Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

. (page 76 of 153)
Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 76 of 153)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


periods, tlie beginning of the reign of the Antonines, A. D. 138, being the epoch of
separation. It is by some divided into three, the first from Augustus°to Antoninus,
A. D. 14' — 138, the second from Antoninus to Constantine, A. D. 138 — 313, the third
from Constantine to the fall of the empire, A. D. 313 — 476.

On the periods in the history of Roman literature, see P. V. § 296, 301.

2. Some of the emperors after Augustus patronized letters ; and during a portion of
the time the declension of literature was not owing to the want of imperial encourage-
ment. Under Hadrian the empire flourished in peace and prosperity, and men of letters
were honored. The reign of the Antonines was also favorable to literature and the
arts. After the death of Marcus Aurehus Antoninus, A. D. 180, the imperial influence
was much less propitious to learning. From this event to the reign of Constantine,
conspiracies and seditions, bloodshed and devastation, mark the history. Constantine
is said by his biographer Eusebius to have been a warm patron of letters, but his reign
perhaps accelerated rather than retarded the declension of Roman hterature. The
estabUshment of Christianity by him necessarily tended to encourage a new system of
education, and a new form and spirit of literature. Julian the apostate, who received
the imperial throne A. D. 361, less than 30 years after the death of Constantine, made
violent but ineffectual efforts to restore the intellectual influence wholly to the pagans,
absolutely prohibiting Christians to teach in the public schools of grammar and rhet'oric;
vainly hoping in this way to hinder the propagation of the Christian religion.

See Bermgtcrn, Lit. History of the Middle Ages, bk. \.— Gibbon, Hist. Rom. Emp. ch. iii. xiii. xxiii.— f. Rehm, Handbuch
der Geschichte des Mittelallers. Lpz- 1S28. 4 vols. S.—Hallam's Introduction cited § S5. \.—Hallam's Middle Ages, bk. iv. pt. i.
— Comp. § 81.— On Hadrian's regard to literature, &c. see Sainte Croix, in the Mem. Acad. Jnscr. vol. xlix. p. 405.

3. Among the circumstances contributing to the decline of letters, especially to the
depravation of taste among the Romans, some have mentioned the custom of authors
in publicly rehearsing or reciting their own productions. The desire of success natu-
rally led the writer to sacrifice too much to the judgments or caprice of the audhors in
order to secure their plaudits of approbation.

SeeSc/ifH, Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. ii. p. 251.— Gi'ert'?, Excursus de recitationibus Romanorum, in his edition of Pliny's Letters.
Lpz. 1802. 2 vols. 8. Contained also in iematie'i Piiny, vol. ii. p. 219.

4. The Roman language suffered from the vitiating influence of intercourse with
provincial strangers who flocked to Rome. Many of these were admitted to the rights
of citizenship and even received into offices of honor. It was impossible, that the pe-
culiarities of their respective dialects should not modify in some degree the spoken lan-
guage, and the consequences might ere long appear even in the style of writing. The
purity of the language was much impaired before the time of Constantine. The re-
moval of the government from Rome to Constantinople occasioned still greater changes
in it; particularly by the introduction of Greek and Oriental words with Latin termina-
tions. The invasions and conquests of the barbarians completed the depravation of the
Roman tongue, and laid the foundation for the new languages which took its place.

See Sch'oll, Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. ii. p. 255; iii [Q.— Gibbon. Rom. Emp. ch. ii.— On the transition of the Latin to the modern
French, Italian, &c., see ffaitam's Middle Ages, ch. ix. ^.l.—M. Eonamy, Essay in Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscr. tome xxiii. —
Bruce Whyte, Histoire des Langues Romanes (Romance Languages) et de leur Litterature. Par. 1841. 3 vols. i.—Funck, De im
L. L. senectule, &c as cited P. V. 5 299. 8.



5. There were schools of learning in different parts of the empire during the decline
of letters. In these professors were supported at public e.xpense, and taught the prin-
ciples of philosophy, rhetoric, and law or right. Such schools existed at Byzantium,
Alexandria, Berytus, and Milan, and at several places in Gaul, where letters were cul-
tivated with much zeal, as at Augustodunum (Autun) , Burdegala (Bourdeaux) , and
Massiiia (Marseilles) . These schools, however, are said to have contributed to the
corruption of taste, as the teachers were less solicitous to advance their pupils in real
knowledge than to acquire glory from pompous display. At Berytus was the most
famous school for the study of Roman jurisprudence.

See Sch'Tl, Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. iii. p. 8 —Gibbon's account of the school at Berjtus, in DccU and Fall of Rom. Emf. ch. iv j •
Compare § Sa

47



370 ARCHAEOLOGY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.



V. — Of the Remains and Monuments of Roman Literature.

§ 129. The existing monuments of Roman literature are more numerous than
those of Grecian, and scarcely inferior in point of utility and importance. We
shall briefly notice them under the three classes o{ Imcriptions, Cyz'ns,and Manu-
scripts. Great advantage may be derived from Roman inscriptions and coins,
in the illustration of history, antiquities, geography, and chronology, and the
manuscripts present much that is subservient to philology and criticism, and
taste. The same general remarks, v^'hich were made upon the written monu-
ments of the Greeks, may be applied to those of the Romans. (Cf. § 86, ss.)

(a) Inscriptions.

§ 130. The Grecian custom of commemorating remarkable events, by short
inscriptions upon marble or brass, and of ornamenting their temples, tombs,
statues, and altars with them, also existed among the Romans. There now re-
mains a large number of these ancient inscriptions, which have been collected
and explained by several learned men.

We here mention some of the collections.— Among the earliest; /. Bfmejiu.», Syntagma Inscrip* Antiquarum. 168S. 2 vols.
foI._R. fabretii, In<CTiptionum Antiquarum, &c. Explicalio. Rom. 1699. fol.— One of the most complete works on the subject;
Jani Gruteri, Inscriptiones antique totius orbis Roman), notis Marqu. Gudii emendatae. Cura J. G. Gravii. Amst. 1707. 2 torn.
fol.— Next to this, the following are among the most valuable; /. D. Donii, Inscripliones Antiquse, nunc primum editse, notisque
illustralas, etc. 3b A. F. Gorio. Flor. 1731. fol.— Inscripliones Antiquie, in urbibus Hetruriae, c. obs. Sa!vinii et Garii. Flor. 1743.
3 vols, fol.— i. A. Muratorii Novus Thesaurus veterum inscriptionum, in prsECipuis earundem coUectionibus hactenus praelermis-
sarum. MeJiol. 1739. 4 vols, fol.— Sefc. Donati, Ad Novum Thesaurum Vet. Inscrip. cl. viri L. A. Muratorii Supplementa.
Lucse, 1764, 1775. fol.— fitcA./'ococie,Inscr. Antiq. Grasc. et Latin. Liber. Lond. 1752. fol.— 5- Passionei, Inscr. Antiche. Luce.
1763. fol —T. C. Hagertbuchii Epistolae Epigraphicaj, in quibus plurima? antique inscriptiones, imprimis thesauri Muratoriani
emendantur et explicantur. Tiguri, 1747. 4.— There are smaller collections of the more important inscriptions; Gul. Fleetwood,
Inscriptionum antiquarum sylloge. Lond. 1691. S. — Ronianorum Inscr. Fasciculus, cum explicatione nolaruni, in usnm juventutis
(and. Comite Polcasiro). Patav. 1774. 8.— Among the most valuable modern works; F. Gsann, Sylloge Iiiscript. Aniiq., begun
as cited § 87; continued and finished, Darmst. 1822-29, in S Parts; including Latin and Greek inscriptions. J. C. Orelli, Inscr.

JjlU select. Collectio. Zlr. 1828. 2 vols. 8. ; pronounced by Hermann, good ; by Bdhr, superior to all recent ivorks of the kind.

On the distinction between epigrams and inscriptions, cf. P. V. § 342.

§ 131. Some of the Roman inscriptions are among the most ancient monu-
ments of the Roman language and manner of writing. In order to decide upon
their genuine character and estimate aright their contents, much previous know-
ledge is requisite. It is especially necessary to understand the abbreviations
(notae, in later Latin sig/a, abruptiones), which are frequently used. These con-
sisted sometimes of detached letters, which expressed a praenomen, or some
known formula; sometimes of the principal letters of a word, the others being
omitted ; sometimes of monograms, by the contraction of different letters into
one character ; sometimes by putting a single vowel enlarged for two similar
ones; and sometimes by the omission of some letters in the middle of a word.

1 a. It may be proper to introduce and e.xplain some of the more common abbreviations that
occur in Roman inscriptions.

(A) A. aedilis, annus, Aulus, — A. L. F. animo lubens fecit. —

A. P. jEdililia poiestate.— A. S. S. a sacris scriniis.— AN. V. P.
M anuos visit plus minus. — AVSP. S. auspicante sacrum. — In
the Dacian Ublets (cf. § 133. 7), Alb. is put ioT Alburnum.

(B) B. DD. bonis deabus.— B. B. bene bene, t. c. uptime.—

B. D. S. .M. bene de se nierenti.— B. G. PCS. biga gratis posita.

(C) C. Caius, civis, cobors, conjux— C. C. S. curaverunt
fommuni sumtu, — C. F. Caii filius, carissima femina. — C. R.
wravit rcfici, civis Romanus. — C. V. P. V. D. D. communi vo-
untate publice votuni dederunt. — CVNC. conjux. — In the Da-
lian tablets, Css. occurs for Cmuulitms.

■ D) D. decuria, domo. — D. D. dono dedit, dedicavit. — D. L.
Jedit libens - D. V. M. diis manibus votum.— D. S. P. F. C. de
sua prcui ia faciendum curavit. — DP. depositus.

(E) E. .11 exit, ergo, expressum. — E. C. erigendum curavit. —

E. F. egregia femina.— E. M. V. egregiae memorse vir.- E. S. e
sno.— EX. PR. ex pracepto.— EX. XT. SS. HH. ex testaruentjs
Bupra-scriptorum heredum.

(■>■; F. fecit, filia, filius, flamen.— F. C. faciendum curavit. —

F. F fieri fecit, filius familias.— F. Y. fecerunt, filii, fratres.— F.



H. F. fieri heredes fecerunt.- F. L fieri jussit.— FR. D.
dandi. — F. V. S. fecit voto suscepto.

(H) H. habet, heres, honorem.— H. A. F. C. banc aram facien-
dam curavit.— H. Q. hie quiescit. — H. 1. I. heredes jussu illorum.
— H. S. E. hie situs est.

(I) I. imperator.— I. L. F. illius liberta fecit.— L L. H. jus
liberorum habens — I. 0. M. D. Jovi Optimo maxinio dedicatum.

fATJ K. Caius, caleudae, candidatus, casa.

(L) L. legio, lustrum.— L. A. lex alia, libens animo.— L. C.
locus concessus.— L. H. L. D. locus hie liber datus.— L. P. locus
publicuB.— L. S. M. C. locum sibi monumeDto cepit.— LEG. Its-

(M) M. ir.agister, mater, monumentum. — M. A. G. S. memor
animo grato solvit.— M.\I. memoriae.- MIL. IN. COH. militavit
in cohorte.

(NJ N aatione, natns, cepos, numerus. — N. P. C. nomine pro-
prio curavit.

(O) 0. D. S. M. optime de se merito.— 0. H. S. S. ossa hie sita
sunt. — OB. AN. obit anno,'

(P) P. pater, patria, pontifex, posuit, puer.— P. C. patres con-



p. IV. INSCRIPTIONS. 371



Bcripti, patronns coloniae, i. corporis, ponendum ciiravit.— P. E.
pablice erexerunt. — P. I. S. publica iinpensa sppultus. — P. P.
publice posuit, pater patriae, prsfecius prstorio. — P. S. F. Q P.
pro se proque patria.— PR. SEN. pro senlenlia.— P. V. praefectus
urbi.

(Q) Q. qu^tor, qui, Quintus.— Q. A. quaestor aedilis.— Q. D.
S. S qui dederuni supra scripia.— Q. f . quod factum.

(R) R. recte, retro. — R. G. C. rei gerundae caussa.

(S) S. sepulcrum, solvit, stipendium.— S. C. Senalus Consutt-
nm.— S. C. D. S. sibi curavit de suo.— S. E. T. L. sit ei terra



levis. — S. L. M. solvit libens merilo.— S. P. Q. S. sibi posterisqni
suis.— SVB. A. D. sub ascia dedicavit.

(T) T Titus, tribunus, tunc. — T. C. testamenti causa. — T F.
testamento fecit, Titi filius, litulum fecit.— T. P. titulam posuit.—
TR. PL. DESS. tribuni plebis designati.

ffO V. Veleranus, vixit.— V. A. F. vivus aram fecit.— V. C. vir
coDSularis, vivus curavit. — V. D. D. votum dedicalum. — V. F. F.
vivus fieri fecit.— V.M.S. voto nierito suscepto.—V.E. vir ejregius.

(X) X. ER. decimae erogator.— XV. VIR. SAC. FAC. quinde-
cimvir sacris faciundis.



2. The following works treat upon the general subject of the Roman abbreviations, notes, or
signs.

Saiorii Ursati de notis Romanorum Cotnmentarius. Patav. 1672. fol.— /. D. CoMi Notje et Sigla Rom. Venet. I7S5. 4.—/

Gerrard, Siglarium Romanum. Lond. 1792. 4.— Explicatio lit. et uot. in antiq. Rom. monimentis occurrentium. Flor. 1822. 8

Sasche, as cited § 136. 1.— See Notx Compendiaris^ in AiiuwoTMa Latin Diet, by MorrtU. Lond. 1 816. 4.— Cf. Port Royal LaU
Grammar, bk. is.

§ 132. Besides the numerous advantages already mentioned, as derived from
Roman inscriptions, this study is of service in devising and preparing inscrip-
tions designed to be placed upon modern monuments. It renders one acquainted
with what is called the lapidary style, distinguished by its brevity and sim-
plicity. For compositions of this sort the Latin is usually preferred to any
modern language, on account both of its comprehensive brevity and also of its
suitableness to the form and character of the monuments, which are generally
constructed after ancient models. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that in
such cases the capital letters are used.

The following is mentioned as a treatise very useful in this study:— f. A. Zaccaria, Istituzione Antiquario-lapidaria, o sia Intro-
duzione alio studio delle antiche latine Inscrizioni. Rom. 1770. 4. Ver. 1793. 8.— Cf. J. G. Heireccius, Fundamenta slili cultioris.
Lpz. 1761. 8. Pt. ii. c. v.

§ 133. A vast number of Roman inscriptions have been gathered from the
mass of ancient ruins. They differ very much from each other in point of
utility and importance. Those of a public character are obviously far more
valuable than such as are mere private records and epitaphs. With regard to
their philological worth we should particularly consider their antiquity. The
following are among the most important.

1 u. The inscription upon the pedestal of the Columna rostrata, a cohimn so called
because ornamented with beaks of ships. It was erected in honor of the Consul Duil-
liuso after the naval victory which he obtained over the Carthaginians, B. C. 261.
During the time of the second Punic war this column was struck down by lightning,'
and its ruins remained for a long time concealed, until in 1560 they were discovered,
together with the pedestal upon which is found the inscription. This inscription has
been published and e.xplained by several learned men. It is much mutilated ; Lipsius
has attempted in part to fill up the blank places; and Ciacconi entirely. It has been
considered as the most ancient monument of the Latin or Eoman characters hitherto
discovered ; yet it may not be the original inscription, but one placed upon the monu-
ment on hs being restored at some subsequent time. A new column is supposed to
have been erected by the emperor Claudius,

tt Cf. Flor. Hist. Rom. 112.— TVic. Ann. ii. 49.— Phn. Hist. Nat. xxxiv. 5.-6 Liv. xlii. 20. See Ciacconi, in Columnje Ros-

trats infcriptionem a se conjectura suppletam Explicatio. Rom. 160S. S. — Grxvii Thes. Ant. Rom. tome iv. cited P. III. § 197.—
Grulart Corp. Inscnpt. cccciv. 1. It may be found in the editions of Flcru-i, by Gr^vws and Ducker. See also Antltoti's t.empr.
under C. Duillius.— i>nnZop's Hist. Rom. Lit.— Schi'll, Hist. Lit. Rom. vol. i. p. 47 — Edinb. Rev. No. Ixxx. p. 40O.

2 u. The inscriptions on the tombstones of the Scipios. The epitaph of the Father,
C. L. Scipio Barbatus, Consul B. C. 298, is probably nearly as old as the column of
Duillius. It was discovered in 1780 in the vault of the Scipian family, between the Via
Appia and Via Latina. It is on a handsome Sarcophagus (cf P. III. § 341. 4) . The
epitaph of the son, Lucius Scipio, was discovered much earlier, on a slab which was
found lying near the Porta Capena. having been detached from the family vault. Though
later as to the date of its composition, the ephaph on the son bears marks of higher an-
tiquity than that on the father.

The inscription in honor of the son is given by Scholl, as follows ; honcoino. ploirume. co-

BENTIONT. R DUONORO. OPTUMO. TUISSE. YIHO. LUCIOM. SCIPIONE. FILIUS. BARBATI. CON-
SOL. CENSOR. AIDILIS. HEC. FtET. A HEC. CEPIT. CORSICA. ALERIAQL'E. URBE. DEDET.

TEMPESTATEBUs. AIDE. MERETo. This, belna; changed into the Latin of later times, may be
read as follows; Hunc nnum plnrimi covsevtiiait Komte hovorum optimuvi fidsse virtivi, Lucium
Scipinvevi. Filius Barbati, consul, cevsor, trdilis hie f nit apvd vos. Hie cepit Corsicam Jileriamque
vrhem; deiJil Tempestatibvs ccdem vterito.—lhe inscription in honor of the father is given by
Winkeliiiann ; cornelivs. lvcivs. scipio. barbatvs. gnaiod. paTRE. prognatvs. fortis

VIR. SVPIESQVE. QOVIVS. FORMA. VIRTVTEI. PABISVMA. FVIT. CONSOL. CENSOR. AIDILIS. QVEI
FViT. APVP. VOS. TAVRASIA. CISAVNA. SAMNIO. CEPIT. SVEIGIT. OMNE. LOVCANA. OPSIDESQVK



372 ARCHAEOLOGY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

ABDVCIT; which may be read thus ; Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatun, Gnmn prognatus, fortis vir
sapiensque ; ciijus forma virtuti parissima fait ; consul, censor, tpdilis, qui fuit apud vos : Tau*
rasiam, Cisaunam in Samnio cepit ; suhigit omnem Lucania m, obsidesque abducil.

See Dunlop's Hist. Rom. Lit. vol. i. p. 46 — Grsroii Thesau. Ant. Rom. tome iv.— Monumenti degli Scipioni publicati dal Cav.
F. Piraneii. Rom. 1765. (ol.—Hobhouse''s IllustraliOLS of Childe Harold.— .ScAZ/, Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. i. p. 46.—fVagner De
Sepulchro Scipionum. Marb. IS23. 4. — For a view of the Sarcophagus, see Winkelmann, Hist, de I'Art, as cited § 32. 4. vol. ii.
pi. xxvi. Cf. ib. p. 314.— A model of it, with the bust found in the tomb with it, and a fac-simile of the inscription, is in (ha
cabinet of Amherst College.

3. The Eugubian Tables {TahulcB EuguhmcB) . These are seven tablets of brass,
dug up in 1444, at Eugubium (Gubbio) a city in ancient Umbria near the foot of the
Apennines. The inscriptions on five of the tablets are said to be in the Etruscan
character and language. The other two are in Roman letters, but in a rustic jargon,
between Latin and Etruscan. They were at first supposed to be of very high antiquity;
but " it is now agreed that they do not reach further back than the fourth century be-
fore the Christian era ;" and Dunlop states that " the two tables in the Latin character
were written towards the close of the sixth century of Rome."

See Dunlop, Hist. Rom. Lit. i. p. il.—Edinb. Rev. No. 80, p. SSi.—Bdhr, Gesch. Rom. Lit. (cited § 114. 2) p. 64.— The in-
scriptions are given in Gruttr, as above cited ;— also in Lanzi, Saggio di Ling. Etrusc. ;— and Orelli, as cited § 130.

4 11. The Inscription termed the Decree respecting the Bacchanalia, Senafus con
sultum de Bacchanalibus This decree was enacted B. C. 186. Livy (xxxiv. 8 — 18) gives ug
the occasion and contents of it. By certain passages in that author concerning this
edict, the authenticity of this monument is confirmed. It is engraved upon a table of
bronze, which was discovered in 1640, in the province of Abruzzo,in digging the founda-
tions of a manor house. It contains the prohibition of the nocturnal celebration of the
Bacchanalian rites, throughout the Roman dominion. The tablet, upon which are
some fractures and gaps, is about a foot square, and is now in the imperial collection at
Vienna.

See Se7iatit3consuUi de Bacchanalibas explicatio, auctore Mattheo ^gyptio (Egizio). Neap. 1729. fol. This dissertation il
reprinted in the 7th vol. of Drachei\borch'i edition of Livy. The edict itself is found in Gessner's and Ernesti's edition of Livy.—
See also SchCll, Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. i. p. 52.

5 u. The Monumentum Ancyranum. This consists of several inscriptions on marble,
upon the propylaeum of a temple of Augustus at Ancyra (modern Angora) in Galatia.
They record the achievements of that Emperor. The monument was discovered by
Busbequius in 1553. It has been much disfigured by time, or barbarian violence.

See Gruleri Thes. Inscr. ccxxx.—Chishull, Antiq. Asiat.— 7. G. Baieri Marmoris Ancyrani bisforia. Jen 1703. 4.— Remarqnes
snr le monument d'Ancyre, BiUioth. Choviie, tom. vfii. — Jac. Gronovii Memoria Cossoniana, cui annexa est nova editio Monumenti
Aucyrani. Lugd. Bat. 1693. 4.— Observ. sur le Mon. d'Ancyre, in the Metn. Acad. Inscr. vol. 47, p. 85.

6 u. The Fasti CapitoUni. These are portions of the tablets anciently placed in
the Capitol, on which were inscribed in succession the names of the consuls and other
magistrates, and by means of which Roman chronology is much elucidated. They are
tablets of marble discovered in the Forum, at Rome, 1547, and contain a hst of the
Consuls from the year 270 to the year 765 after the building of Rome. They were in
a broken state. The fragments were united by the care of Cardinal Alexander Farnese,
and placed in the palace of the Capitol, where they still remain. Some additional por-
tions were discovered at Rome in 1816.

See Grievii Thes. Ant. Rom. tome xi.— /. B. Piranesi, Lapides Capitolini. Rom. 1762. fol.— Nuovi framenti dei Fasti ami
CapHol. illustrati da Bartol. Borghesi. Milan, 1818-1820. 4.— Also, C. Fea, Frammenti di Fasti consolari, &c. Rom. 1820. fol.

Verrius Flaccus has been supposed to be the author of the Fasti Capitolini, and they were
published by Onufrius Panvinius, 1553, under the name of that gramnjarian. This mistake was
occasioned by a passage in Suetonius, in which he mentions that Flaccus attached to a structure
erected at Prseneste twelve tablets of marble containing a Roman Calendar, Fasti kalendares.
Four of these latter tables, or rather fragments of them, were discovered in 1770, and form what
is called the Calendarium Prmnestinum. 'They contain the months of January, March, April, and
December, and cast much light on the Fasti of Ovvi.

These were published by P. F. Fogeini, Fastorum anni Romani reliouis, &c. Rom. 1779. fol. The work contains a collection
of the existing fragments of Roman Calendars.— Scfti,;/, Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. ii. p. 60, &S.—B'dhr, Gesch. ROm. Lit. p. 413.

7. The Lihellus Aurarius, or Bacian Tablets. Under this designation we refer to
two triptychs (cf <§ 118. 3. under Tabula) with inscriptions, first made known to the public
in 1841. Of these, one formed of fir, was discovered in 1790, in a gold mine in Abrud-
banya, a village of Transylvania, a part of ancient Dacia ; the other, of beech, was
found in 1807, in another mine three or four miles distant from Abrudbanya. The in-
scription on the fir tablets refers to some business connected with a collegium ; being a
document belonging to the office (statio) of one Resculus, a tabeUio or tabellarius, i. e.
register of public documents, such as wills and deeds. The date is made out to be
A. D. 167 or 169. The inscription is double, being exactly repeated. These tablets
show that a cursive or running hand was used in writing as early as the second
century.

See the work under the foUowinsr title: Libellus .Aurarius sive Tabulae Ceratae et antiquissimse et unica; Romanae in fouinS
Auraria aoud Abrudbanyam, oppidulum Transylvanuni, nuper repertae ; quas nunc primus enucleavit, depinxit, edidit /. F. Mam
man. Lib>. iS4l. S.— Cf. For. Quart. Rev. vol. xjcvii. p. 1, Amer. ed.— Smith, Diet, of Antiq. art. Tabula.



p. IV. COINS AND MEDALS. 373



(b) Coins and Medals.

§ 134. Without entering into any minute history of Roman coinaore, we only
remark that the first coins at Rome were probably struck under the reign of
Servius Tullius ; that the more ancient coins were for the most part of brass,
{nummi aenei) ; and that silver coin was not introduced until B. C. 269, and
gold not until B. C. 207. Besides the coins used as the current money, there
were also a great many medals and historical pieces or medallions {missilia,
fiumismafa maximi mnduli), distinguished from the others by the absence of the
letters S. C, which are commonly found upon the Roman coin, especially the
brazen. On the gold and silver coins these letters are less frequently seen, and.
seem not to indicate the a-ithority granted by the senate for the striking of the
coin so much as for the erecting of the statues, triumphal arches and the like,
which are represented on the reverses.

1. The remarks offered under a previous section (§ 93) , respecting the utility and
entertainment connected with the study of coins, are applicable here. The Roman
coins particularly are interesting on account of the striking personifications and symbols



Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 76 of 153)