Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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1736. fol. ; at Rome, 1767, fol. - " Ce precieux manuscrit a passe de la bibliolheque du Vatican dans ceile de Pans." {SchCll, Hist
Litt. Rom. vol. i. p. 134.— « Of this, BrcncMmann has given a description in bis Historia Pandectarum. Traj. ad Rhen. 1722. 4.
It is now in the library of the Grand Duke at Florence, and formerly was held in great reverence. Curious and profane eyes were
prohibited from looking upon it. It was opened on'y in the presence of a body of priests and a deputation of civil magistrates, wilk
prescribed ceremonies and amidst burning tapers. Cf. Sch'Cll, LitU Rom. iii. 281.

18 '2i2



Preliminary Remarks.

§ 144. By the word art, taken subjectively, is understood a practical skill m
producing something in agreement with certain purposes and rules. Taken
objectively, it signifies the abstract union of those rules and practical principl(;s,
which are essentially useful to guide in the production of any designed object or
.work. When Nature and Art are placed in contradistinction, the former
designates the original powers in the material and spiritual world and their im-
mediate operations; the latter designates the efficiency of reason by means of
choice and intention : nature therefore is understood to operate by necessary
laws ; art, by voluntary or arbitrary laws. A distinction is also made between
Art and Science, the one being the theory of that of which the other is the prac-
tice; science implies the accurate knowledge of principles ; art is their successful

Instead of saying that nature operates by necessary laws and art by arbitrary, it would bettier
express the triuh to say, vaiiire operates by laws which God the creator established ; and art by
rules which man deduces from the laws thus established.

§ 145, The arts are generally divided into the mechanical and the liberal or
fine. The former have reference chiefly to the bodily, the latter to the intellect-
ual powers of man. The mechanical are those, which are employed in pro-
ducing and im.proving whatever is important to the necessities or comforts and
conveniences of life. The fine arts are such as have chiefly pleasure for their
object, although utility is connected therewith as a secondary point; they aim
at the representation or imitation of moral beauty or excellence, and are addressed
to the imagination and the feelings. It is on account of this representation of
beauty and this immediate reference to the emotions of the mind, that they are
termed the fine or the beautiful arts. They are Poetry, Oratory, Music, Dancing,
Drama, Painting, Engraving, Lithoglyphy, Sculpture, and Architecture, which
last may include Gardening, usually treated as a separate art.

On the connection between Archileclure and Gardening, see vol. ii. p. 278, of Charaktere dcr Vamehmsten Dichter (cited P. V.

§ 47) — Of. ch. xxiv. of Home's Elem. of Criticism (cited § 152. 2). On the gardening of the ancients ; IV. Falconer, Thoughts on

the style of gardening among the Ancients ; in Mem. of the Lit. a?)d Phil. Soc. of Manchester, 2d vol. Lend. 17S5. S.— Historical
View of the Taitefor Gardening, ^c. am mg the Ancients. Lond. 1785. 8.

§ 146. These are all addressed to feeling and imagination, but do not all ex-
ert their influence in the same way and by the same means. Such of them as
effect their object by means of visible images or resemblances are called often
the plastic arts; from this class are excluded poetry, oratory, music, and for the
most part dancing and drama. The modes of forming these images or repre-
sentations of visible objects are various ; the image may be formed entire, or in
demi-relief or bas-relief, or in depression, or on a plane surface. The art of
designing may be considered as a common foundation for the whole class, since
they are employed wholly in representing those forms or actions of material
bodies, which are distinguished for regularity, or peculiar fitness, or moml
beauty or force, and which are therefore worthy of the artist's skill. On this
account they are termed by some the arts of design.

§ 147. The forms, which are represented, are not merely such as actually
exist in nature, but also such as are wholly ideal, or of a mixed character, partly
imaginary and partly real. Art likewise often employs this imitation of material
forms to express purely intellectual and spiritual conceptions. This object iis
eifected in part by exhibiting emotions of the soul through bodily gesture*


attitudes, and actions. It is effected also by syvihoUcal or allegorical images
and combinations, which have in no small degree ennobled the plastic arts and
elevated thern above their original limits. Perspicuity, appropriateness, liveli-
ness, judicious discrimination, and accuracy are the essential traits in such alle-
gorical pieces.

For more full remarks respecting attegory in the arts of design, and references to authors, see the article AlUgarie, in /. G. SulZBTf
Aligenieiue Theorie der schonen KQnsle. Lpz. 1792-4. 4 vols. 8.

§ 148. A sensibility and taste for art is necessary not only to the artist in
order to practice successfully, but also to the observer or critic in order to judge
properly. There must be a capacity or susceptibility easily to perceive the
beautiful, and to experience peculiar pleasure therein. Some elementary and
correct natural feeling is therefore presupposed ; but by a frequent exercise of
this feeling, a careful observation of works of art, and the study and application
of rules, the capacity is easily enlarged and improved. Sensibility to the beau-
tiful, delicacy of feeling, and correctness of judgment, are the most prominent
characteristics of that taste for art, which the artist must unite and carefully
cultivate in common with his genius and skill in execution.

§ 149. The name of connoisseur belongs only to him, who is qualified to ex-
amine and criticise works of art according to their whole actual merits, and to
estimate and explain on true principles their comparative value. For this a
superficial knowledge is not sufficient; it requires an intimate acquaintance with
the nature and essence of the arts, with all their principles, both mechanical and
sesiheiical, with their history, and with their chief productions. Good taste,
familiarity with the best performances, and studious reflection, therefore, are
indispensable to a connoisseur in art. The mere amateur needs only an un-
perverted lively susceptibility to the impression made by works of art, and a
prevailing attachment for them; which traits, however, if properly cultivated,
may form him into a connoisseur. Bocii raiionem artis intelligunt, indocti
vohipfafem. (Quintilian.)

§ 150. The history of art is obviously useful to the artist and to the critic.
By it we learn the first origin of art among the people of early antiquity;
its subsequent advancement among the Greeks, Etrurians, and Romans; its
decline with the wane of those nations; its complete prostration in the middle
ages; its restoration and in some respects far greater advancement in modern
times. The very perfection of modern art makes the study of the fine arts and
their history advantageous and even necessary to every one, who engages in
literature and the studies required by common utility. Abundant occasion will
be found by every man, for the application of this knowledge, so that he may
turn to good account all the instruction and pleasure derived by him from it.

§ 151. The monuments of the plastic arts remaining to us from ancient times,
are called in general antiques,- although by that term, especially when the
kindred idea of classical excellence is associated with it, we understand chiefly
the performances of the most flourishing periods of ancient art. These pieces
are admired particularly for the beauty of their forms; for the just and happy
representation of the human figure, especially the head ; and for the dig-nity and
emotion which is thrown into their expression, and is at the same time united
with a most attractive grace. In general it may be said, that the artists of
antiquity guided themselves by an ideal based and formed upon real nature,
rather than by any actual models ever presented in life. Hence the careful study
of antiques is of great service to the artist and to the general critic and scholar,
especially if it be connected with suitable attention to language, history, my-
thology, and antiquities in general.

See J. Speiice, Polj-metis, or Enquiry conceniins the Agreement between the works of the Roman Poeb and the remains of ancient
Ar'ists Lond. 1755. fol.— Article ^ntih, in Sulzcr's Allg. Theor. iic, cited above, § 147.

§ 152. Most of the now remaining works of the plastic arts of antiquity are
such as either were actually designed to commemorate particular remarkable
persons, objects, actions, and occasions, or may serve that purpose as to us.
Of course to obtain a full understanding of them, to look at these monuments in
a right point of view, to discover their meaning, and perceive their whole beauty,
we need the accessary knowledge just mentioned above.


1 u. In this view, also, an acquaintance with the history of art, in its different periods
and changes, and with the modes of conception and execution of the old artists, will
appear very important. And every thing of this sort will be more useful and instructive,
if attention be paid at tlie same time to the cBsthetic charactei of the works, that is, to
their comparative excellence considered as happy imitations, and as operating on the
taste and feelings.

^ 2. The term esthetic is not familiar in our language. It is formed from the Groek word
diadrirtKOs, from which also the corresponding German term, cesthetisch, is derived. The latter is
detitied by Sulzer (Allg. Theor. der schonen Kiinste), as follows; "that peculiarity or property
of a thing by which it is an object of feeling {dicdriaii'], and therefore suited to be "introduced in
a work of the fine arts." The German noun msthetik (aesthetics) is defined, in the same work,
as follows ; "the philosophy of the fine arts, or the science which deduces the general theory
and the rules of the fine arts from the nature of taste." The words are certainly very conveni-
ent in English, and have an obvious meaning which is expressed by no other terms.

There are many works on the topics and principles belonging to the science of ^slhetics—Georg. Szerdahaley, a;sthetica, seu
docfrini boni gustus, ex Philosoph'a pulchri deducia in scientias et artes aniCEniores. Bud. 1779. 2 vols. S.—G. Ja^triiann, Saggio
sul buon gusto nelle belle arii, ove si spiegano gl' elementi della Estetica. Fir. 1771. 9.—Ahbe Dubos, Reflexions critiques sur la
Poesie et la Peinlure. (Cf. § 29. 4.) — C/i. Batleaux, Les beaux arts reduits a une raeme principe. Par. 1753. 12. In Germ, with
additions by J Ad. Schhgel. Lpz. 1770. 2 vols. 8.— The PoUte Arts, or a Dissertation on Poetry, Painting, Music, Architecture,
and Eloquence. Lond. 1749. 12.— ff. Home (Lard Karnes). Elements of Criticism. Lond. 17S5. 2 vols. 8.— Alex. Gerard, Essay
on Taste. Edinb. 17S0. 8.— JrcAiiaZrf ^/tjon. Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste. Edinb. 1811. 8. Boston, 1812.— 7o/i.
Christ. K'nig, Philosophie der schonen Kanste. Namb. 17S4. 8.— Ph. Gang, ^Esthetic, oder allgemelne Theorie der schOaen
Kanste und Wissenschaften. Salzb. 1785. 8.— /mm. Kant, Critik der tJrtheilskraft. Berl. 1790. 8.

§ 153. To ^ive something' of this knov^'ledge, although only in g^eneral and ele-
mentary principles, is the object of what follows, under the title of Archaeology of
Art. It will be limited to the plastic arts, and will exclude Engraving and Garden-
ing, as the former was unknown to the ancients, and the latter was not ranked by
them, either in practice or theory, among the fine arts. Sculpture, Lithoglyphy,
Painting, and Architecture, will be noticed. Their history, especially among
the Greeks and Romans, will be presented ; the most celebrated artists in each
period named and characterised; and the chief monuments pointed out, with
such remarks on their character as may aid a right understanding of their worth.
The notices must necessarily be brief.

I. — Sculpture.

§ 154. The term Sculpture is used in a sense more comprehensive than its
etymological meaning. We include under it the formation of images of visible
objects, not only out of hard substances by means of the chisel and graver, but
also out of soft substances, and out of melted metals. In precise discrimination
the first of these arts is properly sculpture, y'kv^Yj, sculptura ; the second is more
exactly the art of molding, TfKari-tLxri, figlina ; and the third the art of casting,
topsvtLxrj, statuaria. The German word Bildnerkunst includes the whole, and
is used by Luther in translating that Hebrew phrase in Chron. iii. 10, which is
rendered in the English version image-work.

The figures are either formed entire so as to be seen on all sides (rtspi^ai'^,
ins jRunde), or only prominent from a plane surface (ytpo^tuTta, avdy%v^a).
Those of the former kind are termed Statues,- the others are called in general
Bas-reliefs, although they are distinguished in minute description, by terms indi-
cating the degree of their prominence from the plane. Figures formed by depres-
sion, or by hollowing below the level, were termed by the Greeks 8idy%v^a.

Respecting the ars loreutice, sae Excursus ad Plin, Nat. Hist. xxxv. 34, in Lemaire's edition, cited P. V. § 470. 4.

M55 2f.In the introduction to this Archaeology (§ 8 — 11) we spoke in general of the
origin of the arts. Here it is sufficient to remark, that the art of forming images belongs
to the highest antiquity, and probably was the earliest of the arts which we call plastic,
if we except architecture, which at first was merely mechanical. Although the princi
pies of the art of drawing are of the greatest service in image work, and in reality lie
at its foundation, yet the art of drawing was probably of later origin : for it requires a
higher effort of abstraction and reflection to give a representation by sketching mere
outlines on a fixed plane, than by forming an entire image. Accident, and perhaps the
caprice of nature, which not unfrequently presents the appearance of artificial figures
in trees, stones, and the hke, might lead men to this art. The first attempts, it is proba-
ble, were to form likenesses of the human bodv.


§ 156. The particular circumstances of the orig-in of this art are not made
known to us by any historical account. Neither tlu- inventor, the people among
whom it arose, nor the first mode of its exercise, can with certainly be deter^
mined. We may, however, reasonably conjecture, from the usual progress of
the human mind, and the history of other arts, that in this also was a gradual
advancement from the more easy and simple performances to the more difficult.

1 7i. Of the early existence of some branches of the art we have evidence in the
writings of Moses. See Exod. xxxvi 36, 38, Deut. xxix. 16, 17, Gen. xxxi. 19, 30.

2 u. The first works must have been quite rude, as the artists were deficient both in
the theory of designing and in mechanical skill, and were also destitute of the necessary
instruments. Accordingly we find that the most ancient figures of men and gods were
scarcely any thing more than pillars or blocks, with the upper extremity formed into a
sort of knob, or rounded, to represent the head. Such was the very ancient image of
the goddess Cybele brought to Rome from Pessinus in Phrygia (cf P. II. ^ 21).
Gradually the other principal parts of the body were more distinctly formed, at first
however only indicated by lines ; afterwards inade more full and complete, yet not
marked by significant action and attitude, but stiff, angular, and forced. This improve-
ment was ascribed among the Greeks to Daedalus (cf § 174. 2) , who was on that ac-
count said to have formed living statues, and whose name was applied by the early
Greeks to distinguished productions of art.

3. " In the primitive ages, objects rude and unfaslu'onod, as we learn from history, were adored
as representing the divinities of Greece. Even to the time of Pausanias, stones and trunks of
trees, rough and unformed by art, were preserved in the temples ; and though replaced by forms
almost divine, still regarded with peculiar veneration, as the ancient images of ihe deities. As
skill unproved, these signs began to assume a more determinate similitude; and from a square
column, the first stage, by slovv gradations something approaching to a resemblance of the human
firure was fashioned. These elTorts at sculpture long continued extremely imperfect. The ex-
tremities seem not to have been even attempted ; the arms were not separated from the body,
nor the limbs from each other ; but, like the folds of the drapery, stiffly indicated by deep lines
drawn on the surface. Such appears to have been the general state of the art immediately prior
to the period when it can first be traced, as cultivated with some degree of success in any par-
ticular plnce. This occurs about twelve centuries before Christ."

4. The following view has been adopted by some ; — that the statues consisting of a bust rest-
ing upon a pillar or block had their origin, not in the imperfection of the art of Sculpture, but in
the first use or design of imaires in worship, viz. to symbolize the mere presence of the god,
which purpose was answered by a simple pillar or unhewn block; — that when there was ihe
desiirn ol" symbolizing not merely the presence but the attributes of the gods, it became neces-
sary to cimibine the significant parts of more than one being; hence the monstrous figures that
were formed, some of « hich were retained in Ihe latest limes ; such, e. g. as Pan with the goal's
feet ; — and that it was a later idea, to represent the gods themselves by the most majestic and
beautiful human fuims.— Cf L. Schmiti, art. Statuary, in Smith, Diet, of Ant.

§ 157. Before noticing further the progress of the art of sculpture it will be
useful to mention some things respecting the materials employed, and the differ-
ent methods practiced among the ancients. The substances used were evidently
very various. The softer materials were earths, clays, wax, and the like; the.
harder were wood, ivory, marble, and bronze.

§ 15S u. Originally, as has been suggested, soft and pliant substances seem to have
been chosen, and images made by molding or embossing. This perhaps might originate
in the common art of pottery, which itself may have been suggested by covering culi-
nary vessels with earth or lime, and observing the hardness imparted by the fire. Clay,
gypsuin, and wax were the principal soft materials employed, not only in the earliest,
biit in the most flourishing periods, by the Greeks, Tuscans, and Romans ; for form-
insf entire statues, as well as busts, bas-reliefs, and models. Models thus prepared
{TTpoTrXdaixaTa, TrporvTra) were used by the artists for patterns to guide them in working
upon harder materials.

"Notwithstanding the ereat facility of making figures of clay, they are not often mentioned
in the early ages of Greece ; while in Italy the Diifictiles {irriXivoi 3-cdO were very common
from the earliest times. Clay figures never fell into disuse entirely ; and in later times not only
do we find statues of clay, but the pediments in small or rural temples frequently contained the
most beautiful reliefs in clay, which were copies of the luarble reliefs of larger temples."

'^ 15^^ u. Of the hard substances, vwod was commonly preferred, at first, on account
of it.«! being easily wrought, especially for the sculpture of large figures, utensils, arid
ornaments of various kinds. In the choice of wood for the purpose, regard was paid
lo its solidity, durability, and color. Ebony, cypress, and cedar had the preference,
/et citron-wood, acanthus, maple, box, poplar, and oak, and even more common sorts
of wood, were sometimes employed. Not unfrequently in the choice of wood there
was a reference to the supposed character of the divinity to be represented, as was
the case also in the use of other materials. In the island of Naxus, for example,
there was a statue of Bacchus formed out of the vine. Pluto was commonly imaged
in ebony or black marble. (Cf P. II. §§ 33, 60.)


§ 160 u. The most celebrated ancient sculptors often made use of ivory, on ac
count of its whiteness and smooth surface, not merely for small figures, but also for
large ones, and even for colossal statues, which were sometimes formed of ivory and
gold united. Of this sort were the two most famous statues of antiquity, — the Jupiter
01ym_pius" and the Minerva,* — which were wrought by Phidias. Bas-reliets and
various utensils were also formed of ivory, either alone, orwhh orher substances con-
nected wuh it for ornament. The artists appear to have used no instrument for turning,
but merely a chisel with a free hand. In the large statues formed of this substance,
the inner part consisted of dry solid wood, to which the ivory was attached and fast-
ened in regular portions, and probably after the requisite chiseling had in part been
performed. Very few monuments of this kind are preserved, because ivory so readily
calcines in the earth and decays.

« Of. p. II. § 24 — i Cf. p. n. § 43 See Heyne, on the ivory of the ancients, and inias^es maJe of it, in N. SilUoth. der schOn.

Wiss. Bd. XV. ; also in tVmchdmann, Histoire, &c. as cited § 32. 4. vol. i. p. 575. — Hirt, in BSttiger'i Amalthea, Bd. i.— On the
works of Phidias, cf. § 179.

§ 161 u. Marhle was the noblest and most valued material for sculpture. There
were several species, differing in color, solidity, and lustre. Among the most cele-
brated kinds were the PenteUcan. the Parian, the Lydian, the Alabandian. Porphyry,
basalt, and granite, were also often used in works of an, especially among the Egyp-
tians. The marble was not always poHshed. The larger statues were often composeG
of several pieces, sometimes of different marble. There were works, too, of which
only certain parts were marble, as for example the celebrated Minerva of Phidias, of
which, particularly, the pupils of the eyes were marble {Xl^iva), according to a pas-
sage'^ in Plato. The cement, by which the different pieces of marble were united,
the Greeks called \idoK6X\a. Sometimes the marble statues, after completion, were
washed over vvith a thin transparent varnish, partly in order to give them a softer ap-
pearance and a milder lustre.

a 1. For tlie passage in Plato here referred to, see his 'Iirrr^a j iitX^iov, in the edit, of Bekker, (cited P. V. ^ 189. 4.) Partis Sec.
Vol. Tertium, p. 429. It is not improbable that the term XWtva here designates precious stones or gems— Cf.Z)e Caylus, on colored
statues, &c. Mem. Acad. Iiucr. xx'ix 166. cf. xxxiv. 39.

2. Respecting the modern names of aucient varieties of marble, and other circumstances pertaining to them, seeFerber's Briefe aus
Wilschland (Letters from Italy). Prag. 1773. S.^Louia de Latinay, Mineralogie des Anciennes. Bruxell. 1803. 2 vols. I'2.—
Blam Caryophili (Biagio Garofalo), Opusculum de ant'quis marmcribus. Traj. ad Rh. 1743. 4.— An interesting account of the
quarries of the Parian marble is given by E. D. Clarke, Travels. &c. vol. vi. p. 133, Lnnd. ed. ; vol. iii p. 280, N. York ed. iSIo.—
For notices of the quarries of Pentelican marble, see Holhoust's Albania, and Dodwdl's Tour, cited P. V. § 7. 7. (i).

^ 162 u. The bronze (xa^i^os, cbi - ) employed in the statues of the ancients consisted
of a mixture of several metals, in definite proportions, although not always the same.
The principal ingredient was copper, of which usually, for statuary, one hundred
pounds were united with an eighth part of lead or tin. In forming the mixture there
was very often a regard to the color arising from it, and to its suitableness for the
imase to be made. The best kinds of brass or bronze were that of Delos and that
of iEgina. The most valued was the orichalcum {dpctxaXKOi), not the modern brass,
but a natural product of that name, unknown to us. — The precise manner in which

I the metals were wrought into images is not well understood; works of this kind
were formed not only by casting, in which case the chisel was afterwards applied to give
perfection, but likewise by driving or pressing under the hammer. Many brazen

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