Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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found on their reverses. Many descriptions and allusions in the classical poets are beau-
tifully illustrated from the figures and devices on the Roman coins.

On the connection between poetry and medils, see Mdisons Dialogues upon the usefulness of ancient Medals, especially in rela.
lion to the Latin and Greek Poets ; in his Worln, vol. iii. p. 273, of ed. N. York, 1837. 3 vols. 8 See also Spmce, as cited § 151.

2. On the Roman money coined in the time of the republic, very commonly was seen an im-
age of Victory, in a triumphal car, driving sometimes two horses, and sometimes four. Hence
the pieces we're called bi^atinr qnadrigati. The coins were also indented round the edges like a
saw, and therefore termed serraii. Tacitus speaks of the money thus marked as the ancient
and well known coin. It would seem that the later coin was adulterated.

Cf Taa De Mor. Germ. S.—Plin. Hist. Nat. xxxiii. 3.

3 u. The pieces, which have been termed nummi conforniati, may be included perhaps among
the medallion.*. They are distinguished by a rim which is wrought with much art. They may
have been prize medals of illustrious athletae, or may perhaps have been used as a sort of tickets
for admission to public shows.

4. Medals seem to have been sometimes employed in ancient times, as in modern, for pur-
poses of satire upon private individuals and upon rulers. The medals called Spintrian were
probably of the satirical class, and are supposed by some to have been designed to ridicule the
debaucheries of Tiberius in the island of Caprea.

Gourdin on Satyric Medals, Archsologia, (as cited § 32. 5), vol. ix. p. 61.

§ 135. There are two principal divisions of the Roman coins; the Consular,
struck in the time of the republic, called also coins of the Roman families; and
the Imperial, the series of which extends from Julius Caesar to Heraclius. Of
the Consular coins, the most rare are the golden ; of the Imperial, the most rare
are the brazen coins of Otho.

1. " The Consular coins include the following. 1. Brass coins. — These consist chiefly
of large pieces of rude workmanship whhout any interesting imagery. In all these the
prow of a ship is constantly the figure on the reverse, with very few exceptions. Some-
times, indeed, they have a shell, two heads of barley, a frog, an anchor, or a dog, on
the reverse. 2. Silver. — Of this the denarius was the first and principal coin. It was
stamped originally with X, denoting that the value was ten asses. On the reverse was
Castor and Pollux, or a chariot of Victory. Afterwards the busts of various deities
make their appearance ; and in the seventh century of Rome the portraits of illustrious
persons deceased are met whh. 3. Gold. — Most of these are of great value. The
number of these exceeds not 100. The aureus is the general gold coin ; but two or
three gold semisses of families hkewise occur."

The first head of a living person that was struck on Roman coins is said to have been that of
Caesar the Dictator. But the features of deceased consuls had previously been struck both on
the silver and on the gold coins.

" The JffiperjaZ coins include, I. Brass. — This is of three sizes ; large, middle, and
small. The first forms a most beautiful series, but very expensive. It is the most im-
portant of all the Roman coins, and exceeds even the gold in value. — The middle brass
is next in value to the former ; and in it are many rare and curious coins, particularly
interesting to Britons, as elucidating the history of the island. — The small brass series
abounds also with ctirious coins. They are scarce till the time of Valerian and Gallie
nus, but very common afterwards. 2. Silver. — This series is very complete, and the
cheapest of any ; especially as the small brass becomes a fine supplement to it ; the
latter being had in plenty when the silver becomes scarce, and the silver being plentiful
when the brass is scarce. 3. Gold. — The Roman imperial gold coins form a series ol
great beauty and perfection ; but on account of their great price are beyond the purchase

!o 1


of private persons. 4. The colonial coins. — They occur only in brass. On many of
the coins we meet with fine representations of temples, triumphal arches, gods, god-
desses, and illustrious persons. But coins with those representations are by no
means common ; the colonial coins till the time of Trajan bearing only a plough, or
some other simple badge of a colony. Camelodunum is the only colony in Britain
of which we have any coins. 5. The minimi. — This includes the smallest coins of all
denominations, most of which do not exceed the size of a silver penny. They are the
most curious of all. The reason of the scarcity of the small coins is probably their di-
minutive size ; by reason of which they are mostly lost."

2. A great number of coins have been found, at different times, during the excavations at
Pompeii. In one of the streets a skeleton was found, supposed to have been a priest of Isis ;
" in his hand was a bag of coarse linen, not entirely destroyed, containing three hundred and
sixty silver coins, forty-tvo of copper, and six of gold ; and near him several figures belonging
to the worship of Isis; small silver forks, cups, paterae in gold and silver, a cameo representing
a satyr striking a tamborine, rings set with stones, and vases of copper and bronze." — "In
several of the houses, skeletons with rings, bracelets, necklaces and other ornaments, together
with many coins, were found."— '"A pot of gold coins, principally of the reigns of Trajan and
Antoninus Pius, was found by a peasant, in 17S7, at Nellore in Hindostan."

3. It has been thought that false and base coin was fabricated by illegal coiners. Molds,
which were employed for casting Roman coins have been found at Lyons in France and Eding-
ton in England.

/. Poole, on Mnlds for Roman coins, &c Mrchxologia (as cited § 32, 5), vol. xiv. p. S9.

§ 136. The writing upon the Roman coin is usually the legend, as it is called,
on the head of the coin or on both sides; but there is sometimes an inscriptiun
more at length placed upon the reverse. The contents of the legend commonly
point out the person whose image is impressed upon the principal side and indi-
cate his rank; sometimes also a short notice of his exploits, forming the inscrip-
tion, is upon the reverse. The date of the coin is often stamped upon it, either
in whole words, or by certain letters or figures; and likewise the names of the
cities where it was struck ; sometimes even that of the artist, together with the
value, particularly upon the Consular coins.

1 St. In order to read and to understand all these kinds of writing, it is necessary to be ac-
quainted with the peculiar abbreviations which are employed.

For a brief introduction to the subject, see /. C. Rasche, Lexicon Abruptionum, quae in numismatibus Romanorum occurrunt
Norimb. 1777. 8.— Cf. § 131. 2.

2 u. The coins of the Romans being among the most ancient monuments of their
manner of writing, it is proper here again (cf § 116) to refer to their orthography. It
is not from mistake, but from ancient usage, that the orthography on the old coins differs
from the modern. We find, for example, v in place of b in the word da.v vvivs ; o instead
of v in voLKANVS, and pivos ; ee for e in feelix ; ii for i in viirtvs ; s and m sup-
pressed at the end of words, as in albinv, captv ; xs for x, in maxsvmvs ; f instead of


§ 137. Much attention and caution must be exercised with regard to Roman
as well as Grecian coins, in order to distinguish genuine from false, wh' .i are
very numerous and of different kinds. Many of those that are offered as ancient,
are struck in modern times with the ancient costume; others have been stamped
in express imitation of really ancient coins, among which we may particularly
notice those called Paduane, so celebrated on account of their good impression;
others are cast similar to the old coins, by means of molds, and may be distin-
guished by traces of the casting; others are formed by putting together two
ancient coins in order to obtain rare and unique pieces, which may be detected
by a careful examination of the edges; others are really antique, but falsified by
some change in their impression or inscription.

See G. Beauvois, Maniere de discerner les medailies antiques de celles qui sont contrefaifes. Par. 1739. 4. Translated into Ger-
man and enlarged by Lipsius. Dresd. 1791. 4 — Sestini, Soprai modern, falsific. di medagl. ant. &c. Fir. IS26. 4.

§ 138. Besides the works already mentioned (§ 99) as illustrating the subject
of ancient coins, we will cite the following, which relate principally to Roman

Charles Patin, Introduction a I'Histoire par la connnissance des medailies. Par. 1665. 12.— CA. Patin, Histoire des Medailies,
ou Introduction a la Connoissance de cette Science. Paris, 1695. 12. — Fulv. Frsini Familis Romanae in aniiquis numismatibus all
urbe condilaad tempora D. Aus;usti ; edit. Carol. Patin. Par. 1663. fol. — J. Foy Vaillant, Nummi antiqtii Familiarum Romanc
rurn. Amst. 1703. 2 vols. fol. — Ejusd. Numismata Imperator. Rominor. praestantiora, &c. cura T. F. Baldini. Rom. 17<li
3 vols. 4. Supplementum, op. Joh. Khdl. Vindob. 1767. 4. — Ejusd. Numismata aerea Imperatorum Roman, in coloniis, mutt!
ripiis, &c. Par. 16S8. 2 vols. fol. — By the same, Numismata Imperatorum, a Populis, Romanae dictionis, Graece loquenlibus, peif-
LOjSd. Amst. 1700. fol.— Bv same, Selectiora Numismata in Mre Maximi Moduli illustrata. Paris. 1695. i.—Adolphi Occon'J,
Nuuiismata Imperatorum Rnmanorum praestar.tiora. Mediol. 1730 fol. — Thesaurus Mutellianus a. Familiarum Roman. Nui&is-
a>aU Omnia. Comm. illust. Sigeb. Havacampus. Amst. 1734. 2 vols, fol.— .dru. Bandnrii Numismata Imperatorum Romanor. a



Trajano Decio ad Palasolbgos Augustos. Par. IT'S. 2 vols. fol. Supplement, ed. B. Tanmiui, Rom. 179!. fol.— Car. Patini Im
peralor. Romanor. Numismata. Argent. 1671. fol. Ainst. 1696. fol. — lo. lac. Gesneri Numismata Aniiqua Imperalorun-. Romano-
rum latiaa el grjeca. Tiguri, 174S. fol.; Numismata Antiqua Familiarum Romanarum. Tiguri, 1749. fol — If'm. Cooke, The

Medallic History of Imperial Rome, &c. Lond. 1781. 2 vols. 4. On meJals of a larger size, see Mongez, Sur des Ncdailloni

Remains d' une volume extraordinaire, in the Mem. de VInstilut, Classe d'HiH. et Lit. Anc. ix. 266.— jj»i«. SleinbUchel, Recueil de

niedaillons en or du Cabinet Imperial de Vienne. Vien. IS26. 8. On the subject of Roman coins, K. 0. Mulkr, Archilologie, &c

(aa cited \ 32. 4) is a " very good authority."

§ 139. The most valuable collections of ancient coins are the following: at
Paris, in the Royal library, and the library of St. Genevieve; at Rome, in the
Vatican, and the collection once belonging to Christina queen of Sweden, now
to the duke of Bracciano ; in the British Museum at London ,• the Imperial collec-
tion at Vienna^ the Royal collection at Berlin; the Duke's collection at Gotham
the Royal collection at Stuttgart ; and at Copenhagen. There are valuable cata-
logues of most of these public collections of coins.

See Kihler, Auweisung zur Reiseklugheit. Ed. Kinderling. Magdeb. 1788. f^—Eckhel (as cited § 99), Proleg. cap. rxiii.— Die-
Uonnaire des Artistes, par Meusd.—Sulzer, AUg. Tbeor. &c. article .intih, V.

1. Few genuine antiques have ever been brought to this country. Of really ancient coins
the Boston Jitheneuvi probably possesses the largest number, having about 1400 Greek and Ro-
man; of which less than 200 are silver, and the rest are copper or brazen. (MS. Lett, of Dr. Bass,
Lib. to Bost. Ath. 1836.)

2. Before leaving this subject, it is proper to remark that some examples of the manner in
which symbols are employed on coins and medals may be seen by inspection of our Plate XLIL In
fig. 6, Britain is represented by a woman reclining against a shield, and holding a spear in one
hand, with her head resting on the other, as if in a contemplative mood. In fig. 9, the river
Tiber is symbolized by the image of an old man with a branch of some plant, or perhaps some
heads of grain, in his left hand, and his right hand on the prow of a vessel. In fig. 7, a coin of
Trajan, the Danube is represented in a manner in some degree similar. In fig 8, a coin of An-
toninus Pius, the symbol of Italia appears, a woman silting on a globe and holding a sceptre and
a horn of plenty, indicating her universal dominion and her riches. On many pieces, Rome is
exhibited as a goddess, the image being a head with a helmet; as in fig. 1, a coin of the Jiureliun
faiiiilif, on which the helmet is curiously wrought, so as to present in its form the head, neck,
and vvinss of an eagle; in fig. 2, which is the piece of money called triens, the head on the ob-
verse is likewise probably designed to represent the goddess Rome ; as is also perha[is the head
covered with a lion's skin instead of a helmet, in fig. 3, whi-ch is the obverse of a quadrans. The
heads of deities were frequently placed on Roman coins ; as that of Mercury in fig. 4, the obverse
side of a sextans; and that of Janus, in fig. a, the obverse of a diiplex denarius. Rome is syiii-
bojized sometimes by the eagle, as Athens is on Greek coins by the owl ; as in fig. 10, which gives
the obverse of another sextans ; the reverse of this (not given in the plate) presents a wolf nurs-
insr Romulus and Remus, but the reverse of these brass pieces more commonly contains merely
the prow of a ship, as in fig. 2 : the points or dots on these pieces indicate their value ; four, ihe
triens; three, the quadrans ; and two, the sextajis. We see the goddess of plenty or abundance
represented, in fig. 5, a coin of the emperor Decius. The colonial coins of Aniioch in Pisiriia
often bear, as in fig. s. the device of a bull with a hump-back representing Mount Taurus. Some
of Ceesarea in Palestine show an eagle holding in his claws a thunderbolt, as in fig. t; the letters
underneath, in this coin, probably stand for Colonia Augusta Casarea, or Caesariensis ; this city
became a Roman colony after the conquests of Vespasian. Many of the coins of Vespasian bear
upon the reverse a very striking symbol; as in fig. y, with the words judea capta, and initials
of SENATUS CONSULTO forming the legend, and the fate of conquered Palestine represented by a
woman sitting solitary and weeping, under a palin-tree, upon a collection of arms, shields, hel-
mets, &c., thrown upon the ground. There is here a remarkable coincidence with a prophetic
declaration o{ Isaiah iii. 26; and she, desolate, shall sit on the ground.

The Plate presents a view of one side of some of the principal silver coins of the Romans. In
fig. a, we have the obverse of the double denarius, equivalent to the didrachma of the Greeks ; on
the reverse was a quadriga. In fig. b, is the denarius, having its value of ten asses of brass
Btamped upon it. This is the coin designated by the word pemnj, as used in reference to Ro-
man money in the common English version of the New Testament; it commonly had on it, in
the period to which the New Testament history relates, the imacre of the Roman emperor, and
his superscription, i. e. his name or its initials inscribed on it as in fig. r, a gold coin of Vespasian.
(See Matt. xxii. 20, JV/fc. xii. 16.) By some it has been supposed that the thirty silver pieces
idnyvpia) for which Judas covenanted to betray his master and Lord were so many denarii;
wiiile others think that the silver piece here intended was the siclus (^cikXos), a Jewish coin equi
valent to the Attic tetradrachma. (Cf. Matt. xxvi. 15, Acts xix. 19. — Upham's Trans, of John's

Arch. $ 117.) In fig. c, we have the quinarivs, or half denarius, with its value of five asses

stamped on it. The sestertius is g'veii, in fig. d, having on the reverse Castor and Pollux on
horseback ; usually marked by the letters h s on its obverse. In fig. e, is a silver coin present-
ing the eagle as the symbol of Rome, with the name of the city in the exergue. In fig. o, we
have a very small gold coin, with its value of ticenty sesterces enstamped; it was sometimes
named scrvpulum from its weight.

In Plate XLIII. are the reverses of three coins. The central exhibits a head considerea Dy
Montfaucon to represent Neptune, wiih a laurel or crown indicating some victory ; the trident
also appears behind. On one of the others is a dolphin connected with a trident. On the third,
a coin of the emperor Claudian, we see Neptune drawn by marine horses; here is symbolized
a victory over a maritime nation ; and something similar is probably commemorated on the other
two. In Plate XIV. may be further noticed the use of symbols; most of the delineations be-
ing derived from coins. The goddess Spes or Hope, fig. 8, holds up a flojcer-bud ; this is from a
coin of Titus. In fig. 9, from an imperial silver coin, is For/jnie, with a rudder and olive branch
thrust forward, indicating her fair promises of peace and security, with the horn of plenty also;
but behind is the wheel, showiii£ her instability. In fig 10. from another imperial coin, is the.
goddess rictorij standing on a globe, to indicate that the Ronjan empire extended over the world


In fig. 11, from a coin of Nero, appears Concordia, on a royal seat (solium), with a horn of plenty,
and holding out a patera In fi;.'. 12, from a coin of CuracHlla, Pax or Peace leans upon a column,
an einbleni of rest ; holding in one hand the horn of plenty, extending in the other a wand of
Mercury, a symbol of negotiation, over a tripod or mensa, denoting perhaps the sacredness of
treaties" and pledges, or the social enjoyments resulting from peace.

(c) 3fanuscrtpts.

§ 140. What has been said (§ 100 — 106) concerning the intrinsic value, the
antiquity, the preservation, and the study of Greek manuscripts, is in general
applicable to the Roman, and we need not here repeat it. The works of very
many Latin writers, as well of the most flourishing period of Roman literature,
as of later times, have been preserved and handed down to us by means of written
copies. These manuscripts, however, belong not to the classical ages. Latin
manuscripts, like most of the Greek, are not of earlier date than the sixth century
after Christ. We must generally consider those the most ancient, whose writing
bears most resemblance to the characters found upon coins and inscriptions.
But this criterion is not a certain one, as in after ages the ancient manuscripts
were sometimes copied with a perfect imitation of their manner of writing.

See Gatterer on the method of determining the a?e of MSS. in the Cnmment. Societ. G'ult. 8th Band or vol.— Also, SchZnemann,
Versuch eines vollst. Systems der Diplomatik.— f/ti^er, cited § 53.—Taylor^s Transmission, &c., cited § 58.

§ 141. We must refer to a later origin the small Roman characters, punctua-
tion, and the contracted form of the diphthongs se and ce, which were originally
written in full ae and ue. The letter y, from the seventh century, was often
marked with a point y ,• on the contrary, the i was written without a point until
the end of the tenth century ; afterwards it took an accent over it, i ,• in the four-
teenth century the accent was changed into a point. From the small Roman
letters arose, by some alterations, the Gothic and Lombard characters, and those
of the Francs and Anglo-Saxons; as these people derived the art of writing
chiefly from Italy. The larger portion of the ancient Latin manuscripts now in
existence belongs to this age. During the 9th and 10th centuries, more attention
was paid to the beauty and elegance of the characters. In the 11th century en-
larged letters were introduced, and more abbreviations, the multiplication of
which, in after times, and the overburdening of the letters with useless appen-
dages, disfigured the writing and rendered it more diflicult to read.

Of. § 117. Fac-similes and specimens, to illustra'e the different modes of writing found in Latin manuscripts, are given in MaUl-
Ion dc Re Diplomatica. — See also IVallheri Lexicon Diplomalicum cum speciniinibus Alphabetorum et Scripturaruut. Gott. 1745,
3 vols. {o\.—Nouveau Traite de Diplom. torn. ii. and 'n\.—Panckou£lie, as cited P. V. § 574.

§ 142. Since the revival of letters, which was hastened and facilitated by the
discovery and study of the classical manuscripts, they have been carefully col-
lected, compared, copied and published. Petrarch searched more than two
hundred libraries, and greatly aided an early cultivation of Roman literature,
first in Italy, and afterwards in other countries. We are under similiar obliga-
tions to Gasparini, Poggius, Beatus Rhenanus, Aloysius Moccenicus, Grynaeus,
Sichard, and others. Without doubt there still exist some treasures of this sort,
particularly manuscripts of the middle ages, which, if not valuable on account
of their style, may be of much importance to history, criticism, and literature

1 u. The libraries, which have been mentioned as the principal depositories of Greek
manuscripts {% 108) , contain also a still more considerable collection of Latin manu-
scripts. The printed catalogues of some of them give notices of the manuscripts.

To the references given in § 10?, we add the following ■.—IVachUr. Handbuch der Geschichte der Literatur, (as cited P. V. § 7, %
vol. iii. p. 82. ss. ; giving an historical sketch of these libraries.— Scmtordi/, Encyklopidie der Philologie. Halle, 1832.— /"ett/
Badd, Recherches sur les Bibl. Anciennes et Moderns. Par. 1819. 8.—Eichhoni, Geschichte der Literatur. Gott. 1805. 83
6 vols. 8. ; giving (vol. iii. p. 431. ss.) " a good account of the German libraries."— Much information in regard to manuscripts maj
be found /. G Schdliom^s Anleitung far Bibliothekare und Archivare. Ulm, 1791. 2 vols. 8.— fK Roscoe, Account of the Mann
script Library at Hotkam in Norfolk ; in the Tramact. nf the Royal Soc. of Literature, vol. ii. Lond. IS34.

Respecting the labors of Petrarch and others, see Heeren's Einl. zurGesch. des Klass. Literatur, cited § 53.— On the zeal for Ih
discovery and study of manuscripts after the revival of letters, see Soscoe's Life of Lorenzo de Medici, and of Leo X.— For ai
accjjunt of the general circumstances pertaining to the formation, loss, and recovery of the " classical MSS. of Rome," see Dunlop'
nial. Rom. literature, Appendix.

2. A considerable collection of manuscripts adorned with miniatures and paintings, once be
lonsing to Mr. Douce, is now in the Bodleian library at Oxford. A number are preserved also ir
ihe British Museum among which is a curious MS. of Cicero's translation of Aratus (cf. P. V


$71), adorned with miniature pictures of the constellations and busts of the planets Jupiter,
Mars, and others.

tV. r. Ottley, in ihe ^rchseolog'ia (cited §32. 3). vnl. xxvi. p. 4S, jives an interesting account of this MS. of Cicero's translition
and refers it to the second or third century.— For an account of the iUuitrated MSS. in the British Museum, see G. F. IVaagen, as cited
§ 190. 4. vol. i. p. 134.

§ 143. The following are among the most ancient manuscripts in the Latin
language: the Gospel of Mark ", in the library of St. Mark at Venice, of very
ancient date; the Virgil of Florence'', or ihe Codex 3Iedicaeus ,■ the Virgil <f
the Vatican % which seems to belong to the fifth century ; the Terence of the
F'«/^ca7^'', written in square letters, and ornamented with a large number of
ancient masks; and the Florentine manuscript of the Pandects \

« If has been asserted that the L,itin Manu.'^cripl of St. Mark was written by that evangelist himself. " But this is now proved to
be a mere fable; for theVeneiian MS. formerly made part of the Latin manuscript preserved at Friuli, most of whicti was printed
by Blanchini, in hi= EvaitgeliariumQuadnijtlex." The Venice MS. contained the first forty page;, or five quiilernious of SI. Maik's
gospel ; the last two quaterninns or twenty pages are preserved at Prague, where they were printed by M. Uobrowsky, under the
title of Fragmeiitum Prdgense Evangelii S. Marci vulgo autographi, 177S. 4. — See Home's Introduction, kc. vol. iv. it. ii. ch. ii.
§ 3. — Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xlvi. — b Published by Foggini exactly after the manuscript. Rome, 1741. 4 —' Published by
Sartoli, 1741. fol. in engravins. a notice a( boih these MSS. of Virgil, see SchCll, Hist. Litt. Rom. i. 362.— rf Printed at Urbino

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