Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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rebuilt their city, but at length it was leveled to the ground, and its wretched inhabitants, forced
to relinquish their native place, built a new town at Thurium.— The Crotoniates did not long
preserve their supremacy, for the vices of the Sybarites were introduced into their city, and
they consequently fell an easy prey to the Locrians.— To secure their superiority, the Locrians
entered into an alliance with the kings of Syracuse, who by this means obtained considerable
influence in the south of Italy, until the attempt of the elder Dionysius to secure to himself a pari
of the country by building a wall from the Terinsan sulf to the Ionian sea, and still more the in-
gratitude of the younger Dionysius, save them a distaste for the connection.— After breaking
ofT their alliance with the Sicilians, the Locrians united themselves to the Romans ; during the
war with Pyrrhus, they adhered to the fortunes of Rome with the most unshaken fidelity ;
but afterwards becoming j ustly alarmed at the restless ambition of their allies, they readily joined
Hannibal.— It is remarkable, that in all the other Italo-Grecian states the people embraced the
Carthaginian side, while the nobles sided with the Romans, but among the Locrians the division
of parties was directly the contrary.

The Tarentines ruled the shores of the Tarentine bay, but being enervated by riches and
luxury, they were obliged to put themselves under the protection of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, to
secure their city from the Romans. After the disgraceful termination of Pyrrhus's Italian
campaign, that monarch returned home, leaving a garrison in Tarentum, under the command
of Milo'; who'betrayed the city to the Romans.

After the termination of the second Punic war, these states, though acknowledging the su-
periority of Rome, retained their own laws and private jurisdiction, even to the latest periods
of the Roman empire.

§ 51. (3) The Topography of Rome. This city was originally, it is stated, nearly in
the form of a square, and Us whole perimeter was scarcely one mile. In the time of
Pliny the walls were said to have been nearly 20 miles in chcuit. The wall built by
Belisarius to resist the Goths, still remaining, is about 14 miles in circumference.— The
Gales {PortcB) of Rome were originally four; in the time of the elder Pliny, there were
thirty-seven ; in the reign of Justinian only fourteen. The following were the most
noted; Porta Carmentalis, Collina, Tihurtina, Ccelimontana, Latina, Capena, Fla-
minia, Ostietisis.

For a plan of ancient Rome, see our Plate I., from which the reader may learn the position of many c, the important objects
about to be noticed.

<5< 52. Thirty-one great Poads centered ui Rome. Some of the principal were Via
Sacra, Appia, Emilia, Valeria, Flaminia. These public roads "issuing from the
Forum traversed Italy, pervaded the provinces, and were terminated only by the Iron-
tiers of the empire." Augustus erected a gilt pillar in the middle of the forum, called
Milliarium aureum{Tac. Hist. i. 27), from which distances on the various roads were
reckoned. " This curious monument was discovered in 1823." Butler's Geogr. Class,
p. 39.)

"They usually were raised some height above the ground which they traversed, and proceeaea
in as straight a line as possible, running over hill and valley with a sovereign contempt for all
the principles of engineering. Thev consisted of three distinct layers of materials ; the lowest,
stones, mixed with cement, statnvie'n ; the middle, gravel or small stones, rudera, to prepare a
level and unvielding surface to receive the upper and most important structure, which consisted
of large masses accurately fitted together. These roads, especially in the neighborhood o.
cities, had, on both sides, raised foot-ways, margines, protected by curb-stones, which defined
the extent of the central part, airger, for carriages. The latter was barrelled, that no water
might lie upon it."— "The public roads were accurately divided by mile-stones. They umted
the subjects of the most distant provinces bv an easy intercourse; but their primary object baa
been to facilitate the march of the legions. The advantage of receiving the earliest intelligence,
and of conveying their orders with celerity, induced the emperors to establish, throughout Ibeir
extensive dominions, the regular institution of posts. Houses were every where erected only
at the distance of five or six miles; each of them was constantly provided with torty norses,
and by the help of these relavs, it was easy to travel a hundred miles in a day along the Roman


roads. The use of the posts was allowed to those who claimed it by an imperial mandate ; but
though originally intended for the public service, it was sometimes indulged to the business oi
conveniency of private citizens. "^Dr. Robinson noticed three Roman mile-stones on his route
(in 1838) from Tyre to Beirut in Syria; one of them, "a large column with a Latin inscription
containing the names of Septimius Severus and Pertinax." Traces still exist of a Roman
road leading from Damascus to Petra, and thence even to Ailah. The most ancient and cele-
brated of all the Roman Vice was the Appian way, called Regina Vmrum, the Queen of Roads.
It was constructed by the censor, Appius Claudius, in the year of the city 441, and extended
from Rome to Capua. Afterwards it was continued to Brundusium, 360 miles. At Sinnessa it
threw off a branch called the Domitian way, which ran along the coast to Baiae, Neapolis, Her-
culaneum, and Pompeii.

N. Eergier, Hist, dfs grands chemins des Remains. Par. 1792. 2 vols. 4.—D'Anville, on the extent of ancient Rome and the grand
roads leading from it, in the Mem. .Scad. Imcr. vol. xxx. p. 198.— £. Robinson, Bibl. Res. vol. iii. p. 415, 432 ; vol. ii. p. 562, as
cited §117.

^ 53. There were eight principal b'ridges over the Tiber, which flowed through the
city from the north ; Pons 3Iilvius ; Mlius, still standing ; Fuhricius ; Cestius ; Fa-
latinus or Se?iatorius, some arches of it still remaining ; Sublicius or .SLmilius ; Jani-
cularis, still existing ; Triuinphalis or Vaticanus.

Rome was called Septicollis, from having been built on seven mountains or hills.
These were Mons Palatinus, Capilolinus, Esquilinus, Ccelius, Aventlnus, Quirinalis,

The foundation or commencement of the city was made, according to the common accounts,
on the J\Ions Palatinus or Palatium. Here Romulus had his residence. Here the emperors
usually abode, and hence the term Palatium, palace, applied to designate a royal or princely
dwelling. The hill first added was probably the Quirinalis, on which it has been supposed was
a Sabine settlement called Quirium ; this addition being made when the union was formed be-
tween the Romans and Sabines, before the death of Romulus, and the Romans took the name
of Qtiiriles. The double Janus on the earliest coins is by some supposed to refer to this union.
Next was added the hill Ccelius, on which a Tuscan settlement is supposed to have been planted.
The other four hills were successively added, at least before the close of the reign of Servius
Tullius, sixth king of Rome. Two hills on the north of the Tiber were also connected with the
city. The Janicalum was fortified by Ancus Martius, fourth king of Rome, as a sort of out-post,
and joined to the city by a bridge. The other, the Vaticanus, so called perhaps from the predic-
tions uttered there by soothsayers, vates, was added at a later period; it was rather disliked by
the ancients, but is now the principal place in Rome, being the seat of the Pope's palace, St.
Peter's church, and the celebrated Vatican library. A tenth, hill, Collis hortulorum, called also
Pincius, was taken into the city by Aurelian.

On the side of the CapUoUne hill towards the Tiber was the Tarpeian Rock. Johnson says, (in his Philos. of Travel, cited P. IV
§ 190), " of all that tremendous precipice, painted in such terrific colors by Seneca, immeuss altitudinis aspectns, only thirty fe&
of its summit now overlook the consolidated dust of ancient temples and the accumulated filth of modern hovels.''— The spot wi
visited in 1829 by two American gentlemen, eminent scholars, one of whom writes, " after very cautious estimates we both judgeJ
the original height to have been about 80 feet, of which about twenty may be filled up, leaving about 60 for its present altitude."

^ 54. Rome was originally divided into four districts. From the time of Augustus
there were fourteen. The last division is followed by most topographers, and affords
the most convenient order for mentioning the objects worthy of notice in the city. The
names of the districts were as follows; 1. Porta Capena ; 2. Ccelimoutium ; 3. Isis and
Serapis or Moneta ; 4. Templum Pacts or Via Sacra ; 5. Esquilina cum ttirri et colle
Viminali ; 6. Alta Semita ; 7. Via Lata; 8. Forum Bomaimm ; 9. Circus Flaminius ;
\0. Palatium; 11. Circus Maximus ; 12. Piscina Puhlica ; 13. Aventi7ius ; 14. Trans
Tiberim. To describe only the most remarkableobjectsin each region or district would
trespass on our designed limits, and we must be content with merely naming some of

A tabular statement of the objects included in the fourteen regions is given in KennetPi Antiquities, ch. ii. as cited P. III. § 197. 2.

See G. C. .idler's ausfarliche Beschreibung der Stadt Rom. Altona, 1781. 4. with engravings. The basis, mainly, is the

arrangement of Sextus Rufus and Publius Victor with the addi«ons of Nardini and others. fCf. Graruii Thesaurus, vols. 3 and 4.',
Nardini's Italian original was published anew hy A. Nibby, Rome, 1S20, 4 vols. 8. with plates.- Descrizione di Roma Antica forma
novamenle con le Autorita di Bart. Marliani, Onof. Panvinio, &c. with plates. Rom. 1697. 2 vols. 4.—C. Fea, Nuova descrizione
i\ Roma antica e modema. Roiji. 1820. 3 vols 8. with plates.— C. ,Biir(on, Monuments and Curiosities of Rome. Oxf. 1821. Transl
into German by Sichler, Weim. 1823. 8.—Venuti, Descrizione topografia delle antichita di Roma. ed. by Viscoiiti, 1803, v.\{h Pialx'i
Note^. Rom. 1S24. 2 vols. 4.— burgers. Topography and Antiquities of Rome. Lond. 1831. 2 vols. 8.— Ficoront, Vestigia di Roma
— Plainer, Bunsm, Gerhard, and R'slell, Beschreibung der Stadt Rom. TQbing. and Stuttg. 1829-37. 3 vols, with a BUderheft (or

Number of plates).—?'. Blume, Iter Italicum. Halle, 1836. 4 vols. 8. On the remaining monuments of ancient Rome, cf. P. IV.

§§ 186, 188, 191, 226, 243. Raim in the Nineteemh Century. N. Yk. 1827. 2 vols. 12.

^ 55. There were large open places in the citv. designed for assemblies of the peo-
ple, and for martial exercises, and also for games, termed Campi. Of the nineteen
which are mentioned, the Campus Martius was the largest and most famous. It was
near the Tiber; thence called sometimes Tiberinus, but usually Martius, as conse-
crated to Mars. It was originally the property of Tarquin the Proud, and confiscated
after his expulsion. In the later ages it was surrounded by several magnificent struc-
'•:res; and porticos were erected, under which the citizens could exercise in rainy
weather. It was also adorned with statues and arches. Comitia were held here ;
and there were Septa or OviUa (P. III. § 259), constructed for the purpose.

^ 56. The main streets of the city were termed via. On each side were connected
olocks -"^ houses and buildings ; these being separated by intervening streets and by


X \v



lanes or alleys, would form separate divisions, or a sort of squares ; the portions occu
pied by buildings and thus separated were called Vici; of these there were, it is said,
424. They had particular names; e. g. Vicus albus,jugarius, lanarms, Tiberiinus,
Junouis, 3IinervcB, &c.

§ 57. The name of Fora was given to places -where the people assembled for the
transaction of business. Although at first business of every sort was probably trans-
acted in the same place, yet with the increase of wealth, it became convenient to
make a separation ; and the Fora ^/ere divided into two sorts, Civilia and Vejialia.
The Roman Fora were not hko the Ayopai of the Greeks, nearly square, but oblong ;
the breadth not more than two-thirds of the length ; the diflerence between the length
and breadth of the chief Forum discoveied at Pompeii is greater.

Until the time of JuUus Caesar there was but one Forum of the first mentioned
class ; that generally called Fonim Romaniim, or Forum simply, by way of eminence.
This gave name to the 8th region (<i 51), and was between the Capitoline and Palatine
hills ; it was 800 feet wide, built by Romulus, and adorned on all sides, by Tarquinius
Priscus, with porticos, shops, and other buildings. On the public buildings around
the Forum great sums were expended in the architecture and ornaments, so that it
presented a very splendid and imposing spectacle : here were the BasiliccB, CuricB,
and Tabularia ; temples, prisons, and public granaries : here too were placed nume-
rous statues (cf. P. IV. § 182. 2), with other monuments. In the centre of the Forum
was the place called the Curlian LaT<e, where Curtius is said to have plunged into a
mysterious gulph or chasm, and to have thus caused it to be closed up. On one side
were the elevated seats (or suggestus, a sort of pulpits), from which magistrates and
orators addressed the people ; usually called the Eostra, because adorned with the
beaks of ships, taken in a sea-fight from the inhabitants of Antium. Near by was the

Eart of the Forum called the Comitium, where some of the legislative assemblies were
eld, particularly the Comitia Curiata. In or near the Comitium was the Futeal
Attn ; a puteal was a httle space surrounded by a wall in the form of a square, and
roofed over : such a structure was usually erected on a spot which had been struck
with hghining. Not far from the Puteal Attii was the Praetor's Trihunnl, for hold-
ing courts. There was in the Forum, near the Fabian arch, another structure
marking a place struck with lightning, the Puteal Libonis, near which usurers and
bankers were accustomed to meet {Hor. Sat. ii. vi. 35). The milliarium\al]ie Forum
has already been mentioned (*5> 52).

Besides this ancient Fnruni, there were four others bnilt by different emperors, and designed
for civil purposes ; the FurumJulium, biiill by Julius Cssar, with spoils taken in the Gallic war;
the Forum ^v^usti, by Augustus, adorned with the statues of the kings of Laiium on o!ie side and
the kings of Rome on the other; the Forum JVerv(£, begun by Dnmitian and finished by \erva,
having statues of all the emperors; and the Forum Trajani, by Trajan, the most splendid of all.

The Fora Ve?iaUa were fourteen in number; among them the Forum Boarium, ox
and cow market, adorned with a brazen bull; Piscarium, fish market; Olitorium,
vegetable market ; Si/arium, swine market, &c.

§ 58. In speaking of the temples of Rome, the first place belongs to the CapitoUum.
The Capitol was one of the oldest, largest, and most grand edifices in the city. It
was first founded by Tarquinius Priscus, and afterwards from time to tim.e enlarged
and embeUished. Its gates were brass, and it was adorned with costly gilding ;
hence the epithets aurea and fulgens, applied to it. It was on the Capitoline hill, in
the highest part of the city, and was sometimes called arx. The ascent from the
forum to it was by 100 steps. It was in the form of a square, extending about 200
feet on each side. Its front was decorated with three rows of pillars, the other sides
with two. — Three temples were included in this structure ; that of Jupiter Capitohnus
in the centre, one sacred to IMinerva on the right, and one to Juno on the left. The
Caphol also comprehended some minor temples or chapels, and the Casa Bomitii, or
cottage of Romulus, covered with straw. Near the ascent to the Capitol was also
the asylum, or place of refuge.

This celebrated structure was destroyed, or nearly so, by fire, three times; first, in the Marian
war, B. C. 83. but rebuilt by Sylla : secondly, in the Vitellian war, A. D. 70, and rebuilt by Ves-
pasian ; thirdly, about the time of Vespasian's death, after which it was rebuilt by Domiiian
with greater niasnificence than ever. A few vestiges only now remain ; respecting which there
has been much discussion.

See Smilh't Diet, of Antiquities, art. CapitoUum, and works there cited.

'^ 59. The temple next in rank was the Pantheon, built by Marcu.s Agrippa, son-in-
law of Augustus, and consecrated to Jupiter Ultor, or, as its name imports, to all the
gods (TaiTwi/ eswi/). It is circular in form, and said to be 150 feet high, and of about
the same breadth within the walls, which are 18 feet thick. The walls on the inside
are either sohd marble or incrusted. The front on the outside was covered with
brazen plates gilt, and the top with silver plates ; but now it is covered with lead.
The gate was of brass, of extraordinary size and work. It has no windows, hut only
an opening in the top, of about 25 feet in diameter, to admit the light. The roof is
curiously vaulted, void soaces being left here »nd r-Jiore •^or the greater suengxh
3 ^2


" The vestibule is supported by sixteen Corinthian columns, fourteen feet in circuni-
ference, and thirty-nine feet in height, each shaft being an entire block of red oriental
granite,' having bases and capitals of white marble." The Pantheon is one of the
most perfect of the ancient edifices remaining at Rome. It is now called the Rotunda,
having been consecrated by Pope Boniface 4th, A, D. 607, to the Virgin Mary and
all the Saints.

Dr. Mam, in his account of the Pantheon, says, "they used to ascend to it by 12 steps, but
now they go down as many." On this point the gentleman mentioned in $ 53, writes, "the
statement that it was originally entered by seven steps is doubtless correct. At present one
ascends two steps to enter it. The statement of Ucelve steps of descent can only have been true
f )iir centuries ago, before the place anterior to the Pantheon was cleansed. This took place
under Pope Eugene IV., who was elected in 1431."— For a view of the Pantheon, see Plate IIL

§ 60. There were many other temples in ancient Rome (cf. P. III. § 203), which
cannot here be described. The temple of Saturn was famous particularly as serving
for the pubhc treasury; perhaps thus used because one of the strongest places in the
city ; ahhough some ascribed it to the tradition, that in the golden age, under Saturn,
fraud was unknown. In this temple were also kept the pubhc registers and records,
among them the Libri Elephantini, or ivory tablets containing lists of the tribes.

The temple of Janus was built, or finished at least, by Numa; a square edifice,
with two gates of brass, one on each side ; which were to be kept open in time of
war, and shut in time of peace.

Bo continually was the city engaged in wars, that the gates of Janns were seldom shut ; first,
in the reign of Numa ; secondly, at the close of the first Punic war, B. C. 241 ; three times in the
reign of Augustus ; the last time near the epoch of Christ's birth ; and three times afterwards,
once under Nero, once under Vespasian, and lastly, under Constantius, about A. D. 3.'0. The
pates were opened with formal ceremony {Virg. Mu. vii. 707).— For a view of the temple of Ja-
nus, see Plate VH.

Saintt Croix, Sur la cloture du temple de Janus, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. xlix. p. 3S5.

The temple of Apollo on the Palatine hill was celebrated on account of its library,
(P. IV. § 126). — The temple of Vesta yet exists in a small circular church, on the side
of the Palatine hill towards the Tiber. — Besides these, we may name the temple of
Concord ; of the goddess of Pea£e {Pad ceternce) ; of Castor and Pollux; of Valor,
built by Marcellus.

The Romans were accustomed, like other ancient nations, to consecrate groves
and woods to the gods. As many as 230 sacred groves {luci) are enumerated, chiefly
within the city of Rome.

§61. The CuricR were public edifices, or parts of pubhc edifices, and appropriated,
eoine of them for assemblies of the senate and civil councils, others for meetings of
the priests and reUgious orders for the regulation of religious rites. To the former
class the Senacula seem to have belonged. The following were among the Curise ;
viz. Curia Eomana, Vetus, Hostilia, Vallensis, Pampeii, &.c.

The term Curia, as designating an edifice or apartment, seems to have been originally applied to the halls or places where the
citizens of the respective Curix (cf. P. III. § 219 o. § 251) assembled for religious and other purposes; each of the thirty had its com-
mon hall or place of meeting.

The Basilica were buildings of great splendor, devoted to meetings of the senate,
and to judicial purposes. Here counsellors received their clients, and here bankers
also had rooms for transacting their business. There were fourteen (according to
some, twenty or twenty-one) of these buildings ; among them. Basilica vetus. Con'
sfantiniana, Siciniana, Julia, &c. — Both the Basilicae and the Curiae were chiefly
around the Forum.

It should De remarked that the term Basilica wu applied to many of the ancient Christian churches, because they so much
resembled the Basilics just described. The earliest churches bearing this name were erected under Constanline. He gave his own
palace on the Ccelian hill to construct on its site a church, which is recognized as the most ancient Christian Basilica. Next was
that of St. Peter on the Vatican hill, erected A. D. 324, on the site and with the ruins of the temples of Apollo anci Mars ; it stood
about twelve centuries, and was then pulled down by Pope Julius 2d, and on its site has arisen the modem church of the same name.
—On the structure of the early Christian churches, see L. Coleman, Antiquities of the Christian Church. And. 1841. 8. chap. ix.

§ 62. The Circi were structures appropriated to public spectacles, to races, and to
fighting with wild beasts. They were generally oblong, having one end at right
angles with the sides, and the other curved, and so forming nearly the shape of an
ox-bow. A wall extended quite round, whh ranges of seats for the spectators. There
were eight of these buildings, besides the Circus Maximus, described in another place,
situated in the vicinity of the Forum. For an account of these, see P. III. § 232.

The Stadia were structures of a similar form, designed for contests in racing, but
less in size and cost (cf. P. IV. § 236.) — Hippodromi were of the same character, and
seem to have been sometimes built for private use.

'^ 63. Ancient Rome had also a number of large edifices constructed for the purpose
of dramatic exhibitions, and for gladiatorial shows. Those for the former Use were
termed theatra (cf P. III. § 238). The first, permanent, was that erected by Pom-
pey, of hewn stone, capable of accomodating 40,000 persons ; near this, in the vici-
aity of the river, were two others, that of Marcellus and that of Balbus , bpnce .ne



phrase applied to them, trla theatra. — The structures designed for the gladiatorial shows
were termed Ampkithealra (P. III. ^ 239), of which the most remarkable was the
Coliseum, still remaining, a most stupendous ruin. — The Odea were buildings circular
in form, and ornamented with numerous seats, pillars, and statues, where trials of
musical skill were held, and poetical and other literary compositions were exhibited,
after the manner of the Greeks (P. IV. ^ 65). Those established by Domitian and
Trajan were the most celebrated.

^ 64. The buildings constructed for the purpose of bathing (balnea) were very
numerous ; such as were of a more pubhc character were called Ihervice. In the time
of the republic, the baths were usually cold. Maecenas is said to have been the first
to erect warm and hot ones for public use. I'hey were then called ihennce, and
placed under the direction of the cpxliles. Agrippa, while he was sedile, increased the
number of thermoB to 170, and in the course of two centuries there were no less than
800 in imperial Rome. The IhermcB Diodedaiiiwere especially distinguished for their
extent and magnificence (cf P. IV. § 241. b). Those of Nero, Titus, Domitian, and
especially Caracalla, were also of celebrated splendor.

§ 65. The name of Ludi or schools was given to those structures in which the
various athletic exercises were taught and practiced ; those most frequently mentioned

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