Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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Aurelius Antoninus, as is supposed, after his victory over the Marcomanni. The figure taken
for the emperor appears with a full beard, and draped in a toga, the corners of which are thrown
over his head ; he is pouring wine or incense upon the flame kindled upon a tripod as an altar ;
a camillus stands by with the incense-box ; another is playing upon a sort of tuba or trumpet ;
behind is the victimarius, holding a bull with one hand and an ax in the other. At the left of the
emperor is a Salius or priest of Mars, known by his cap with its apex formed into a long slender
cone, like a straight horn. Behind the emperor are three persons of rank, perhaps senators, one
of whom holds a roll or volume in his right hand. They stand in front of a splendid temple with
Corinthian columns, shown to be .Tupiter's by the eagle on the pediment, probably that of Ju-
piter Capitolinus ; on the ridge appear four horses, aild at each of the other angles two horses,
indicating possibly that eisht were attached to the triumphal car in which the emperor rode.
On the top of the other edifice, adorned with Doric pilasters, two gladiators are represented as
fighting with lions and a third with a bull. Montfaucon remarks that nothing like this is else-
where represented; yet he supposes it not to be a mere fancy of the sculptor,~but a commemo-
ration of an actual show made by the emperori. Another fine bas-relief is given in our Plate

XL v., representing^ a sacrifice to Priapus ; explained in P. II. $ 91. 2.— Many of the illustrations
introduced into this work are drawn from sculptures in bas-relief*.

» Monlfaucmi. Antiq. Expl. Sup. vol. ii. p. 6S-72. "^ Montfauctm, Aniiq. Expl. vol. i. p. 277. 3 Such, e g are the repre-
sentations in Plate XX. ; the Dmidical priests, Plate XX\TII. ; the sacrifice to Mars, Plate XXIX. ; the Dii Manes, Plate XXXVI. ,
also the Sup. Plates 9, 15. 19, 26, 30 j in the latter (PI. 30) we see the manner in which altars were adorned with sculptured figures


Many remains of sculptured bas-relief have been found at Herculaneum and PoDipeii. See Antichita d'Ercolarw, cited § 243. 2.
Ttie Sth volume is on lamps, kc, en'.itled Le Lucerne ed i Candelabri, &c. Napl. 1792. — Catalogo degli Antichi MoBumenti dig-
Boierrati dalla discoperta citia di Ercolano. Nap. 1755. fol. On the remains of bas-relief at Rome, a valuable work is the fol-
lowing: Li Bassi-relievi antichi di Roma, incisi da T. Piroli, colle illustrazioni di G. Zoega. Rom. 1809. 2 vols. fol. Transl. into
German by IVdcker. Giessen, 1811. — We may mention also J. Richardson, Account of Statues, Bas-reliefs, and Pictures, in Italy,

France, &c. Lond. 1754. 8. On the whcle subject, see references given § 191 ; also references in Sulztrs Alig. Theorie (cited

§ 147), under the article Flaches Sch7iitzwerk.

* 189 u. Of the remains of mosaic, the most beautiful is that found at Tivoli, repre-
senting four doves around the rim of a vase (cf. ^ 220. 2). 1'lie largest is tiiat called
the Jlosaic of PrcBiiesle, having once been the floor of the Temple of Fortune in that
place. It represents an Egyptian festival. It is in the Palace Barberini, built upon the
ruins of the temple just named, in the village now called Palestrinai. Other works
of this kind have been discovered in modern times.

1. A remarkable specimen of ancient mosaic was discovered at Seville in Spain, in 1799, and
i.': commonly called the Musaic of Iialica'^. " It extends above forty feet in length by nearly /Air/y
in breadth ; ami contains ii representation of the Circus games in a parallelogram in the center,
three sides of which are surrounded by circular compartments containing portraits of the Muses,
interspersed with the figures of animals and some imaginary subjects."

A specimen of mosaic, said to be very heautifuls, was found in a hmise in Pompeii. It is pre-
sented in our Plate XLIX. fig. bb. A Chorodidascalus, or master of the chorus, is instructing
his actors in their parts, for a representation in the theatre. He sits on a chair in the Clioragium,
or place devoted to these preparatory lessons, surrounded by performers. At his feet on a stool,
and behind him on a pedestal, are masks, which appear to be in readiness for liim to distribute.
One of the actors has received his mask and placed it on the top of his head and seems to be,
with another actor at his side, listening attentively to the teacher, while a third is assisted by a
fourth in putting his arms through the sleeves of a thick tunic. Tlie two former have no clothing
except a goat-skin about their loins. In the middle of the scene are two females; one of them,
crowned with a wreath, is playing on the double flute, or perhaps tuning the instrument. Beyond
these figures appear the Ionic columns of the portico, with garlands hanging in festoons between
them. In the antique itself appear also (although not included in the drawing in the Plate), the
entablature and a sort of gallery above it decorated with figures and vases.— A piece still more
remarkable was discovered at Pompeii in 1831 ; supposed to represent the battle of Issiis*.— The
mosaics discovered at Pompeii are composed of very fine pieces of glass, and seem to have been
made in a manner similar to the modern Italian mosaics now so celebrated.

2. The various remains which have been preserved clearly show that the ancients had at-
tained great perfection in this form of image-work, which is often included \\x\6eT paiutiiiff, and
with more propriety because ditlerent colors are employed. Interesting specimens are lodged in
the British Museum. In the Townley collection, it is said, is a ring containing in glass a re-
presentation of a bird so small as not to be distinctly visible without a magnifying glass. Winckel-
iiiann describes an antique*, the whole size of which is but one inch in length by a third of an
inch in breadth, and yet it contains in mosaic the picture of a maliard (aspecies of duck), which
in brillancy of coloring and in distinct representation of parts, even of the wings and the fea-
thers, equals a miniature painting; and, to add what is more remarkable, on being turned it
presents the same picture without a discoverable variation on the opposite side.

1 Barlhelemy, Explication de la Mosaique de Palestrine. Par. 1760. 4 ; also in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. xx4. p. b^Z.—Vitconti,

Oiiervazioni su due Musaici aniichi istoriati. Farm. 1787. 4. with plates. 2 M. de Labarde. Mosaique d'ltalica. Par. 18C0. fol.

with colored p'ates, (containing likewise an Essay on the Mosaic-painting of the Ancients). This mosaic is also given in Laborde'i
Voyage Piltoresque, cited § 243. 3. (PI. lxx3EV. vol. ii.) 3 Cf. Gdl, Pompeiana, 2d Series, Plate xlv. where it is given in its ori-
ginal colors. * Mvseo Barhonico, viii. t. 36-45. * fVinclidmann, His'oire, S:c. (as cited 5 32. 4), vol. i. p 48. Ou the gene-
ral subject, see /. Ciampini Vetera Monumenta, in quibus prascipue opera musiva illustrantur. Rom. 1690-99. 2 vols. fol. —
Furietti Liber de Musivis. Rom. 1752. 4. with plates.— GurZi7(, Uber die jSIosaik. Magd. 1793. 4.—/. Elmes, Dictionary (cited

§ 206), Mosaic— De Viclle, Essai sur la Peinlure en Mosaique. Copies of several antique mosaics may be seen in Mantfauccm, as

just (§ I8S) referred to, and in Sluarl, as cited 5 234. 3. Some mosaic pavements have been found in England ; see Jrchsologia
(cited 5 32. 5), vol. xxii. p. 49. For a notice of the modern art, Lardmr's Cabinet Cyclop, vol. on Porcelain and Glass.

§ 190. Many collections have been made of remains of ancient Sculpture.
The following are the most celebrated public collections.

1 u. In Italy we find the greatest number and the most valuable remains : particu-
larly at Rome, the Vatican, in which are the Museo Clementino and the Museo Chia-
Tamonti ; in the Museu7n of the Capitol ; in the Palaces Barberini, Mattei, Massimi ;
in the Villas Albani, Ludovisi, Pamfili, arid Medici : at Florence, in the Gallery of the
Grand-duke and the Palace Pitti : at Naples, in the Royal Museum ; at Portici, in
the Museum of Antiquities, where are collected the remains discovered at Hercula-
neum, Pompeii, and Stabiae ; at Venice, in the Fore-hall of St. 3Iark's Library.

Details respecting the collections mentioned here and below may be drawn from works of Topography and Travels in the several
countries sperified.— In reference to Italy, the following authors and travelers may be mentioned : Keyssler ; Folkmann, with Ber-
tiouillVs additions; Count Stolberg ; Morge7utern ; Cochin, Le voyage Pittoresque d'ltalie; Dupaly, Lettres sur I'ltalia.— Also,
Eustace, Classical Tour through Italy. Lond. 3d ed. 1815. 4 vols. S.— Johnson (M. D.), Philosophy of Traveling. Republished
from Eng. ed. N. York,IS3I. S— Remarks cm Antiquities, Arts, ^c. (during an excursion in Italy, in 1802 and 1803). Republished
from Eng. ed. Boston, 1818. 8-— Cf. Edinb. Rev. No. xliv.— JT. FisVs Travels, cited § 186. 6.—Blunu's Iter Ilalicum— Publications
of the Iratiluto di Corresp. Archeologia, cited P. UI. § 197. 5.— C. MUOer. Roms Campagna, in Beziehung auf alte Geschichte,
Dichtung, und Kunst. Lpz. 1824. 2 vols. 8.

2 u. In France, the most important collection of this kind is in the Royal Museum,
at Paris. This collection was greatly augmented after the French war in Italy, 1796
by master-pieces of art brought from Rome and other cities of Italy, and from Nether-
lands and Germany. But on the victory of the alhed powers over Bonaparte in 1815,


these plundere'd treasures were restored to the places whence they had been taken.
Nevertheless the collection in the Royal Museum is still one of the richest in Europe.

3 u. In Germany there is a collection at Vienna, in Ike Imperial Museum, particu-
larly rich in Vases; at Munich in the Antiquarian Hall {Antikensaal, Anliquarium)
of the Palace and the Glyptothek, where are particularly noticeable the ^gineian sculp-
tures', discovered in 1811, and afterwards purchased by the Crown-Prince of Bavaria;
at Dresden, in what is called the Japanese Palace (a beautiful collection) ; [at Berlin,
in the Royal Museum^, which now (1843) contains the statues and other antiques for-
merly kept] at Charlottenburg, in the Eoyal Mansion near Berlin, or at Sans-Souci,
in the edifice erected by Frederic II. of Prussia, by the name of Temple of Antiques.

The Royal Museum at Berlin now contains KoUer's collection of Vases from C'an)pania and
other parts of Italy; Bartoldiano's collection of Antiques in Bronze; several smaller collections
made by different persons ; and a number of statues recently (1839) procured from Italya. It is
called a splendid assemblage.

» On the JE|inetan marbles, see /. M. ITapur, Bericht Qber die iEginetischen Bildwerke in Besitz Sr. K(Jn. Hoheit des Kron-

prinzen von Baiern. (with remarks by ScheUing). StutI?. 1817. 8. Cf. fVolfs Anaiekten, vol. ii. p. 167. 2 £, Gerhard, Neu-

erworbeneantike DenkmSJer desKoniglichen Museums zu Berlin. Bert. IS4I. 8.— Pa»io/ia, Terracotten des K'>niilichen Museum*

jra Berlin. Berl. 1S42. 4. For other references on the collections in Germany, and also in other countries, see Su^zer^t Allg.

Tbeorie, &c. vol. i. p. 18S.— Cf. § 191. 3.

4 u. In England the chief is in the British Museum, London, where are the valua-
ble monuments brought from Greece by Lord Elgin in 1814, and purchased by Par-
liament for the Museum. — Interesting remains oi bas-reliefs are seen in the Arundelian.
collection at Oxford (cf. § 91. 4). — Valuable works of ancient art are in possession of rich
individuals ; among the most distinguished are those belonging to the Duke of Pern-
brokers Collection.

When the storm of the French revolution burst over the different countries of Europe, the
general distress and the insecurity of p.nperty brought into market an immense number of works
of art, which had for centuries adorned the churches, or the palaces of the sreat. Of these,
England found the means to obtain the most and the best. — The British Museum now contains
a various and splendid collection, to preserve which a new edifice of spacious dimensions was
commenced in 1823. — Among the most important ntonuments of sculpture here deposited, are
those designated as the Elgin Marbles. In 1779, Lord Elgin went as ambassador extraordinary
to Constantinople. He took with him several artists and settled them at Athens for the purpose
of making plans of the ancient edifices and casts of the most important works of sculpture.
These artists saw the destruction daily committed on the e.xisting monuments bv travelers and
hy the Turks. The finest statues, some of those supposed to be the workmanship of Phidias,
were pounded to pieces by the Turks and burnt to make lime. A whole temple had disappeared
in the lapse of a few years. Lord Elgin is said to have been infiuenced' by these facts to resolve
on saving to the world some portion of the still existing remains. As the English government
was now in great favor with the Turkish government, in conseqtience of the eminent services
rendered by the former to the latter in the defeat of Bonaparte in Egypt, the ambassador easily
procured from the Sultan two firmans, which secured to him free "access to the Acropolis of
Athens, with authority to make plans or casts, and to remove what he might think proper. Lord
Elgin removed nearly all the statues from the pediments of the Parthenon, fifteen metopes, and
three sides of the bas-reliefs which ran around the cella of the temple as a frieze, and also rnany
other works. Only a part of what he collected ever reached England, the rest being lost at sea.
Those now in the British Museum have been considered as superior to all the antique sculptures
before discovered.— This Museum contains also the Phigalian Marbles^ purchased at great ex-
pense. The collection bearing the name of Charles Townley is also now a main ornament of

the Museum. Besides the works of sculpture, among which are a ntimber of interesting Greek
busts, it is rich in vessels of terra cotta.— Hamilton's collection of sculptured vases (cf. $ 173) also
belongs to the Museum ; and Payne Knight's collection of bronzes.— The Museum now possesses

also a great number of Egyptian monuments; among them, the collection of Mr. Salt. Some

private collections, besides that mentioned above by the author, ou2ht perhaps to be named here ;
as that at Holkam House, the seat of (Mr. Coke now, 1S39,) the Earl of Leicester ; that at fVoburn
Jlbbey, the seat of the Duke of Bedford ; that of the Duke of Devonshire ; and that of Sir R.
fVorsley (who was minister at Venice, 1785-87), at Apuldercomhe House in the Isle of Wisht.

1 See Mimorandum on the Earl cf Elgin's Pursuits in Greece. Lond. 1811. 8.— taurroice, as cited ^ 191. o.—l^nconti, Me
moire sur les Ouvrages de Sculpture du Parthenon. Lond. 1816.— iond. Quart. Rev xiv. 5\3.—Quatr. de Quincy, Lett, to Canov*

on the Elgin Marb. in Quart. Journal of Scienu, Literature, and.irt, vol. vii. 2 Wapier, also Stacketberg, as cited § 179. 3.—

Library of Ent. Knowl. as cited \ 191. 5. On the collections in England: G. F. H'aagen, Works of Art in England. Transl.

from Germ, by H. E. Loyd. Lond. 1838. 3 vols. 12.

5. Scarcely any of the genuine remains of ancient art have been brought to our own country.
But copies and casts in plaster have, to some extent, been employed as substitutes, and may
be of great service. The Boston Atheneum has a few bas-reliefs, busts, and other antiques. It
has also, in plaster or marble, copies of some of the most valued monuments of ancient statuary;
the Laocoon, .Apollo Belvedere, Venus de Medici, The Torso, jintinous. Gladiator Borghese, &c.
(Dr. Bass, as cited $ 139. 1.)— The Academy of Fine Arts at Philadelphia has likewise some an-
tiques and a number of copies of celebrated pieces. Cf. Fessenden's Register of Arts.

§ 191 u. In order to give those, who cannot visit in person these remains of ancient
art, some visible representation of them, drawings and plates have been published,
which are usually accompanied with descriptions and critical remarks. We will here
name some of the principal of these works, in addition to such as have been already

I. Works of a general character, more or less extensive.— P. S. Bartdlus, Admiranda Ron-.anorum Antiquitatum ac veterls Sculp
tune Vestigia, delineata (cum not. /. P. BtUorix). Rom. 1699. fol.— flomcTi. le Rossi, Raccolta di Sta» e antiche e moderne, col.



cposizioni i\ Paolo Aleisandro Maffei. Rom. 1704. fol.— Gorit Museum Etruscum. Flor, 1737. 3 vols. fo\.—Comte de Cayhu,
Recoeil des Antiquites E^yptiennes, Etrusques, Grecques, et Romaines. Par. 1752 67. 7 vols. 4. commended by MUUer.—Gim.
Wincktlmann, Monumeuti anlichi inedili, spiegati ed illustrati. Rom. 1767. 2 vols. M.—ffinchdmann, Alte Denkmiler der
KuDsL Transl. in'.o Germ, from Ital. by Brunn. Berl. 1799. 2 vols, fol.—/" ^. David, Antiquites Etrusques, Grecques, et Ro-
maines. Par 1787. 5 vols. 4. Cf. F. A. David, Antiquites d Herculanum. Par. 17S0-18O3. 12 vols. 4.— A work ranked among
the best of the smaller general collections is, /. J. Preider, Statuse Antiquae aeri incisse, del. ab Edm. Bouchardan. Norimb. 1732.
foL— We 3.i<i here, Ed. Dodwdl, Alcuni Bassirelievi dell. Greria, &c. Rom. IS12. fol.— J. Milliiigen, Ancient Unedited Mono-
ments ; from the principal collections in various countries, but principally in Great Britain. lond. 1822. 4.—Lenormant, Musee
des Antiquites Egyptiennes, ou Recueil des Monumens Egyptiennes, Architecture, Statuaire, Glyptique, et Peinture : Commenced
Par. 1S36, to be completed in 10 livrai^ons.— G. Cumberland, Outlines from the Ancients, exhibiting their Principles of Composi-
tion in Figures and Basso Relievos ; chiefly from inedited Monuments ; with an Introd. Essay. lond. 1839. 4.

2. Relating more particularly to remains preserved in Italy — Museum Capitolinum. Ed. Bullari, Foggidi, et Guard.
Rom. 1750-S3. 4 vols, fol U Museo Capitolino.— iV/tismm F^o re »J t in u m. Cum observ. wJ. f. Gorit. Flor. 1731-42. 6 vols,
fol. The 3d vol. is on statues.— ./i. M. Zannelti, Raccolla delle antiche statue cell' Antisala della libreria di S. Marco illustr. Van.
1740-43. 2 vols. {oL—Barhavlt, Les plus beaux Monuments de Rome anc. &c. Par. 1762. fol.— Afo/.gf2, Tableaux, Statues, Bas-
reliefs, et Camees de la Galerie de Florence et du Palais Pitii, dessines par M. Wicar, &c. Paris (chez Lacom.Lt, ed. de I'ouvrage),
17i-9. Sol— II Musec Pio-Clement ino, descritto da Gtamo. (ed. Eon. Quir.) Visconti. Rom. 17S2-1807. 7 vols. fol. (Cf.
Opere di £. Q. Kiscon^i. Mil. 1818. 4.) — II Mw,to Chiaramnnti, aggiunto al PioClementino, con Dichiazione i'l Ant. Nibby,

&c. Rom. 1737. 2 vols. fol. — C. Anlotiini, Vasi Antichi, esistenti nel Museo Pio-Cleniemino. Rom. 1821. fol. On monuments

in the Rtyal Museum at Naples, see Finali, E. Gerhard, &c. as cited § 212.

3. Relating to remains in Germany.— L. Beger, Thesaurus Brandeburgicus seleclus. Colon. March. 1696-1701. 3 vols, fol.—
Description des Statues, Busies et Demibustes, qui forment le collection du R. de Pr. &c Berl. 1774. S.—A. L. Krilger. Antiquites
dans la Collection de .Saris Soiui, &c. Prem. Part. Berl. 1769. fol. Sec. Part. Dantz. 1772. fol.— fP: Reitzii et H. Martini De-
BCriptio Musei Franciani. Lips. 1781. 8.—W. G. Etcher, Augusteum, Dresden's antike Denkmiler enlhalteod. Lpz. 1804-11.
3 vols, fol — Cf. Wagner, Geifiard, Panoflia, as cited § 190. 3.

4. Remains in France.— GaZerie du Musee A^apoJeoTi, (publieepar filAoZ etredigee par iaoonee. Par. 1802-15. 10 vols. 8.
—Landun Galerie complete du Muiee Napoleon. Par. 64 livraisons. 4 — A. Lenoir, Description historique et critique des statues,
bas-reliefs, &c. du Musee Royal. Par. 1820. 8. There is an English translaion of an earlier edition of this, by J. Griffilhs. Par.
1803. 8.— P. Bouillon, Musee des Antiques, &c. Par. 1626. 3 vols, fol.— £. Q. Visconti and J. B. Emeric-David, Le Muse a
Francais; Recueil complet des Tableaux, Statues, et Bas-reliefs, qui coniposent la Collection nationale, &c. (publiee par iJoiiJ-
lard PeronvtUe et Laurent.) Par. 1803-9. 4 vols. fol. Vol. 4th contains ancient statues, with explanations— Le Musee
R o y a 1 e ; Recueil des Gravures, d'apres les plus beaux Tableaux, Statues, et Bas-reliefs de la Collection royal, &c. (public par H.
Laurente.) Par. 1816-18. 2 vols. fol. This is a continuation of the preceding; they are designated as 1st Series and 2d Series.—
Raoul-Rochelte, Monuments Inedits d'Antiquite figuree, &c. Par. 1828-9. 2 vols. fol. — Visconti and De Clarac, Description des
Antiques du Musee Royal. Par. 1820. 8.

5. Remains preserved in England. — /. Kennedy, A Description of the Antiquities and Curiosities in Wiltoii House, illustrated
with twenty-five enjravings of the Capital Statues, Bustos, and Relievos. Salisb. 1769. i.—Stuhtley, as cited P. III. § 197 4.— Rich-
ardson, .Eies Penibrochianae, or a Critical Account of the Statues, &c. at Wilton House. Lond. 1774. 8.— Dr. Hunt, Description
of the Woburn Alley Marbles. Ix)nd. 1822. fol.— .Spccimejis of Ancient Sculpture, .Egyptian, Etruscan, Greek, and Roman,
selected from coUectioiis in Great Britain, by the Society of Dilettanti. Lond. 1809. imp. fol. 75 plates. — Museum fVorsley-
anum, a collection of antique Basso-relievos, Bustos, Statues, etc. Lond. 1794. fol.; "a magnificent work" (Dr. H'aageii). also
Lond. 1824. 2 vols. fol. — /. and A. Rymsdyk, Museum Britannicum. Lond. 1778. fol. — R. Lawrence, Elgin Marbles from tha
Parthenon. Lond. 1818. fol.— CoctereZZ, Ancient Marbles of the British Museum. Lond. 1830.— Bas-reZie/s du Parthenon et du
Temple de Phigalia graves par les procedes de M. A. Collas, sous la direction de M. P. Dtlarocht. Par. 1841. 4.— Library of En-
tertaining Knowltdge; several volumes are devoted to the British Museum; vols. 26, 27, the Elgin and Pbigalian Marbles j wis.
2^, 29, Townley Gallery ; vols. 22, 23, Egyptian Antiquities.

6. On the subject of sculpture generally, we add the following :—X)i/2au)ay's Statuary and Sculpture of the Ancients. 8. — TlaX
man's Lectures on Sculpture. Lond. 1S29. 8. with p'ates.— Consult also Krebs, Handbuch d. Philol. Bacherkunde, vol. ii. p. 331
—Sulze)-'s AUg. Theorie, vol. i. p. 188, 416.— iT. 0. MUller, Arcliaologie, &c as cited § 32. 4.

II. — Lithog/r/pki/, or Engraving on Gems.

§ 192. Engraving upon such materials as metals, ivory, shells, crystals, and
gems, is a particular application of the general art of image-work. It is done
either hy elevating the figures above the surface of the material used, or by
depressing them below. Geins, or precious stones {7^601, gemmse), are most
commonly employed for this purpose, and the art has thence been called Litho-
glyphy (7u9oy7,v^ia). As the engraved stones were very frequently inserted in
rings for the fingers, the art was also termed by the Greeks 8axtv^i.oy7^vfi.a. —
The great variety of objects represented by it, the beauty and perfection of the
workmanship, and the extensive utility of it in relation to literature, render this
art particularly worthy of notice.

See Suiter's Allgem, Theorie, &c. vol. ii. p. 386.

§ 193. At a very early period, probably (cf. §§ 199, 200), men became ac-
quainted with gems, and in the same way it is likely as with metals, bj^ the
subversion or abrasion of the soil in which they existed. Even the imperfect
• oster of the rude gem might attract attention, and accident might first suggest


the idea of increasing the luster by friction. It needed but a glance at a frac-
tured gem to perceive that it would be rendered brighter and more beautiful by
removino- the exterior surface or roughness. This was perhaps originally done
by rubbing two stones together; since, as is known, almost every precious stone
may be polished by its own powder.

§ 194 u. A particular knowledge of the nature, formation, and divisions of the pre-
cious stones belongs properly to the naturalist. Yet the artist and amateur cannot
wholly dispense whh this knowledge in order that they may judge of the real sub-
stance of gems, although the design and execution of the engravings are their princi-
pal object of attention. — As to the classitication of gems, the mineralogical systems
diiler in principles ; some distinguishing the stones by their elementary parts ; others,
by their degree of density and transparency, or by their colors. _ The two latter

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