Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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ments of ancient sculpture vi^ould transcend the limits and design of this treatise.
A slight glance at some of them is all that will be attempted. This will include
a notice of statues, busts and works in relief; and also works in mosaic, since
they have been mentioned in connection with sculpture.

§ 186 u. Of the statues, we shall mention here only some of the most celebrated
such among them as deserve the first rank.

1. The splendid group of Laocoon in the Belvedere of the Vatican at Rome. It is
larger than life, wrought of white marble, not wholly finished on the back. It consists
of three principal figures, the father and his two sons, writhing in the coil of two huge
serpents. This was found, in the year 1506, among the ruins of the Baths of Titus;
and it probably belongs to the times of the first emperors. The expression of extreme
agony in the features, and muscles of the whole body, especially of Laocoon, the strug-
gle to break the dreadful grasp, the cry of distress indicated by the mouth, the anxious,
entreating look of the sons, fixed on the father, are among the striking excellencies
which mark this extraordinary performance. Critics, however, differ in opinion respect-
ing the real design of the artist as to the expression and degree of the anguish of the
father.

Cf. § 180. 2.—Heyr,t'i antiquar. Aufs. St. 2.—Prapylaen, l.—Hirt, in the Horen, MVl .—Wii%ckelmannU Werke, cited § 32. 4.
vi. X.—Leising's Laocoon, § 5. p. 75, as cited § I6S.— /. B. Emeric- David, Essai, &c., cited § 175.— Montfatuxm, Ant. Expl. vol. i.
Suppl. p. 242.

Bead f^iTgil't description of Laocoon and the Serpents, .ffin. ii. 201-225.— Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 4.— See Plate XLIV. fig. 5.

2. The group of Niobe and her children. Her children being slain by Apollo and
Diana, the mother (cf. P. II. ^ 38) through grief was changed into stone. This
work has marks of the lofty style, and is perhaps from the hands of Scopas. It consists
of fifteen figures. It was discovered in 1583, and is still in the Duke's collection at
Florence, where the figures are merely placed by the side of each other, as their proper
arrangement in a group is difficult to discover, and even their original connection is not
fully proved. There is an uncommonly elevated and tragic expression in all the figures
and great variety in the combination.

Of. § ISO. 2.—Plin. Hist. Nat. xxxvi. i.—.a.ngdo Fabroni, Diss, sulle Statue appartenenti alia favola di Niobe. Firerize. 1779. fol.
—Meyer, in the Propylden, II., and BCttiger'i Amallhea (Musee de I'antiquite fiiuree). Dresden, IS24. l.—JVinckebnann'i
Werke, vi. 1.— On the moral of the Laocoon and Niobe, see remarks in The Philosophy of Traveling, by T. Johnson, M. D. (p. 118.

Am. ed. N. York, 1831). See also the work entitled Choix de Talltavx et Statuea des plus akbrcs Musees, ^c Par une Societe

d'Arti'^tes, Si'C. Par. 1819-21. 3 vols. 8, intended to be completed in 12 vols.

The 3d volume of the last named work gives the fifteen figures, wiih a description. The 1st figure is Niobe with her youngest
daughter clinging to her ; the figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, are the other daughters ; figure 8 is the Pedagogue or instructor of the children
(LeMaitre); and figures 9, 10, 11, 12,13, 14, 15, are the seven sons.— There is also in the Duke's Collection a figure of two wrestlers
which some have supposed to represent two sons of Niobe, and to belong to this group. It is given in the 1st volume of the work
just cited ; also in Mongtz, Tableaux, Statues, &c., as cited § 191. 2.

3. The Farnese Bull, the largest of all ancient groups. It consists of a bull, two
youths larger than hfe, Zethus and Amphion, and three smaller figures, two of which
are taken for Dirce and Antiope, represented upon a rock. The rock and figures are
12 Parisian feet in height, and 9 and a half in width. This group was found about the
middle of the sixteenth century, in the Baths of Caracalla, and lodged in the palace
Farnese at Rome, and afterwards placed in the public museum, called Museo Borlonico,
at Naples. Many parts of it are modern ; of course the expression is defective. Pliny
speaks of a similar work of art, by ApoUonius and Tauriscus ; perhaps it is the very
same.

Cf. § 180. 2.— PZin. Nat. Hist xixvi. i.—Beyne's Antiquar. Aufs. St. 2.—Rehfues, Neapel. Th. 3. p. 93.— PTincidmorm'l
Werke, vi. 1.— A representation of this piece of statuary is given in the Choix det Tableaux, ^c (as cited above, 2.) vol. i.

4. The Apollo Belvedere, one of the mo.st celebrated of ancient statues, on account
of the perfection of art displayed in it. It is an ideal of youthful beauty and vigor. It
seems to represent Apollo just after discharging his arrow at the serpent Python, and
indicates in its expression a noble satisfaction and assurance of victory. It was found
at Antium in 1503. It was purchased by Pope Julius II., then a cardinal, and placed
in the part of the Vatican called Belvedere. The legs and hands have received mo-
dern repairs.

This statue is represented in PlateXLIV. fig.3,drawn from Winckelmann.— Cf. WinchelmannU Werke, vol. vi. I. p. 259; Hit-
toire de I'Art, as cited § 32. 4. vol. i. 390 ; ii. 426 ; iii. 270.— ffirl'j Bilderbuch, i. p. 32.— See also P. II. § 37 b.

5. The Venus de Medici. It is in the Grand-duke's gallery at Florence. It is of
pure white marble, and the height of the statue but httle over five feet. On the pedes



p. IV. REMAINS OF ANCIENT STATUARY. 393

tal appears the name of Cleomenes as the sculptor, but the inscription is modern. The
design of the artist was to represent Venus either as just coming from tlie bath, on the
point of dressing herself, taiven by surprise, and full of virgin modesty, or as appear-
ing before Paris for his judgment in the contest with Juno and Minerva for the prize
of beauty. This statue must be distinguished from the Cnidian Venus of Praxiteles,
of which we possess only copies.

R. Levezmv, aber die f rage, ob die mcdiceische Venus ein Bild der knidischen von Praxiteles sei. Berlin, 1808. i.—Winckel-
mann, vi. 2. p. MO.—Hcyue's Autiq. Aufs. St. l.—Jolmson's Philosophy of Traveling, p. 1-21, as above cited.

6. The Hercides Farncse, formerly in the Palace Farnese at Rome, now at Naples.
It is a colossal statue, almost three limes as large as nature, of beautiful Parian marble.
The feet were at first missing, and others were substituted by Delia Porta with such
art, that the original ones, being subsequently found, were only placed by the side
of the statue. The inscription names Glycon as the artist, whom, however, no ancient
writer mentions. One admires in this work the firm, vigorous body, although in
repose, resting on the club.

A view of this statue is given in PlateXLFV. fig.6, fromWinckelmann ; also in the Sup. Plate 22.— Cf. WincWmann, Hist, de
I'Art, i, 388, 43S; ii. 342; iii. 2U.— lVii\ditlmann'a Werfce, vi. 1. p. li,9.—Dupaty, Voyages d'ltalie.— IK fisk'j Travels in
Europe. N. York, 1838. 8. p. 204.— Cioss. Joum. vol. iv. p. 246.

7. The antique work called fhe Torso, in the Belvedere at Rome. It consists
merely of the body or trunk, of white marble, executed in a very superior manner.
On account of its size and appearance of muscular strength, it is commonly taken for
the body of a statue of Hercules. It has been called the Torso of Michael Angelo,
because he particularly admired and studied it.

" A Greek inscription ascribes it to the artist Apollonius. It was found towards the close of the fifteenth century, in Rome."— See
tViiichclinaJiii's Werke, vi. I. p. \61.—Lond. Quart. Rev. xiv. 544, 545.

8. The Gladiator Borghese, formerly in the villa Borghese at Rome, now in the
Royal Museum of Parish This is the representation of a hero or. warrior, who seems
to be defending himself against a cavalier. In the opinion of Heyne it belonged to a
group. Connoisseurs in art do not agree respecting its design. It is a beautiiul and
noble figure, of manly age, athletic, with the muscles in strong tension, yet not over-
strained or unnatural. The inscription on it ascribes the work to Agasias of Ephesus,
who is not mentioned by any ancient writer, but certainly must have belonged to the
period of the highest perfection of Grecian art.

See Hcyne's Antiq. Aufs. St. 2.—lVi7tckelmann's Werke, vi. I. p. 263. Hist, de I'Art, iii. p. 290.— Anthon's Lempriere, Aga-
«ir,s.— Compare 5 I6S and § ISO. 2.—Qualrimere de Quincy, Sur la course armee, &c— nouvelle maniere d'expliquer la statue d'Aga-
lias, Mem. de Vhutilut, C I a s s e d'Hist. et Lit. Anc vol. iv. p. 165, 190, with a plate ; he supposes it to be a statue of an cpZito-
drome.

The Mu^ee Royal (vol. ii. 2d series, as cited ^ 191), contains a beautiful engraving of this statue, showing the side opposite to that
presented in our PlaleXLIV. fig. 4, which is drawn from Moutfaucon, cf. vol. iii. p. 292.

9. The Dying Gladiator (Gladiator deficiens) in the Campidoglio at Rome. He lies
upon a shield, s'upported by his right hand, with a collar or chain {torques, cf. P. III.
^ 284. 2) upon his neck, and seems to be exerting his utmost strength to rise. Some
parts of the figure are modern, but admirably wrought, and ascribed to Michael
Angelo.

This piece of statuary is represented in our Plate VIII. fig. I, from Montfaucon, (cited P. II. § 12. 2 d), vol, iii. p. 267, pi. civ.—
See Heyne's .4ufs. St. 2.—Winchelmann's Werke, vi. 1. p. 59.— Lond. Quart. Reo. xix. 226.— A. Mongez, Sur deux des Statues
antiques desig. par le nom de Gladiateur, in the Mem. de Vluslitut, C 1 a s s e Lit. a Beaux jSrtt, vol. ii. p. 243, with engravings
of the heads.

10. Antinous, a very beautiful statue in the Belvedere at Rome. It has been con-
sidered, although without grounds, as a representation of AntinousS the favorite of
Hadrian. Winckelmann took it for a statue of Meleager, or some other young hero,
and admired very much its head. It is now quite commonly viewed as a Mercury.
There are several ancient monuments which are considered as representations of Aii
tinous. One of these is the celebrated bust of the villa Alhani, a beautifully finished
bas-relief in white marble ; a part only of the work is preserved^. This is given in
Plate XLIV. fig. 2, from Winckelmann. The head is crowned with a garland of lotus-
flowers ; in the right hand was held something, which is now lost; a wreath of flow-
ers has been conjectured from the appearance of a ribin which remams, and accord-
ingly such a wreath is attached to it in the modern restoration.

» Levezow, Uber den Antinous, dargestellt in den Kunstdenkmalem des Alterthums. Berlin, 1808. ^.—Winckelmann, vi. i.
p. Wo.—Bottigtr's Andeutungen, cited above, § 169 —The Hiitoric Gallery of Portraits and Paintings, &c. as cited § 187. vol. 7to.
2 See IVitickelmann, Histoire, &c. as cited § 32. 4. vol. ii. p. 464.

11. A Flora, formerly in the Palace Farnese at Rome (thence called the Flora Far-
nese), now at Naples. The body only is ancient ; the rest is modern by Delia Porta ;
whence it is not certain that this statue originally represented Flora. Winckelmann
considered it as intended for a Muse. Its principal merit is its drapery, which is re-
garded as the best of all ancient statues. It is nearly as large as the Hercules Far-
nese, yet its whole expression is feminine.

?ee Winckelmajm's Werke, iv. p. 124.— A different statue of Flora is noticed P. II. ^ 91. 4.

50



3y4: ARCHEOLOGY OF ART.

12. Marcus Aureltus, an equestrian statue, of gilded metal, in the square of the
modern capital at Rome. It is much larger than life. It retains now but few traces
of the gilding, but is otherwise in good preservation. Its effect is increased by the
pedestal on which it was elevated by Michael Angelo. The horse particularly is ad-
mired, seeming actually to move forward, and exhibiting, generally, fine proportions.

Fodccnet, Observations sur la Statue de Marc-Aurele, par Amst. 1771. M.—lVinckelmanri's Werke, vi. 1. p 318.— Cf. § 1S2. 4.

Part of an equestrian statue, which is said to bear some resemblance to that of Aurelius, was found on a triumphal arch in Pom
peii ; the workmanship is inferior. — There are in \ht Mwto Bcrrbunxco, al Naples, two equestrian statues, executeJ in marble, called
the statuet of Ihe Balbi. They were excavated at Herculaneum, and are said to be striking specinjens of sculpture.— Cf. Pompeii,
p. 116, as cited § 226.— Fisk^s Travels, p. 200, as cited above (6).

13. The Statue of Pallas, found in 1797 in the vicinity of Velletri and brought to
Paris, where it is lodged in the Royal Museum.

A representation of the Pallas of Velletri is given in the Miisee Francaise, as cited § 191. 4. vol. iv. Part 2d.— See also Landon,
Galerie du Musee Napoleon, cited § 191. 4. An account of it is given by Fcrnow, in the N. D. Mercur, for 1798. Th. I. p. 299.

14. It may be thought that a statue of Aristides discovered at Herculaneum, and now in the
Museo Borbonico, deserves mention here. "The philosopher stands with his arms folded in his
cloak, in all the dignity and iniesrity of his character. It is a work as near perfection, I think,
as human art can achieve. This is the kind of statuary which I covnt for my country. I had
much ado to refrain from a violaiioii of the comiiiaiid, Tliou skalt nut covet, when looking at this
matchless figure. Could I have it, tiiought I, to e.xhibit to the youth of America, to the young
men of our universities, such a dignified personification of integrity, in the person of Jiristides
the just, might greatly aid in elevating their characters and strengthening their principles.'
W. Fisk, as just cited.

15. Several of the en?ravin?s introduced in this work to illustrate other subjects, are representations of statues. Plate XXXIX,
gives the nine Muses as seen in the siatues of the colkction of Christina ; in Plate XI. fig. 3, is a delineation of Jupiter as he was
exhibited in his statue in Elis ; Plate XXVIII. gives a priestess of Vesta, as exhibited in a statue ; Plate VI. shows the Rhodian Co-
lossus. In the volume of Supplemental Plates, Plate 1 gives a splendid statue of Jupiter, from Montfaucon ; Plate 5, a statue of
Cybele as delineated by Boissard ; Plate 16, a statue of Diana of Ephesus ; Plate 21, a statue of .aisculapius, from Montfaucon ; Plate
25, statues of Osiris and Isis, found at Rome, probably executed in the time of Hadrian.

"5 1S7 u. Among the valuable remains of antiquity are many busts, which, aside
from the skill and beauty in their execution, afford much pleasure and utility by pre-
serving the features of celebrated persons. 1 he correctness of these hkenesses is not
certain, especially as in many cases they have undergone the process of restoration
by modern hands. Many also exhibit no distinct characteristics to enable us to de-
cide any thing as to the persons they represent. The uncertain character of the
inscriptions has already been mentioned (§ 168) ; and sometimes the head and pedestal
do not belong together. It may be too that the portrait is the mere fancy of the artist.
— Among the most distinguished and authentic are those of Homer, Socrates, Plato,
Alexander the Great, Scipio, Julius Caesar, and others found in the collections of
statuary about to be mentioned. There is the largest number in the Capitol at Rome :
engravings of these are found in the Museo Capitolino.

In our Plates LIII. and LIV. are given several heads of Greeks and Romans, from The Historir Gallery of Portraits and Paint-
ings. Lond. 1807 ss. 8. On busts of the ancients, see Gurlitl's Versuch aber Bastenkunde. Magdeb. ISOO. 4.— C. P. Landon,

Galerie Historique, &c. Par. 1803-11. 13 vols. 12.— £. P. Bellurius, Veterum illustrium Philosophorum, Poetarum, Rhetorum et
Oratoruni Imagines — illustratje. Rom. 16S5 fol. — Giov Anz. Canini, Images des Heros et des Grands Homnies de I'Antiquite,
trad, de I'llalien. Amst. I73t. 4.— Especially Visconti and Mmigez, Iconographie Ancienne. Par. 1810-21. 5 vols. fol. This
splendid work owes its existence to Napoleon, and was executed at the public expense. It contains portraits of celebrated person-
ages of Greece and Rome, drawn from ancient statues, busts, &c., with learned and valuable notices. The Icotiograjihie Romaine,
by Muiigez, was published in 1821. The Iconographie Greajue, containing three hundred and lour portraits, by E Q. (■'iscoiiti, was
puh!i^hed in 1810, 3 vols, fol.— See notices in VentuuiUac's French Librarian, p. 311. Class. Joum. No. xiv. vol. vii p. 209
Bevue Encyd. vol. xxvi. p. 427 —E. Q. Visconti, Iconografia Romana; and (separately) Iconografia Greca. Mil. 1823. 8 vols. 8.—
The Iconographie de la Bibliotheque Latine-Francaise publiee par C L. F. Panckoucke. Par. 1835. S. — In Ihe Library of Enter,
tainiiig Knowledge, vo\s. 28, 29, are engravings of the Heads in the Townley Gallery.— We add, .4iirtc/i!(a di £rco2ano, cited
§ 243. 2. The 5lh volume (entitled Bronzi di Ercolano, &c. Neap. 1767. fol.) is on Busts ; and the 6th is on statues in bronze.— A
list of the eminent Greeks and Romans of whom portraits or busts are preserved, with authorities, is given in Fosbroke, p. 223, as
dted P. III. § 13.

^ 188 u. There likewise remains a multitude of works in relief, either in whole
pieces, or fragments on edifices, columns, shields, helmets, tripods, tombs, altars, &.c.
Vases and drinking utensils, urns and funeral lamps, are often found in antiquarian
collections ; many of distinguished excellence as v%'orks of art. It would be too long
to enumerate the monuments adorned with rehef, even the most celebrated : and we
only mention the triumphal arches still existing at Rome, erected by the emperors
Titus, Septimius Severus, and Constantine, and the columns of Trajan and Antoninus
Marcus.

1. Among the most remarkable of the vases, is that now called the Warwkli rase. " It is a
monument of Grecian art, the production of Lysippus, statuary to Alexander the Great. It was
dug tip in Adrian^s villai. al Tivoli. and was sent to England by Sir \Vm. Hamilton in 1774. It
is (if sculptured marble adorned with elesant figures in high relief; vine leaves, tendrils, fruit
and stems, formins Ihe rim and handles " — "The Warwick vase is six feet and eleven inches in
diameter. In magnitude, form, and beauty of workmanship, it is the most remarkable vessel of
antiquity which we possess, in which the ancients used to mi.x their wine. It is accordingly very
approprintely adorned with spirited Bacchic masks^ and the handles have the appearance of
v'nee growing out of the vase and surrounding it with their foliage." Dr. Humphrey, speak-



xnn




p. IV. REMAINS OF ANCIENT BAS-RELIEF. 395

lug of a vif?it to a "superb show-room of cutlery, medals, vases, &c.," in Birmingham, says, " The
most imposing object was a stupendous bronze vase, a fac-simile of the marble one, which we
afterwards saw in the gardens at Warwick castle. It will hold about two hundred gallons, and
the proprietor of this beautiful imitation has refused ten thousand pounds for it." It is said to

have cost five thousand pounds and six years' labors. in 1836, a beautiful vase was found at

Alexandria, and came into the possession of the French consul; it is said to resemble the War-
wick vase so exactly that one must have been a copy of the other, and some have considered
the Alexandrian vase as the original*.— A collection of articles, which was sold in Paris in 1S38,
as belonging to " the late French consul in Egypt," contained a small bronze vase, called in the
catalogue a fac-simile of the Warwick vases.

Another celebrated monument of the same kind is that known by the name of the Lanti vase.
It was found in Adrian's villa at Tivoli, and was formerly possessed by the Lanti family, but is
now at If'oburn Mbey (Eng.) the seat of the Duke of Bedford. It is of beautiful marble, and
nearly equal to the Warwick vase, being 6 feet and 2 inches in diameter, and 6 feet in height ;
its general form is the same, and its handles are constructed in a similar manner; it is also
adorned with Bacchanalian masks*.

1 The AnuT. Jjum. cfScietice, by Silliman, vol. ixvi. p. 244. 3 fVaagen, Works of Art, &c. vol. iii. p. 163, as cited § 190.4.

3 B. Humphrey, Tour in Great Britain, &c. New York, 1S38. 2 vols. 12. vol. i. p. 139. •» Stevens, Incidrnts of Travel in

Egypt, &c. N. York, 1&37. 6 Cf. IVaagen, as just cited above. 6 Cf. Hunt, Descript. of Wob. Abbey, as cited 5 191. 5.

Ou sculptured vases, see C. Antonini, Manuale di vasi omamenti componenti la serie de vasi Antichi si di Marmo che di Bronzo,
&C. Rom. 1821. fol. 1st, 2d, and 3d vols in one. — Ed. Gerhard, Auserlesene Griechische Vasenbilder, hiuptsacblich etrusciscben
FuDdorls. Berl. commenced 1S39; I4th No. pub. 1841. 4.— ftfojes, Antique Vases, Altars, &c. Lond. 1836. 4.— Cf. §223.— Espe-
cially cf. § 173.

2. The column of Trajan was erected in the middle of the market or forum called by his name.
Its height has been stated differently, 128 feet, and 144 feet; its dian)eler is about 12 feet at bot-
tom and ten at the top. It is incrusted with marble, on which the exploits of Trajan and his
army, in Dacia particularly, are represented in bas-relief. On the top was a colossal statue of
the emperor with a scepter in his left hand, and in his right a hollow globe of gold, which is said
to have received his ashes ; although Eutropius states (viii. 5) that they were deposited under
the pillar. There were steps inside for ascending to the top, with windows to admit the light.
— The triumphal column of Bonaparte at Paris is built after the model of Trajan's pillar; it is
140 feet high and 12 in diameter at the base ; encompassed with brazen plates which were made
of cannon taken at the battles of lllm and Ansterlitz and are covered with commemorative bas-
reliefs; surmounted with a statue of Napoleon. The column of jlvtonine, erected by the senate

after his death, is said to be 1T6 feet high. It has steps for ascending to its tops with windows.
The sculptures in relief upon it represent the military achievements of Marcus Aurelius An-
toninus among the Germans. His statue was placed upon the summit. The whole monument'
resembles that of Trajan, but is inferior to it.— One of the popes, Sextus V., absurdly caused sta-
tues of the apostles Peter and Paul to be placed on these columns.

The Mrch of Titus was erected in honor of his capture of Jerusalem. Among the bas-reliefs
on it are representations of the spoils of the temple, as borne in the triumphal procession; e.g.
the incense vessels, the golden candlestick, the table of shew-bread, and the jubilee trumpets.
Thus, through the vanity of a Roman conqueror, are transmitted to us models of the holy iiten-
sils3 planned by the Divine Architect. A part of this procession is given in ourPlateXXXlII.
Fig. E. The Jlrch of Septimius Severus was erected in the beginning of the third century ; di-
rectly over the P'la Sacra; consisting of a main arch in the center, and a smaller arch on each
side*; adorned with figures in bas-relief commemorative of his victory over the Parthians ;
surmounted with equestrian statues. In our Plate IX. we have specimens of the sculpture on

this monument ; for explanation of which see P. II. /> 105. The .Srch of Constantine consist.

also of three arches ; the noblest monument of the kind; in fine preservation*. It has been
thousht that this may be the arch erected in honor of Trajan, as the bas-reliefs appear to represent
chiefly his achievements. The representation of a sacrifice to Diana, given in Plate XX. is the
copy of a beautiful bas-relief on this arch; see P. III. $ 221.

1 See Bartoli. Clonna Trajana (with plates in folio, exhibiting the sculptures on the column). — R. Fabrttti, De Columna Tra-

jana Syntazma. Rom. 16S3. fol. ^ An engraving of this column and of Trajan's also may tie seen in Montfaucan, Antiq. Expl,

vol. iv. plate cxii. 3 Good engravings are given in H Rdand, De Spoliis Templi Hierosolymitani, in Arcu Tiliano conspicuis.

Ultraj. 1716. 4.— The cut in our Plate XXXIlI.isfrom CalmeVs Diet. Chariest, ed. Frag. 203.— But see l^aladier, Arco, &c. cited

§ 243. 3. 4 Engravings of these three arches are given in Montfaucon, Antiq. Expl. vol. iv. plates cviii-cx. as cited P. II.

§ 12. 2. (d).

3. A very interesting monument of antiquity is the bas-relief sometimes called the triumphal
sacrifice of Aurelivs, delineated in our Plate XLVI. ; a marble anaglyph described by Montfaucon
as existing in the Capitol at Rome. It is a representation of a sacrifice offered by Marcus



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