Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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Ou the cabinet of the Grand-duke at Florence, see Johnson, Phil, of Trav. p. 119, as cited § 190. 1.— See also the reference*

§ 213. 1.

Casts of ancient gems or medals are found in the libraries or museums of most public institutions. The Boston Atheneum has
several cases of casts.

§ 213. Engravings and Plates are a useful help in attaining a knowledge of
sculptured gems. Various works containing plates and descriptions of the
most remarkable specimens, with historical and critical observations, have been

1. Works referring to particular cabinets or collections. A. F. Gorii, Museum Florenlinum, as cited § 191. 2. The 1st anc
2d volumes treat cf Gems.— Lc Miueum de Flore?ice, ou Collection des Pierres gravees, Statues, Medailles, et Peintures, qui se
trouveut a Florence principalement dans le Cab. du Gr. Due, &c. grave par David, avec explanations par MiiUjt. Par. 17SI-SS.
6vols. 4— -Wofietz. Csmees, &c. de la Galerie de Florence et du Palais Pitti, &c. as cited § 191.2. rTuifMnuimi, Descrip-
tion de Pierres gravers du feu Mr. Le Baron de Stosch. Flor. 1760. 4.— f. ScAZicAfejroZZ, Auswahl vorzOglicher Gemmen aus der
Stoschischen Sammlung. The 1st vol. NUrnb. 1797. 4. A 2d vol. in continuation, under the title i)ac(t/Zio(Acca SioscAiaim
Karob. 1806. 4.— P /. Mariette, Recueil des pierres antiques de la collection de Mr. di Gravelle. Par. 1735-37. 2 vols. i. £«



p. IV. PAINTING. 409

Blond et De la Chau, Description de pnncipales pierres gravees du Cahintt du Due d' Orleans. Par. 1TS0-S4. 2 vols. foU

Abridged, with notes, by /. G. Jacobi. Zar. 1796. 4. P. J. Mariette, Recueil de pierres eravees (an creux) du Cabinet d u Bo i.

Par. 1750. 2 vols. fol. /. Eckel, Choix des Pierres gravees du Cabinet Imperial des Antiques, representees eu 40 Planches,

ic. Vjen. 1788. 4. P. E. Viscunti, Gemme incise d. Cavaliere G. Giron\ati, &c Rome, 1&36. fol.

2. Works of a more general character. — Domen. de Rossi, Gemme antiche figurate. colle sposizioni del P. A. Maffd. Rom.
1707-9. 4 vols. i.—Abr. Garliei Dactyl iolheca, cum notis Jac. Gronovii. Lugd. Bat. 1695, 1707. 2 vols. 4 —Phil, de Stench, Genimse
antiquae caelatae, sculplorum ncmtinibus insignitae. (aeri incisae per Bern. Picart.) Amst. 1724. fol. — Amadulii, Novus Thesaurus
Gcnimarum veterum. Rom. 1753. fol. — J. M. Rapcmi, Recueil de Pierres antiques gravees, &c. Rom. I7S6. fol. with numerous
plates. — A F. Gcrius. Gemmae Antiquae. Ven. 1750. fol. — G. Ogle, Antiquities Explained, being a colleciion of figured Gems,
iliuslraleJ by descriptions from the classics. Lond. 1737. 4 — R. Dagley, Gems from the Antique, with illustrations. 4.— A. L. Mil-
Un, Pierres gr?vees inedites tirees des plus celebres Cabinets de I'Europe. Par. 1817. 2 vols. 8. We will add here, Knight, Mo-
dern and Antique Gems. — R, IValsh, Es!ay on Ancient Coins, Medals, and Gems, as illustrating the Progress of Christianity in the
early ages. Lond. 1S28. 12.

3. It may be proper to mention also some works which relate to the subject of gem-engraving in general, or to the theory and
history of the s.rX.—Tlieiijhrasti, Eresii, negl MBiuV ^iSSiov, in his 0pp. ed. Schneider, cited P. V. § 192. 3 ; also in /. de Latt, de
Gemmis et Lapidibus, libri ii. Lugd. Bat. 1647. 8; in English, with remarks, by / Hill, Lond. 1748; and in German, with the
remarks of f/iH, and a treatise on the ancient art of Engraving on Gems, by .2. M. Baumgdrtner, Narnb. 1770. S.—Discoridet,
jrtfl fAJjS larpiK^s, 5th Bnnk.—PUny, Natural Hiitory, 37th Book.— /o. K'rchman, de Annulis liber singularis. L. B. 1672. 12.
—jiiuelmi Boetii {de Boot) Geiiniarum et Lapidum Historia, aucta ab Adr. Tollio. L. B. 1647. S.—P. J. Mariette, cited § 2C6. —
L. Xatter, cited § 207.— CayZt/j, Sur les Pierres Grivees, in the Mem. Acad. vol. xix. — A. L. Millin, Introduction a I'Etude des
Pierres gravels. Par. 1796 ; also 182C. S.—GurUlt, Uber die Gemmenkunde. .Magdb. 1798. 4.—/. Frischolz. Lehrbuch dcr Stein-
KhneidekunsL MUnch. 1820. 8.— See also Sulzer's Allg. Theorie, article Geschnittau Steine.—Encyc. Americ., Edint. Eitq/c &c

III. — Painting.

§ 214. Paintinpr, as a fine art (ypaftz^, ^coypa<|)i'a, ^u>ypaq>Lx-^), is the represen-
tation of visible objects upon a plane surface by means of ficrure and color. It
is not confined, however, to the mere exhibition of material bodies and forms;
but expresses also their invisible powers and immaterial and spiritual nature
and aflfections, by gestures, attitudes, and the like. It also emjiloys the form
of sensible objects allegorically to signify things very difl^erent from what actu-
ally meets the eye. ((^f. § 147.) — The real foundation of painting is laid in
the art of designing, that is, representing objects on a plane by lines and
strokes; by the advancement of which in correctness and beauty the progress
of painting must be forwarded, almost as a matter of course.

§ 215. It has been already remarked (§ 155), that the art of designing, or
sketching, although it is of so great importance as a foundation and help to all
the plastic arts, is yet probably of later origin. So the art of coloring merely
was doubtless of earlier origin than painting, properly so termed ; which implies
the filling up, with colors suitably chosen and applied, of an outline sketched
designedly. Yet the art of designing and painting existed, beyond all question,
in a very early period, although we cannot determine exactly when, or in what
nation, it originated. It is still a controverted question, whether it existed in
Greece at the time of the Trojan war; and the negative is certainly quite proba-
ble. This, however, would not imply that it did not then exist in other countries.

§ 216. The Egyptians were acquainted with this earlier than the Greeks,
although not so much earlier as according to Pliny (Hist. JVat. xxxv. 5) they
claimed. Sketching or designing seems to have become common them
quite early. Originally the art was chiefly temple-painting, and we must dis-
tinguish between that which is found upon the walls of edifices, and that upon
mummies and papyrus rolls (cf. § 107. 5). Painting remained very imperfect
in Egypt, as did the plastic arts in general. The artists applied their colors in
uniform tints, without shading or contrast. Some paintings found in Egypt
seem to be an exception to this remark, but they were probably executed in the
time of the Ptolemies by Grecian artists.

1. " Eg3-p{ian painting seldom, if ever, attempts more than an outline of the object
as seen in profile, such as would be obtained by its shadow. To this rude but always
well-proportioned draught, colors are applied, simply and without mixture or blending,
or the slightest indication of hght and shade. The process appears to have been,
first, the preparation of the ground in white ; next, the outline was firmly traced in
black; and, lastly, the flat colors were apphed. The Egyptian artist employed six
pigments, mixed up with a gummy Uquid, namely, white, black, red, blue, yellow,
52 2 M


and green ; the three first always earthy, the remaining, vegetable or at least fre-
quently transparent. The specimens from which we derive these facts, are the
painted shrouds and cases of mummies, and the still more perfect examples on the
walls of the tombs. It can furnish no evidence of extraordinary experience or prac-
tice, that these paintings still retain their color clear and fresh. The circumstance
merely shows the aridity of the climate, and that the coloring matters were prepared
and applied pure and without admixture." (Memes.)

Some notices of Egyptian painting may be found in /. G. IVilkinsoit, Manners and Cus'oms of the Egyptians. Lond. 1R37.
3 vols. 8. with some colored plates. — See, also, iu Denun (as cited § 238. 2), vol. i. p. 177, a noiice of the paintings in the tombs at
Thebes. — Lond. Quart. Rev. six. 192, 421. — Library of Entertaining Knowledge, vols. 22, 23. — Especially the rkscrxption de
r£g-yp!e, cited § 231. 1.

2 u. That painting, or at least the art of coloring, existed early among the Chal-
deans and Israehtes is indicated by passages in the Bible. Ezek. xxiii. 14 ; viii. 10;
comp. Numb, xxxiii. 52.

§ 217. According- to the common tradition of antiquity, which agrees well
with the natural probability of the case, paintino-, or rather desiorning, took its
rise originally from the tracing of the shadows of objects upon a wall (5xtaypa<|)i,'a),
and marking the outline with carbon or chalk. Ardices of Corinth anti Tele-
phon of Sieyon are said to have been the first who, by drawing the inner parts,
presented something more than the outline, and indicated light and shade. The
earliest Greek pictures were drawn with a single color, and are thence termed
^Qvo%pu>uata', a red color was chiefly used, perhaps because it resembled that
of flesh in the human body. The first that employed various colors appears to
have been Bularchus, who lived in the time of Candaules, king of Lydia, about
720 B. C.

*' The first painting on record is the battle of Magnete by Bularchus, and purchased
by Candaules, king of Lydia, for its weight in gold, or, as some say, a quantity of gold
coins equal to the extent of its surface. This eslabhshes the first era of the art in
Greece." But painting had been practiced for several centuries preceding, especially
at Corinth. The art is said to have passed through several gradations ; as. simple
skiagraphy, or shadow-painting {GKiaypa'pia), i. e. giving the exterior outline or shape of
the shadoW of an object, without any intermediate lines ; the monographic style (/^oj/d-
Ypaiiuoi'), i. e. consisting of lines, but giving both the exterior outline and also the inner
lines or markings ; monochromatic compositions, in which one color only was employed;
and pob/chromalic (TroXnxpc'ofiara) , where a variety of hue was used, but without shading;
and lastly, zographic. in which appeared the full art of painting to life (^ioypafia), ap-
plying colors'with due observance of the laws of light and shade. It is, however,
hardly supposable that the art advanced by any pertectly regular series of steps.

See Memes, p. 120, 121, as cited § \69.—Caylus, (Dissertations relat. a I'histoire et a I'art) Abhandlungen zur Geschichte und
Kunst. (l-k. ii. p. 23, 74). Altenb. 1768. 2 vols. i.—Ramdohr, I'ebcr Malerei, &c. Lk. ii p. 176, as cited § 226. 2.—H. Fuseli, Lee
teres on Painting, delivered at the Royal Academy. Loud. ISOl. 4.

§ 218 ^ Our knowledge respecting the colors used by the ancient painters is
imperfect; it is derived chiefly from a few passages in ancient authors^; but
some information has been drawn from experiments on the colors in the remains
of ancient paintings, and on pigments that were found at Pompeii and in vases
beneath the ruins of the palace of Titus^. Oil-colors do not appear to have been
known to the ancients. To give consistency to water-colors and increase their
brightness and durability they combined with them some sort of varnish or size,
especially in paintings on plaster or chalk; gum (gum/ni), glue {glufi?mm),
and sometimes the white of egg (ovi albumen) were used for the purpose.
Apelles is said to have employed a fine black varnish which none could imitate.
On the authority of a passage in Pliny^, it has been commonly stated that Apel-
les and other celebrated Greek painters used only four colors ; viz, Melinum, a
white; Jtticum, di yellow; Sinopis Fu7itica,'3. red; and Jlramenlurn, 'd black;
but it must be a mistake to suppose that they were acquainted only with these,
or that they never used any other.

"If red and yellow ochers, blacks and whites, were the colors most employed by Protogenes
and Anelles, so' they are likewise the colors most employed by Raphael and Titian in their best

style." (Davy'i.) "In the pictures at Naples and Rome, is greater variety of coloring than,

from some passages in their writings, has been allowed to the ancients. And, indeed, unless
Pliny be supposed to point out a distinction in this respect between the practice of the earlier
and later painters, he contradicts himself: for in all, he enumerates no less than five ditferent
whites, three yellows, nine reds or purples, two blues, one of which is indigo, two greens, and
one black, which also appears to he a generic expression, including bitumen, charcoal, ivory,
or lamp-black, mentioned with probably others." {Jlemes, p. 128.)— Beautiful blue colors have



been found in tlie fresco-painungs in ancient Roman edifices.— "In cleaning away the rubbish
within the baths of Titus, the walls of which display many beautiful specimens of fresco-
pamtins, tlie painter's room was discovered, and in severafof the jars were found different
kinds of paint, and among others a quantity of the beautiful celestial blue, which retained ita
luster and freshness so remarkably on the walls. Sir Humphry Davy, on analysis, found it to
consist of a frit of copper, soda, and silex*; and by recomposition formed the same color from
fiesh materials."

That the ancient artists were not restricted to so few colors as has been supposed may be
shown by the following list.— KED : MiAroj, Rubrica, red earth, and a general name for red;
I^ivoiiric. ^inopis Pi^iitica, liiibrica Sinopica, reel ocher ; 'ZavSupaKr], Ctrzts^a u^ta, red lead; Ki/-
vafiai.n, Minium, vermilion; KiwdBarn '\v6iKdv, Cinnibaris hidica, from the gum or resin called
dragon's bkiod ; SavJuf, Sandyx, crimson. — yellow : "il^pa, or 'V.xpov, Sil, a common name for
yellow; ' krviKov, Attictim, the Athenian yellow ocher, considered the best; 'kpaeuiKov, Jluri-
pin-menlum, orpiment ; Sandaraclia, sometimes applied by the Romans to designate a variety of
yellow —BLUE : Ki^ai/oj, Caruleum, azure blue, and apparently a general term for blue ; 'Iv^ikov,
Indicum, indigo; 'Appeviuv, ultramarine, from the mineral called lapis lazuli; I'heophrastus
mentions a substance under the name of xa^«os as being used in order to give glass (vaXug) a
fine blue color, and Sir H. Davy supposes him to mean cobalt.— green : XpvaoKoWa, Chryso-
colla, a carbonate of copper, green verditter, the most approved green ; 'Id? XaAvdi/, arvgo,
(Erur.a, scohcia, verdigris, several varieties; Qco66tioi/, Tlieodotion, a sort of green earth, (crefa
viridis) found on the estate of one Theodotius, near Smyrna ; ./J;/pm?»i/?n, another variety of green
earth. — purple: Hvpcliiipa, Purpurissum, the most valued being prepared from the murex (cf. P.
III. $ 332), a general term also for purple ; "Xayivov, Byiginum, having the shade of scarlet;
OsfrMJH, a mineral compound, but sometimes designating the purple from the murex: Rnbioi
radix, madder-root.— BROWN : Uchra vsta, burnt ocher; many varieties.— black : MfAai/, ^tra
mentuni, the common name for the color; 'EXe^avrivov, Elephantinvm, ivory black; Hovyivov^
Tryainum, vine-black, made of burnt vine twigs ; Jitrar/tentuiu Ivdirum, perhaps the Chinese
Indian ink. — white : Mr/Kia, JUelinttm, an earth from the isle of Melos ; YlapaiTomov, PariPto-
niiivi, a while clay from a place on the coast of Africa, much valued ; ^ifxvHiov, Cerussa, white
lead.— We may here mention as among the gums or resins uscds; Y'jpKOKnWa, Sarcocolla ;
Macrriy^, Jilasticfie ; Tints masculuvi, frankincense; 7'ert'i!»;/;a, turpentine ; Bitumen or .^spAai-
tiim (iiaijiaXros) was also used in forming a varnish; Punic wax, Cera Punica, wa.s ordinary
wax purified.

1 Thecfhraslw, De Lapi.iibus — TMosojnrfM, Mat. Med. v.— Pliny, Hist. N. xxxv. S-ii.—f^itrumus, Arch. vii. 2 m. Chaplal,

on seven colors found in a shop at Pompeii, in ,innales de Chimie, vol. 70.— Sir Humpliry Davy, Experiments on the colors used

in painting by the ancients, in the Philosoph. Transactions, vol. for 1815, pt. i. p. 97 3 Pliny, Hist. N. xxxv. 32. ■» Cf Land.

Quart. Rev. xiv. 407. s Cf. Pliny, His!. N. xiii. 20 ; xii. 36 ; xxiv. 28 ; xxiv. 26 ; xxiv. 22 ; xxxv. 51 ; xxi. 49.-See Emtrsu-!

ad Plin. xxi. 22, in Lernaire, Bibl. Class, as cited P. V. § 470.4. On the colors used by the ancients, see also Rode, de la Peinlure

ehez les Anciens, in IVinckelmann, Hlstoire, kc. vol. iii. p. 59, 137.— Z)e Caylus, on certain passages of Pliny, &c. Mer)i. Acad_
Iiucr. XXV. 149.— G. E. Lesstng, Vom Alter der Oelmalerei aus dem Theophilus Presbyter, in his .Siimrntliche Scliriftin (as cited
§ 168), vol. viii. p. 235.— /•. IV. Doring, Prngr. de coloribus Veterum. Golh. 1788. i.—SliegUtz, Uber d. Malerfaiben der Griech.
and Rom. Lpz. 1817. %. — Winckdmann, Histoire, &c. lib. iv. ch. viii. sect. 31.

§ 219.* The ancient methods of painting may be included under two kinds,
painting in water-colors, and painting in wax. Of the latter, the most important
species was that effected by the aid of fire (Sea Ttrpo?), thence called encaustic
{kyxavGtLxrD ; that called z3;poypa(j)ta was another species, said to be employed
in painting ships {inceramenta navium, cf. Liv. xxviii. 45). Of painting in
water, there were two species ; in one, the colors were laid on with water alone,
vinegar being sometimes added, especially to black ; in the other, the colors
were applied with water combined with some glutinous substance, some gura,
wax, or resin that could be worked with water.

1. The term /resco, when strictly used, designates the first mentioned species of painting in
water-colors when applied to plastered walls while the plaster or stucco is moist; all the va-
rieties of the other species being included under the phrase painting in distemper; the terin
fresco, however, is sometimes applied indiscriminately to painting on plastered walls, whether
moist or dry, and whether the colors are applied in water simply or in distemper. The dwellings
of the ancients were commonly adorned with fresco-paintings.

2 k. The fresco-painting was executed upon a moist as well as upon a dry ground. In this last
mode of painting, the colors were probably laid on with a peculiar sort of glue or size, siuce in
many pieces of this kind that have been found, they are so well fixed and preserved, tliat a wel
sponge or cloth may be drawn over them without injury. Previous to the paintings, the walls
received a double coating, and the surface was carefully polished.

3. To prepare the walls for paintings on a moist ground was more expensive than to prepare
them for paintings on a dry ground (cf. Vitrvvius, vii. 3); since over several layers of ordinary
plaster there must be placed several other layers of a composition formed of chalk and marble
dust ; hence, except in the houses of the wealthy, the walls were usually in distemper as distin-
guished front fresco ; such is the case in most of the houses discovered at Pompeii. In order to
i-pceive ornampntal paintings, the walls were divided into compartments or panels which were
termed abaci, affaKcs ; these panels were specially prepared with a ground (called XevKUjja)
formed by plaster covered with chalk and marble dust as above mentioned; sometimes the
stucco cround appears to have been placed on tablets of wood which were fixed in frames and
encased in the walls; sometimes the paintings were on panels of larch wood.

§ 219 m. Single pieces of painting were usually executed upon wood, and therefore
railed VLvaKes, tahulc. The wood of the larch tree {ikarr], larix) was preferred on ac-
count of lis durability and its not being liable to warp out of shape. They painted
more rarely upon linen cloth ; as in the colossal picture of Nero mentioned by Fliny.


The most common kind of painfing was that upon plaster ; which is now called
fresco-painting. Less common was drawing or painting on marble and ivory.

The terms rriva^ and xivolkiov seem to have been applied to any material on which a picture
was drawn. The easel, or frame to which the material was fixed, while the artist was painting,
was called by the Greeks dxpi'/Jas or KuXv^ai ; ypa(pii signified the style and vTrnyfiatpii (pevi-
cillus) the hair-pencil ; some have supposed the /japSiov to have been a pencil or brush, although
it is usually interpreted as a style or rod used in encaustic painting; xP^I^'^'^'^ ^'"^ 'J)cipitaKa,
the colors; \fjKvOoi, the box in which they were kept ; a figure supposed to represent Painting,
found at Pompeii, in the building called Pantheon, holds a palette or pallet in her left hand ; tlie
ancient name for this article is nowhere given, unless the term -rrtviKinv was applied to it.
Ejfwi' signified a /(orfrflit or likeness as well as statue; a mere sketch was termed viroypaipfi ;
the word CKiaypacpia signifies, etymologically, shadoic-paintivg (cf. $ 217) ; it is commonly inter-
preted the art of skttching or delineating.

'^220u. The kind of painting peculiar to ancient times, called encaustic, is known
to us only by the imperfect description given by Pliny, who speaks of three methods
of it.

1 «. The first of these methods consisted, it seems, in mingling wax with the colors, and laying
them nn by means of fire and certain instruments called cauteria (Kavrfipia). The second was
employed upon ivory, and was called Kcarpioaii, because the outline was cut in the ivory by a
pointed graver, termed Kiarpov (veruculiim), and the colors afterwards applied. The third seems
to have been a process of laying on melted wax by means of a brush. A fourth kind, used in
painting upon walls, is mentioned by Viiruvius. Men of science and artists have attempted to
discover and restore this art.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxv. il.—yUruvius, De Archit. vii. 9—Dcm Vincenzo Reqtieno, Sag^i sul rlstabilimeuto dell' aniica arte de'
Greri e de' Romani piltori. Parma, 17b7. 2 vols. 8 ; in French, Rome, 17*6.— io'dger'j Geschichte der Enkausiik der Alten, in
the Journal dcs Lnxus und der Moden, for the year nSi.—Rode and Reim, as above cited, in lVi7ichelr}\ann, vol. iii. p. 161. —
Caylus, On encaustic painting, in the Meni. Acad. Inscr. i.tviii. 179. English Transl. by /. H Munz. Lond. 1760. 9.— Phil.
Trans, for the year 1751.— Tran*. of Soc. for Enccut agement of Jlrts. Lond. \1%1.—Sidzer's AUg. Theorie, vol. ii. p. 59.— ie-
tronne, Encaustic, in Joum. des Savans, Sept, 1835.— The Alheneum, or Spir. of Eng. Mag. vol. v. Sec. Series, p. 339, on an
♦' Encaustic Painting of the dying Cleopatra."

2 II. The peculiar mode of representing visible objects which was termed mosaic-
work, is often included under the denomination of painting. This has already been
noticed (see § 167, 189).

It was in etfect painting, and not improperly termed pictura de musivo. Pliny {3. N. xxxvi. 25, 60) mentions as among tha
celebrated mosaics at Pergamus a Cantharus with doves, " of which the Doves of the Capitol is supposed to be the copy." — See
Mus. Capilolin. (cited § 191. 2), iv. 69.

3m. Respecting the pecuUair melhod of paintivg glass which was practiced by the ancients,
we know but little.

A recent traveler speaking of the show-rooms of the establishment for the manufacture of porcelain at Sevres in France, observes,
"here were vases, cups, pitchers, urns, statues, table sets, toys, chimney ornaments, all of the ciost splendid and costly character.
The ware ilself is of the most perfect kind, and then the painting and the gilding, and the setting of brilliants and precious stones,
add immensely to the expense. Brogniard (the director, 1835) has added much to the painting department by his aiscoveries in the
art of painting glass. He is said to have ascertained the means of equaling all the ancient colors in glass except the red."

Le Fieil. L'art de la Peinture sur verre. Par. 1774. fol. German transl. NUrn. 1780. For an acc.iunt of attempts to restore

this art, Fiorillo's Klein. Schrift. artistischen Inhalts.— Cf. Sulzer, Allg. Theorie, article Glasmalerei.—Edini. Encycl. article G2(Uj.

4. Among the applications which the ancients made of colors, we may notice also the painting of
vases, of statues, and of the ornamental parts of build inss. — The painting of fictile vases seems to
have formed a distinct art, practiced by artists who received a peculiar instruction. The painted
vases are valuable chiefly as they furnish pictures illustrating the traditions, customs, and habits
of the ancientsi ; they are noticed in other sections (cf. $ 223. 173). — Statues were sometimes
painted, not merely by covering the whole with a wash or varnish of a single color, as the Jupi-
ter placed in the capitol by Tarquinius Priscus was colored with minium (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 45),

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