Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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of their more ancient performances. But at length they surpassed all other

1 u. The exact time of the rise of this art in Greece cannot be decided, nor so much
as the name of the first artist. Some mention Dibutades, others Rhcecus and Theo-
dorus, as inventors of the art of molding, or of working in soft wax and in brass.
Dcedalus, who lived three generations before the Trojan war, was celebrated as the
first improver of the plastic art among the Greeks. It was undoubtedly practiced at a
very early period, and even in the time of the Trojan war, or at least in the age of
Komer, had gained a remarkable degree of cultivation.

"2. Concerning DEedalus, the first of the Athenian sculptors, doubtful or fabulous accounts
have reached us; but a careful investigation of circumstances proves, that of whatsoever country
a native, he had rendered himself renowned by the exercise of his skill at the court of Minos
before settling in Attica. The facts attending his arrival there, and the history of his previous
labours, enable us to fix dates, and to trace the true source of improvement in Grecian art at
this particular era. Of the early establishments of the Greeks planted in the isles of the
-^gean, which even preceded the mother country in the acquisition of wealth and intelligence,
the Doric colony of Crete enjoyed, from a very early period, the happiness and consequent
power of settled government. External advantages of situation first invited the access, while
domestic institutions secured the benefits, of ancient and uninterrupted intercourse with Egypt.
Hence the laws and the arts of the Cretans. With the former, the Athenian hero, Theseus, wished
to transplant the later also; and while he gave to his countrymen a similar system of policy,
he did not fail to secure the co-operation of one whose knowledge might yield powerful aid in
humanizing a rude people by adding new dignity to the objects of national veneration. Accord-
ingly Dcedalus, accompanying the conqueror of the Minotaur to Athens, fixes there the com-
mencement of an improved style, 1234 years before the Christian era. — The performances of
Dcedalus were chiefly in wood, of \^hich no fewer than nine, of large dimensions, are described
as existing in the second century, which, notwithstanding the injuries of fourteen hundred years,
and the imperfections of early taste, seemed, in the words of Pausanias, to possess somelhiiig
of divine expression. Their author, as reported by Diodorus, improved upon ancient art, so as
to give vivacity to the attitude, and more animated expression to the countenance. Hence we
arrt not to understand, with some, that Daedalus introduced sculpture into Greece, nor even into
Attica; but simply that he was the first to form something like a school of art, and whose
works first excited the admiration of his own rude age, while they were deemed worthy of
notice even in more enlightened times. Indeed the details preserved in the classic writers, that
he raised the arms in varied position from the flanks, and opened the eyes, before narrow and
blinking, sufficiently prove the extent of preceding art." {Menus, as cited $ 169.)

It has however been doubted whether Daedalus ever had an actual existence, some supposing a mere mythic personage meant,
nhose name was intended for any eminent artificer.— HiVt, Geschichte der Baukunst (cited § 243. 4).—Heyne, ad Horn. II. IS. 590.
—Gidoyn, L'Histoire de Dedale, Mem. Acad. Inscr. ix. 111.— Class. Joum. iv. 21.

3 u. Many favorable circumstances combined to promote the advancement of sculp-
ture in Greece ; the influence of a dehghtful climate upon physical and moral education ;
the constant views of beauty not only in the various natural .scenery, but especially in
the human form as produced among the Greeks ; their peculiar religion, involving so
much of poetry and imagination and yet so addressed to the senses ; the high honor
and rewards bestowed upon artists ; the various uses and applications of sculpture
(cf § 178) ; and the flourishing condition of the other imitative arts and of letters in

See GurUWs Einleitung in das Studium der schOnen Kunst, &c.; and K. 0. MUller''s Arcbaologie, &c., as cited § S2. 4.— An En-
qi^iry into the causes of the extraordinary excellency of ancient Greece in the Arts. Lond. 1767. S.—Winclidmanru Hist, de I'Art,
&c., liv. iv. ch. i.—Tytkr's History, ch. xx. 7.— On the estimation in which artists were held among the Greeks, Comte de Caylus,
in the Man. Acad. Inscr. xxi. p. 174.

§ 175 t. In presenting an historical view of the progress and character of the
art in Greece, and of the age of the principal productions and their authors, four
periods have been pointed out. Instead of giving the division derived from the
sketch of Pliny, which has been considered as not sufficiently distinct and exact,
we propose the following. The first period includes the duration of the ancient
style., extending to the time of the Persian war, say the battle of Marathon, B. C.
490. The second reaches to the time of Alexander the Great, B. C. 336.
Phidias flourished in the first half of this period, which may be ch^acterized as
exhibiting the grand sfyle. The third period, that of the beautiful style, extends
to the establishment of the Roman power in Greece by the capture of Corinth,
B. C. 146: Praxiteles flourished at the beginning of this period. The fourth
includes all the later efforts of Grecian art, and may be called the period of its

.See Plin. Hist Nat. lib. xxxiv. xxxvi.— i7fy»ie's Abh. Qber die KUnstlerepochen des Pltnius, in his Sammlung antiguar. Mfu
S'. i —Also, by same, Arlium inter Giaecos tempora, in his Opitsc. Acad. V. o.— Meyer, Geschichte der bildenden Kanste bei den
Grit-cben —Thiersch, Qber die Epocben der bildenden Kunst unter den Griechen. MUnchen, 1S16. i.—J. B. Emeric-David, Essai
t-,r -e classement chronologiqae des sculf.eurs Grec^, &c. Par. 1S06 j republished in Lcmaires Pliny, cited P. V. § 470 j it namel,


in order, the principal Greek sculptors, and mentions the cliief works wrought by them.— C. de Cayluf, De la sculpture et dei
sculpleurs ancieunes; in the Mtm. Jicad. Imcr. xxv. 302 —for a general historical view of sculpture, see S. C. Cruzt-Magnan,
Discours His!oriques sur la Peinture et la Scuipture, belonging to the Musee Francaise, cited § 191. i—Memes, as ciled § 169.

§ 176. Among the Greeks, as in other nations, the first attempts in sculpture
were rude and imperfect; the works in the art were marked by that incomplete-
ness and want of fitness and agreeableness in design and performance, which
has already been mentioned (cf. § 15G). Subsequently there appeared more of
truth and accuracy in the sketch and outline, while there was still a severity or
stitfness, which was much deficient in expression as well as beauty. There
are many remains of Grecian art, which are commonly assigned to the earlier
ages, some of them correctly; yet it is difficult in some cases to decide to what
period a performance really belongs ; and it is too hasty a conclusion, if a person
assigns to the earliest period any piece of unfinished workmanship, with no
other proof or evidence; since such a work might come from the hand of an
inferior artist of later times, or might receive its rude appearance from desio-n.
Endoeus, Smilis, Dipcenus, Scyllis, Agelladas, Dionysius of Argos, and Mys,
were the principal sculptors of the first period.

^ 177 ?i. With the growing prosperity of the Grecian States, the arts, and especially
sculpture, steadily advanced. Among the means of improvement were the schools of
art, for the instruction of young artists both in painting and sculpture, wliich were estab-
lished at Sicyon, Corinth, and ^gina. The first of these was the most eminent,
founded by Dipcenus and Scyllis, and numbering among its pupils Aristocles, and sub-
sequently other celebrated painters and sculptors. Corinth, on account of its favorable
situation, became early one of the most powerful of the Grecian cities ; Cleanthes was
one of the most ancient artists there. The school of ^Egina, also, seems to have been
early established, and the island gained much celebrity from its arts; Callo, Glaucias,
Simon, and Anaxagoras, were distinguished in this school. The flourishing condition
of these cities, in consequence of conmierce and navigation, made them eligible places
for the establishment of such schools of art.

§ 178. The occasions for the execution and use of statues in Greece were
very frequent and various. Not only were the temples of the gods ornamented
with their statues and with sculptured representations of their mythological
history, but works of this kind were required in great number for public squares
and places, for private dwellings, gardens, country seats, walks, and for archi-
tectural ornament in general. The portico at Athens, receiving its name Pcecile
from its variety of ornaments, was crowded with statues. To heroes, wise men,
poets, and victors, statues were erected out of gratitude and respect; to princes,
out of flattery. Thus did the statuary always find encouragement and reward
for the exercise of his art, and for the application of all his talents, which were
quickened and stimulated the more by emulation.

1. Diiringthe former part of this first period, down to about the time of Solon, B. C. 600, most
of the statues seem to have been statues of the gods, including those which were merely dedi-
cated as 'ij/a^ij/za-a, and those which were erected for worship, dj-aA/^ara ; the latter were chiefly
of wood {I6(iva); yet the head, arms, and feet, were frequently of stone {tiKpoXidoi); they were
u.^ually pp.iiited ; sometimes dressed in gorgeous attire. — In the latter part of the period, statues
of itieti {ay&piavTe^) became more common; these were probably real likenesses {Iikovei;). The
exhibition of the human form in striking attitudes in the gymnastic contests at the public festi-
vals, furnished the artists with fine opportunities for observation.

See De VUsage des statues, chez Its Anciens ; Essai Historique. Brux. 1768. 4.

2. Before the close of the period, artists were very numerous. Besides the places above
named, they flourished in the Greek states of Asia Minor, in the islands of the ^SJgean, and in
Magna Grxcia. Among the sculptors of eminence were Bupalus and Anthermus of Chios; Me-
don andTheodes at Sparta; Dameas of Croton ; Canachus of Sicyon; Critias and Hegesiag
of Athens.

.''. In the latter part of this period, we find that the pediments and friezes of temples were
adorned with bas-reliefs and statues. Specimens of such ornaments are found in the Selinun-
tine Marbles and the JEginetan Marbles, which are regarded as remains of this period.

See S. Aagdl^ni Th. Ecaiis, Sculptured Metopes discovered (in 1823) amongst the ruins of Selinus. Lond. \S26.— Ed. Lynn.
Outlines of the E .-ina Mirbles. Lond. IWS.—lVasner, as cited § 190. 3.— Other remains of this period are still preserved. Cf. Combe,
Marbles of the British Museum.

§ 179. In the second period, reaching to the time of Alexander, the art of
sculpture obtained much higher excellence in Greece than among other nations.
Tts characteristic at this period was loftiness and grandeur in style ; yet this
was accompanied with more or less of that want of softness and ease, which
marked the works of preceding artists. There was a very rigid observance
of outward proportion. The expression in gesture and attitude was bold and

2 K 2


significant, rather than captivating and pleasing. Phidias was the first and the
most distinguished artist. His statues of Minerva and Jupiter Olynipius (cf.
§ 160) were among the most celebrated works of antiquity, although known to
us only by the unanimous praise of so many writers.

1. The great works executed at Athens in the time of Pericles were iinrier the direction of
Phidias {Plut. Peric. 12).— "The most colossal statue hy Phidias was his Athena Promachos, of
bronze, which was fifty feet high without tai\ing the pedestal into account. (Straho, vi.) It sto'id
on the Acropolis, between the Parthenon and the Propylfea, rising above each of these buildings,
so that it was seen at a distance by the sailors, when they approached the coast of Attica. This
work, however, was not completed when he died ; and it was finished nearly a generation later
by Mys."— The statue of the Olympian Jupiter is said to have been transported by Theodosius 1.
to Constantinople, and to have been there destroyed by fire, A. D. 475.

Quatriniere de Quiucy, Le Jupiter Olyr^pien. Par. 1815. fol.— Cf. § 160; also P. II. §§ 24, 43.— S. L. Vilkcl, Ueber den grossen
Tennpel und die Statue des Jupiters zu O'ynipia. Leipz. 1794. 8.— T. Ph. Seibenkees, Uber den Tempel und die BildsinledesJup. zn
01. Narub. 1795. 8 — £. H. T Ihen, de Phidise Jove Olympio observationes. Gott. 1812. S.—E. Fulcmut, Sur deux Ouvrages db
Phidias, in his Wurts. Lausanne, 1781. 6 vols. 8.— C. Muller, de Phidise vita et operibus, &c. Gott. 1827.— See also an account
of Ph.dias and his works, in the Apfemiix to Memorandum on Lord Elgin's Pursuits, &c., cited § 190. i.—Gedoyn, L'Hist. da
Phidias. Merit. Acad. Inscr. ix. 189.

2f. Besides Phidias, the following were among the celebrated artists of this period; Alcame-
nes of Athens; Agoracritus of Samos; Polycletus of Argos, by whom the school of Argos was
raised to its summit ; also Callimachus and Demetrius ; and Myron of Eleutherse, whose cow in
bronze, and colossal group representing Jupiter, Mercury, and Minerva, are mentioned as'Va-
mous. (Prop. ii. 31. Strabo, xiv. Plin. N. H. xx.xiv. 19. Quint, xii. 10. Plin. Ep. iii. 6.)

3. Among the remains of this period, the following are ascribed to the age of Phidias. 1. Paris
of the metopes, with the frieze of the small sides of the temple of Theseus"; of which there are
casts in the British Museum. — 2 A number of the metopes of the Parthenon, with a part of the
frieze of the cella. and fragments of the pediments, belonging to the Elgin Marbles^ in the British
Museum. — The following belong to a later time in this period. 1. The marble reliefs of the tem-
ple of Nike Apteros.— 2. The Phigalian Marbles^, of the inner frieze of the temple of Apollo Epi-
curius. — 3. The marbles of the temple of the Olympian Jupiter^.

"■ Stuart, Antiq. rf Athens, cited § 243. 1. — 1> Ste § 190. 4, and works there cited on these marDles. Also, Cockerell. as cited
^ 191. 4.—£irntted, Voyages, &c., as ciled § 2^3 I.— = G. M. Wagner, Bassi-ielievi della Grecia, Sic—Stackdhtrg, ApoUoteiDpel
zu Bassse in Arcadien und die daselbst ausgegrah. Bildwerke. 1828. — d Expedition Scientif. de la Moree. PI. 74 ss.

§ 180. Sculpture, together with the rest of the fine arts, attained the highest
excellence, not far from the time of Alexander. In the third period, marked by
the beautiful or elegant style, a peculiar grace was united with the accuracy
and noble expression already acquired. This grace appeared both in a higher
refinement in the design or conception, and greater ease in gesture, attitude and
action. A distinction may be made between the majestic grace which is con-
spicuous in the statues of the gods, belonging to this period, and that which is
merely beautiful; the latter again may be distinguished from an inferior and
lighter sort, exhibited in comparatively trifling performances. Scopas, Praxi-
teles, Lysippus, Chares, and Laches, were the most eminent sculptors of this

1. Scopas began to flourish before the close of the second period. He was employed, about
B. C. 350, with Leochares and others, in constructing the magnificent mausoleum of Mausoliis,
in Caria. Pliny (II. iV. xxxvi. 4) mentions works of Scopas as existing at Rome. — The must
celebrated works of Praxiteles were statues of Bacchus and of Venus; the most noted of which
were the veiled Venus of Cos, and the naked Venus of Cuidus. A statue of ("upid, which he
gave to the courtezan Phryne, is said to have been particularly valued by himself. Two sons
of Praxiteles are mentioned as sculptors, Cephissiodorus and Timarchus. — Lysippus was cele-
brated for his portrait statues of Alexander the Great, and his statues of Hercules. He is said
to have made no less than 1500 figures. — Chares, a disciple of Lysippus, gave celebrity to a
school that continued to flourish at Ithodes in the first part of the subsequent period. He formed
the celebrated colossal statue of the Sun (Plin. N. H. xxxiv IS), which stood by the harbor of
Rhodes; said to have been 70 cubits high, partly of metul Cf. P. I. $ 147, and PI. VI.— See
Meursius, Rhodas, i. 16.

2. Sculpture, with other fine arts, was more or less cultivated in the various kingdoms which
arose out of tlie conquests of Alexander. Among the foreign places where literature and art
flourished, were Pergamus, Alexandria, and Seleucia (cf. $ 80). — Of the remains ascribed to this
period, the group of Niobe is perhaps the most important; whether it is the original work (by
Scopas or Praxiteles), or is merely a copy, has been much discussed (cf. $ 186. 2). The gn-iipof
Laocoon belongs to this period, or to the very beginning of the fourth ; being according to Pliny
the work of three Rhodian artists, Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodoriis (cf $ 1S6. 1). The
Borshese Gladiator probably belongs to the close of this period (cf. $ 186. 8). The Farnese Bull
(cf. $ 186. 3), from the hand's of tvvo Rhodian artists, Apollonins and Tauriscus, belongs to the
same time ; unless it may be more correctly assigned to the fourth period.

§ 181. Gradually Grecian art declined from its high excellence, and finally
ceased. The causes are obvious; the prevalence of luxury and consequent cor-
ruption of lasie and morals; the internal changes and commotions, and the
infringements upon civil liberty from the time of Alexander, and its final loss
after the subjection of Greece to the Romans. There were, however, in the


fourth period (viz. that subsequent to the capture of Corinth, B. C. 146), some
skillful artists, as Arcesilaus, Pasiteles and Cleomenes ; and the plastic arts
remained in credit in some of the cities of Asia and Sicily.

See F. Jacobs, uber den Reicbthum der Griecben in plastischeu Kunstwerken; transl. in Clots. Studies, p. 65, as cited P. V. § 6. 4.

It may be remarked that the period of time mentioned as the fourth in the history of Grecian
sculpture, will coincide with the period of lime which is of most importance to be noticed in the
history of Roman sculpture. It was not until about the time of the capture of Corinth that tlie
Romans took any deep interest in the arts.

^ 182 u. On the subjection of the Greeks, their arts passed, as it were, into the hands
of the Romans, by whom, however, the arts were honored and furnished with opportu-
nities for their employment, rather than actually acquired and practiced. In early
periods of the repubUc, distinguished merit was rewarded with statues. Alter the
second Punic war, a great number of splendid works of sculpture were brought to
Rome from captured chies, Syracuse, Capua, Corinth, Carthage; also from Etruria
and Egypt. Likewise Grecian artists flocked to Rome, and there produced new works.
With the advancement of wealth, the Romans devoted greater and greater expense to
the ornamenting of their temples, their public and private buildings, their gardens and
manors, until at length there was a most extravagant and luxurious indulgence.

1. Among the treasures plundered from the Sicilians by Verres were a number of celebrated
statues, wrought by the most distinguished artists ; as a Cupid in marble by Praxiteles ; a Her-
cules in bronze by Miron ; and two Canephorae in bronze by Polycletus, all taken from a single
citizen of Messana. It is said to have been for the sake of his fine statues that Verres was pro-
scribed and murdered by Mark Antony. — The emperors, especially Augustus, Caligula, and
Nero, are said to have followed the example of the conquerors and provincial governors of
earlier times in bringing to Rome the most splendid works of art found in other cities.

Middletoii's Life of Cicero, vol. i. p. 131, 114, as cited P. V. § 401. \.—Fragiiitr, Galerie de Verres, Mem. Acad. Inscr. vi. 565.
—Ftlkd, Ueber die Wegfahrung der atlea Kunstwerlte aus den eroberten Llnderu nach Rom.

2 u. The Capitohum (particularly the temple of Jupiter, included in it), the Comitium.
and the Rostra, were in a special manner adorned with statues. Inspectors were
appointed {tutelarii,(sditui), whose business it was to guard the edifices thus orna-
mented from injury and plunder, a duty afterwards assigned to a particular magistrate.
The senate alone could authorize the erection of statues, and the censors corrected
abuses. Hence is found sometimes on Roman statues, the inscription Ex Se?iatus
Decreto; and sometimes E Decurionum Dtcrefo. (Cf P. III. § 2C0. 2. § 320 ) Statues
were erected in the colonies and free cities. The buildings and pubfic places of Rome
were adorned by the first emperors with a great number of works of sculpture, most
of which, however, were prepared by Grecian artists.

Edm. FigreUi de statuis illustrium Romanorum liber siiigularis. Holmix. 1756. 9.—Lipsii admiranda s. de magnitudine Romana
libri iv. Antw. 1637. io\.—Rycquii de Capilolio Rom. commentarius. I« B. 1696. 8. SiUig, Catalogus artificum Grjecorum et
Romanorum. Dresd. 1S27.

3. After the time of Augustus there was a decline in arts as well as letters, until the
reign of Hadrian, A. D. 118. The principal sculptured works appear to have been,
1. Reliefs on public monuments, such as arches and columns; 2. Statues or busts of
the emperors and members of their families ; some of which were intended to be faith-
ful portraits ; others were designed to represent an emperor or empress in some heroic
or deified character; many specimens of this class are preserved.

4. In the reign of Hadrian, the arts were in some degree revived (cf. § 128. 2) . The
existing statues and busts of Antinous (cf % 186. 10) are ascribed to the age of Hadrian.
The arts continued to flourish somewhat in the reign of the Antonines, closing A. D.
180. The best among the remains of this time are the equestrian statue of Aurelius
(cf "5 186. 12) , and the reliefs on the column of Antonine (cf § 188. 2) .

§ 183 u. In the last half of the second century after Christ, there was an obvious de-
cline of good taste in sculpture, and soon after the middle of the third, the art was
wholly prostrated, through political disasters and other conspiring influences. Esteem
for the art and its productions was lost, and many unfavorable circumstances happened,
so that a number of the most valuable works of sculpture were mutilated, buried in
ruins, or entirely destroyed. This resulted partly from the warhke character of the
tribes that invaded Italy, partly from the avarice and rapachy of some of the later Ro-
man emperors, from frequent earthquakes or conflagrations, from the repeated capture
and sacking of Rome and Constantinople, and from a mistaken zeal of many Christians
against the preservation of heathen monuments.

See FioriUo>s Geschichte der Malerei. fak. i. p. U.—Heyne, De Interitu operum Artis priscas, &c., as cited § 76. 5.

^ 184 u. Notwithstanding all this ruin, many monuments of sculpture, and some of
them of high excellence, have been preserved. Since the revival of the fine arts, which
commenced in Italy, the last seat of ancient sculpture, these monuments have been
diligently sought out, collected, and described. Yet most of them have suffered from
time or accident, and very few are wholly free from mutilations. There have been
attempts to remedy these injuries by rejoining and repairing, but without sufficient
judgment or skill. For such attempts require not only mechanical dexterity, but a


very correct apprehension of the exact design of the original artist, and especvilly a
capacity to adopt perfectly his manner and style. No modern has been more suc-
cessful in labors of this sort than Cavaceppi.

See Raccolta d'antiche statue, etc. restaurate da B. Cavaceppi. Rom. 1768-72. 3 vols. M.—Mhand. tiler Restawr. von Kurm.
werhen contained in the Propylden, ii. 1. p. ^.—Henrici Commentationes de slatuis antiquis mutilatis, recentiori manu refectis,

Vit. iS03, sqq. 4.

§ 185*. Anything like a full specification even of the more valuable monu-

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