re-
presented as a cylindrical box, in which the
manuscripts or rolls were placed vertically, the
titles being at the top. Thus many volumes
could be coinprised w;thin a small space. See
our Plate XXXVII. fig. 6, which represents an
open capsa, as exhibited in a painting found at

Capsarius, the slave carrying the capsa, for
boys of rank, to school.

Charta, paper; this word received various
epithets, modifying its signification ; as Ch. den-
tata, polished ptper, smoothed by the tooth of a
boar or some animal; Ch.. Augusta re^ia, Ch.
Claudiana, very superior or fine paper ; Ch. em-
poretica, wrapping paper for merchants; Ch.
macroculla, very large paper; Charta Pergame-
na, i. q. membrana, parchment made of sheep-

Chartaria (officina) , shop or place where pa-
per was made.

Chirographus, written with one's own hand.

Chirographam, one's own signature or name
written by himself; often a note of hand given
by a debtor to his creditor. A document with
the names ipf two contracting parlies thus writ-
ten was called sipigrapha.

Codicillus, a little bor)k ; see libelti.

Cominentarii, accounts written about one's
self; also journals or registers, i. q. Diaria,

Coinmeniaricnsis. a recorder, or register.

Diphthera (SiqiOipa), sometimes used for
parchment; Diphthera Juvis, register-book of

Diploma (i. q. libellus duplicatus, consfs'.ing
of two leaves, written on one side), a writiijg
conf-^rrins some peculiar right or privilege,
granted by a masistrate or emperor.

Diptycha, two tablets which could be folded
together; see Tabiibi. In the time of the em-
pire, consuls and oilier magistrates, on the day
of entering ir.vm office, used to distribute such
tablets, heariiit; their names and p rlraits. Cf
Mun/faucnn, Ani. Gxpl. vol. iii. Suprtl. p. 220.

Epietala, a letter to one absent. The Romans

divided their letters, if long, into pages, folded
them in the form of a little book, tied them
round with a thread (lino obtigare), covered the
knot with wax or a kind of chalk (creta), and
sealed it (obsignare); hence epistolas resignare,
solvere, to open a letter. The name of the writer
was always put first, then that of ihe person
addressed; the word salutem or letter S was
annexed. The letter always closed with some
form of a good wish or prayer, called subscriptio.
The date was usually added, sometimes the
hour of the day. Letters were usually sent by
a slave, called tabellarius, there being no eslab-
lislied post until the time of the emperors, when
its use was chiefly confined to the imperial ser-
vice. (Oibbon, Rom. Emp. ch. ii.) The slave or
freedman employed to write letters was termed
amanuensis (a manu).

Folium, a leaf of a book; leaves of trees or
plants having been employed originally to write
upon; hence our word /o/?o.

Liber, inner bark; used in early times as a
material for writing; hence put for book; ap-
plied to the thin coats or rind, particularly of
the papyrus.

Libelli, generally signifying imperial mes-
sages, public orders, memorials, petitions, or
the like, as these were divided itito pages and
folded in a small book, somewhat in our form;
the term Cndicilli was used in the same sense,
but generally applied to a person's last will.— •
Libelli accusntorii, written accusations, usually

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