Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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but also by giving to each part of the drapery its appropriate color.— In architecture, the coloring
appears to have been applied more particularly to the moldings, the friezes, the metopes, and
the tympana of the pediments. In the Parthenon, some of the sculptured ornaments were of a
pale blue ; in some Sicilian monuments, these parts are red. Various colors were sometimes
combined^. In later times, among the Romans, the decline of taste was evinced by a fondnes.s
for strong and gaudy colorings.

1 Fosl/roke (cited P. HI, § 12) gives, p. 610, a Plate of costume drawn from the Hamilton vases. ^ See Kugler, Veber die Poly-

chromie der Griechischen Architectur und Sculptur, und ihre Grenzen. Berl. 1S35. — Raoul-Rochelte, as cited § 226. 2.

§221. Our judgment respecting the merits of the ancients in painting we
derive in a great degree from the unanimous encomiums of their writers. We
infer it also from their known excellence in other arts, which are kindred to it,
and, like it, essentially connected with the art of designing. From the few
imperfect and badly preserved specimens of ancient painting seen by the mo-
derns, no valid arguments can be drawn. Many questions respecting the sub-
ject of ancient painting remain therefore unsettled; as, for example, wshether
the artists understood perspective. Their greatest attention seems to have been
given to coloring.

It is said that in the mosaic discovered at Pompeii and called the Battle of Issus (cf. $ 189. 1),
the perspective is admirable. Scene-painting iaKJivoYpa<pia), which seems necessarily to involve

2 m2


some knowledge of perspective, was known at Athens in the time of ^scliylus (Fitruv. vli
praef.), and the names of several scene-painters are preserved (,Plin. H. N. xxxv. 37, 40).

Fiorillo, on the Perspective of the Ancients (in his Kl Schrijt. cited § 220). — CuitUt dt Caylua, on the same subject, in the Mem.
Jlcad. Inscr. ixiii. 320; also as cited § 2\l.—SaUitr, on the same topic, Mem. Acad. Inscr. viii. 97.— ilfemes, History of Sculpture,
&C. p. 127.— Cf. Sulzerh A!lg. Theorie, vol. iii. p. 6S6.

§ 222. Among the Greeks there were schools of painting as well as of sculp-
ture. The four most celebrated were at Sicyon, Corinth, Rhodes, and Athens.
Hence there were different styles and tastes in the art, the Asiatic and the
Helladic, the Ionian, Sicyonian, and Attic; the three last being, however, mo-
difications of the second. Sicyon especially was looked upon as the native
land and nursery of the best painters. But paintings were not by any means
so numerous in Greece as were works of sculpture. — The most flourishing pe-
riod of the art was about the time of Alexander. Some of the most celebrated
masters were Polygnotus, Apollodorus, Zeuxis, Parrhasius, Timanthes, Eupom-
pus, Pamphylus, Apelles, and Protogenes.

1. The history of painting among the Greeks is divided by Memes into four periods.
— The firstt terminated with Bularchus, B. C. 720, whose battle-piece has been men-
tioned ('i 217). During this period painting seeras to have made more progress in
Asia Minor than in Greece. Painting must have existed in soine degree in Ilomer's
time, since embroidering in various colors is mentioned {II. iii. 126), and the shield of
Achilles is described (7Z. xviii. 478) as combining different colors ; although the only
painting he notices is that by which some ships are distinguished (irjcj ixiXronaprioi, ll.
ii. 673 ; Od. xi. 123), and the coloring of certain ornaments for the heads of horses
(II. iv. 141). — The second period extends from Bularchus to Zeuxis, about 400 B. C.
Cimon of Cleouce, probably about the time of Solon, B. C. 600, is the earliest painter
of eminence in this period ; and it is supposed that he acquired his skill in some city
of Ionia, or other province in Asia Minor. Polygnotus was one of the most eminent
in this period ; his pictures were admired by Pliny at the distance of six hundred
years. In the time of Polygnotus, about B. C. 460, painting attracted the attention
of all Greece ; having been previously regarded with interest only in a few cities. The
most important works of Polygnotus were his two great paintings or series of paint-
ingsi in the Lesche of the temple of Apollo at Delphi, described by Pausanias (1. x.
c. 25 — 31). Towards the close of this period, the pencil is said to have been first
used by Apollodorus of Athens, the instructor of Zeuxis. — The third period com-
mences with Zeuxis, about B.C. 400, and ends with Apelles, who flourished about
B. C. 330. In this period great improvement was made, in which the genius of Zeuxis
opened and led the way. A famous painting of Zeuxis was his female centaur suck-
ling her young, described in the Zev^tg of Lucian ; it was carried off" from Athens by
Syll.i, but lost on the voyage to Italy. Parrhasius, Timanthes, Eupompus, and
Pamphylus, the master of Apelles, are named among the distinguished painters of
this era. The fourth period is dated from the time of Apelles. 1 his age witnessed
the full glory and dechne of the art. Apelles is said to have united the excellences
which had been separately exhibited by his predecessors. His Venus Anadyomene\
which was long " afterwards purchased by Augustus for one hundred talents, or
£20,000 sterling, was esteemed the most faultless creation of the Grecian pencil, the
most perfect example of that simple yet unapproachable grace of expression, of sym-
metry of form, and exquisite finish, in which may be summed up the distinctive beau-
ties of his genius." Protogenes of Rhodes, a contemporary of Apelles, was next to
him in merit ; the most celebrated work of this artist was his figure of lalysus with
his dog^, on which he is said to have been occupied seven years. Nicias of Athens
w'as a reputable painter. Later were Nicomachus, Pasius, and others, with whom
the art began to decline. The decline of painting may be considered as commencing
about B. C. 300, and as consummated in the destruction of Corinth by Mummius,
B. C. 146 ; during this time the artists practiced much in painting upon mean subjects
{pmrapoYpafia) , and indulged grossly in licentious painting {zoptvypwpta).

1 Riepenhamen, Peintures de Polygnote a Delphes dessinees et eravees d'apres la description de Pausanias. Par. ISJ6. (GOtt.

!S05.)— GeJot/(j and De Caylus, on Polygnotus, Mem. Jcad. Inscr. vi. 445, and xxvii. 34. ^ Amauld, La vie et les ouvragej

d'Apelle, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. xlix. 200.— C. de Caylus, La Venus d'Apelles dite Anadyomene, Mein. de PAcad. des hiscr.
XXX. 44^, with a plate drawn from a figure in brorize.— Quart, dt Qiihicy, Sur de defi d'Apelles et de Protogenes, Mem. de Vliistitut,

C 1 asse d'Hist. et Lit. Anc. vol. v. p. 300, with curious plates. Cf. Plin. xxxv. 10. 3 Cf. Plutarch, Bern. 22.— Brottier, Oti

Protogenes, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. xlvi. 463. Respecting the principal artis's and their works, see Bottiger, Ideen zur Arcbi-

ologie der Malerei. Dresd. ISH. 8.— C. R. Dali, Vile de' Pittori Antichi. Flor. 1667. 4. Mil. ISC6. 8. containing Lives of Zeuxis,
Parrhasius, Apelles, and Protogenes — See also Levesque, Sur les progres successifs de la peinture chez les Grecs; Mem. de rinstitut,
C 1 a s e de Lit. et Bioux Arts, vol. i. p. 374.

2. Respecting the comparative number of paintings and statues in Greece, the fol-
lowing statement is in point. "Pausanias mentions the names of one hundred and
sixty-nine sculptors, and only fifteen painters ; while after three centuries of spolia-
tion he found in Greece three thousand statues, not one of them a copy, he describes


only one hundred and thirty-one paintings." — It may also be worthy of remark, that
the Greeks preferred busts to portraits, and this branch of painting does not seem to
have been so much cuUivated as others. " While Pausanias enumerates eighty-eight
master-pieces of history, he mentions only half the number of portraits which he had
seen in his travels through Greece in the second century."

See Memes, p. 120 ss.— Cf. M. Heyne, Sur les causes de la perfection a laquelle I'arl parvint chez les Grecs, et sur les epoques qu'il
paroit avoit eu chez ce peuple ; in tVinckcbnann's Histoire, &c.

§ 223. In Italy painting was early cultivated. Evidence of its advancement
is given by those rich vases, already mentioned (§ 173), which are generally
termed Etruscan, but are probably the work chiefly of Grecian artists. It may
be remarked, that the color which fills up the figures, mostly red or black, was
the proper ground color of these vessels, and that the color of the surrounding
space was laid on afterwards. It is possible that these paintings are copied
from larger pictures of the best Greek masters, and so may furnish us some
means of judging of the conceptions and devices of those artists.

In the Museums of London, Paris, and Naples are great numbers of these vases; discovered
chiefly in tombs, about Capua and Nola; the Museo Borbonico at Naples contains above 25,000

See £of!tger'« Griech. Vasengemalde. Weim. 1797-1800. 3 vols. 8.—/. CAWj(te'j nisquisitions on the Painted Greek Vases. Lond.
1826. 4 —Laiizi, Vasi dipinti. Firenze, 1806. 8 — Cf. Mem. de I'hislitut, C 1 a ss e d'Lit. et Hist. Anc. " sur un Vase peint apporte
de Sicile," vol. iii. p. 38, with a plate.— S. Campanari, Antichi Vasi Dipinti dell Collezione Feoli. Rom. 1837. i.—Tuchbein,
Millin, &c. as cited § 173. I.— Museo Borbon. cited § 2\2.—, lutrod. a I'Etude des Vases Antiques. Par. 1817.
(o\.— Gerhard, as cited § ISS. I. with plates giving faithful copies of the paintings.— See also Hanmann, in the Edinb. Philosoph.
Journal, Apr. 1825. " elaborate treatise," maintaining the Greek origin of most of the vases called Etruscan.

§ 224. At Rome also, in early times, there were various paintings. But after
the subjugation of the Grecian territories they were more numerous and more
valuable. The Romans, however, did not labor to signalize themselves in this
art, but were contented with possessing the best pieces of Grecian painters,
some of whom resided at Rome, particularly under the first emperors. Yet
Pliny has recorded the names of several native artists, as Fabius, Pacuvius,
Turpilius, and Quintus Pedius.

Pacuvitts, known also as a tragic poet (cf. P. V. $ 353), was one of the first Romans distin-
guished as a painter. A piece which he executed for the temple of Hercules, in the Forum,
Boariuvi, was particularly celebrated. Cf. Plin. Hist. Nat. x.xxv. 4, 7. Julius Osar expended
great sums in purchasing the pictures drawn by old masters {Suet. Jul. Ca;s. 47). Augustus was
a patron of the art. Portrait painters seem at this period to have been specially encouraged ;
Varro, who died B. C. 27, had a collection, it is said (Plin. xxxv. 2) of the portraits of 700 eminent
personages. Uionysius, Sopolis, and Marcus Ludius, are named among the artists about the
time of Augustus.

See J. G add, Biniraphical Dictionary of Painters, Sculptors, Engravers, and Architects, from the earliest ages ; with an Append'x
by C. /. Nienwenhuys. Lond. 1859. 2 vols. 12 —Comic de Caylus, Sur les princes, qui ont cultive les arts, (Roman emperors anJ
others), Mem. Acad. Inscr. xxix. 160.— Cf. Life of Mich. Angelo, in the Library of Ustfid Knowledge.

§ 225. But painting, like the sister arts, ere long declined and finally became
almost extinct, from various causes; the irruptions of the northern tribes, the
dominions of the Goths and Lombards, the controversy of the Iconoclasts in the
eighth century, the general corruption of taste, and the general want of know-
ledge and refinement. The art was not wholly lost, but the uses made of it,
and the performances actually produced by it, were such as tended only to bring
it into greater neglect.

See /. D. Ftorillo, Geschichte der zeichnenden Klnste. Gfitt. 1798. 5 7ols. S.— Edinb. Encyclopedia, art. Painting.— Encyd.
Americana, vol. ix. p. iSS.—KUgler, as cited § 225. 2.

§ 226. After the revival of the arts, much curiosity was awakened respecting
the monuments of ancient painting. A considerable number, which were con-
cealed in ruined buildings, tombs, and the like, or had remained unnoticed, were
sought out; and bj'' means of plates and copies, a knowledge of them was com-
municated to amateurs of the art.

1 u. Among these monuments are the pictures found on the pyramid of C. Ceslius',
of the time of Augustus ; some paintings on the walls of the palace and baths of Ti-
tus-, of which some are preserved in the Escurial at Madrid ; some antique paintings
preserved at Rome, in the palaces Massimi and Barberini, and particularly the piece
called the Aldobrandiiie festival, formerly in the Villa Aldobrandini, now in'the pope's
collection^. We may mention, as among the most remarkable, the pictures found in
the tomb of the Nasos^ in the year 1675. Many remains of ancient painting were
discovered at Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae^, which are still preserved in the
museum m Portici. They are above a thousand in numler, most of them upon dry

416 ARCH.5:0L0GY OF ART.

plaster or chalk, but some upon a moist ground, or proper fresco-paintings. Many
of them, by being exposed to the hght and air, ^ost their colors. Others were muti-
lated and mjured in detaching them from the walls, before a safe and successful
method was discovered.

1 Respecting the tomb of C e s t i u s, see Descrlziniu di Ramana Anticha, con le Autorita di Panvinio Nardini, &c. Rom. 1697.
~Falamerius, De Pyram. C. Cestii, in Grxvius, vol. \v.— V/i7ichelma7m. Histoire, &c. livre iv. ch. S. § 13. fiote.— Johnson's Phil,
of Travel, p. 17S. cited § 190. ).—L'Mbe Rive, Hist. Grit, de la Pyram. de C. Ceslius. Par. 1790.— A view of this tomb is given in our

Plate XVIII. fig. 3. 2 CarleUVs and Pance's Descriptions of the Balhs of Titus. 3 For an explanation of the Aldohrandine

festival, seeBottiger, Archaologische Ausdeutung d. Aldobraudin. Hochzeit. Dresd. ISIO. 4.— {Vinckelnia>m, Histoire, &c. livre iv.

ch. 8. § 8. — L. Pigncmus, Epistola super antiquissiinani, quse Roma; visilur, Piciuram, de Ritu Nupliarum. < Of tlie pictures in

the tomb of the N asos, with others, plates were published in Birloli and Bellori, Picturae antiqu:e Cryplarum Rornaniruni et se-
pulehri Nasonum. Rom. 1733. (it. 1750, 1791.) fol.— Cf. Grxcii Thes. Ant. Rom. tome xii. p. 1021, and filiicktb/iann, Histoire, &c.

livre iv. ch. 10. § 8. liv. vi. ch. 6. § 13. s On the paintings discovered at Hercu laneu m, see the stately work entitled LeJln-

tichita di Ercolano, cited § 243. 2. Five volumes of it relate more particularly to the paintings : viz. vols. 1st, 2d. 3d, 4th, and 7ih,
v.-hich bear the title of Le Pitture antiche d' Ercolano.— Zahn, Die schonsten Oinamenfe und merkwardigsten Genillde aus Pom-
peii, Herculanum, und Stabise. Berl. 1828 — Antiquites d'Hcrcidanum, ou les plus belles Peintures antiques, les Marbles, Bronzes,
&c. trouv. dans les excavations d'Herc. Pomp, et Stab. Gravees par F. A. David, avec Explications, &c. 10 vols. 4. — On the monu-
ments of ancient painting, see also lVinckelnia7in's K'tsXom, &c. livre iv. ch. 8.— AfiHi/ig-eji, Peintures Antiques. Rom. 1813.— There
are some notices of paintings found at Pompeii, in the work styled Pompeii, republished from the English edit. Bost. 1833. 12.
with wood-cuts.- fK Gall, Pompeiana, cited § 243. 2.—Finati, Mus. Borbou. cited § 212.

It should be remarked that paintings have continued to be found on the walls of buildinss
as they have been excavated at Pompeii; in the year 1842, four large paintings in fresco were
found, it is stated, in houses excavated in the street called Via Fortunae. — In our Plate XXIII.
fig. 2, we have a ship, from a painting at Pompeii. The jar of grapes, fig. a, and the wine cart,
fig. 2, in Plate XXXV., are from paintings on the walls of a building at Pompeii. The represen-
tations in fig. 1, Plate XXXVII. are from a painting on the wall of a chamber at Herciilaneum.
The Mosaic Painting, fig. BB., in Plate XLIX., is a monument found at Pompeii ; cf $ 189.1. The
representation of Rome as a goddess, in Plate II., is from a painting formerly belonging to the
Barberini family ; given in Montfaiicon, Aniiq. E.xpl. vol. i. p. 293.

2 u. It will be proper to mention here other works that treat of the painting of the

Franc. Junius, De Pictura Veterum libri iii. Roterod. 1694. fol. in Germ. Transl. Breslau, 1777, 8. containing a valuable Cato-
legits artificum ; to which Sfflig'sCatalogus, cited § 182. 2, translated into English, with the title />ic(iOTia>-i/ of .irtists, Lond. 1837,
is an important supplement.— Mr. Durand, Histoire de la peinture ancienne, extraite de I'histoire naturelle de Pline. Lond. 1725.
fol. — A. Manutius, De Caelatura et Pictura Veterum, in Groimviui, vol. ix. — L. Demontosi^is, De Gemmarum Scatptura et Pictura
Antiquorum, in Groiioin'tu, ix. — Ancient Paintings, engraved by P. Santez; "containing some found in 1668, in a vault near the
Coliseum."— Geo. Trumbull's Treatise on Ancient Painting. Lond. 1740. fol. with fifty engravings of ancient paintings.— History
of Painting anjong the Greeks, in J. J. Rambach, Versuch einer pragmatischen Litterarhistorie. Halle, 1770. S.—Retm, Uber die
Malerei der Allen. Berl. 1787 ; cf. fVinckebnann, Histoire de I'Art. (Paris, 1803, tome ii. 2e P. p. 69).— C. A. B'tUger's Ideen zur
Archiologie der Malerei. Dresd. 1811. 8.—/. /. Grund, Malerei der Griechen. Dresd. 1810. 2 vols S.—F. Kilgler, Handbuch der
Geschichte der Malerei von Consiantin dem Grossen &c. Berl. 1837. 2 vols 8. — /. G. Legrand, cited § 243. \.— Croze-Ma pian,
Discours Historique sur la Peinture, &c. belonging to the M u s e e Francaise, citeH ^ 191. i.—Ramdohr, uber Malerei und Bildhaa-
erei in Rom. Lpz. 1799. 3 vols. 8. — There is a valuable but rare work, from the zeal of Count Caylus, Recueil des peinlures
antiques imitees fidelement pour les couleurs et pour le dessein, d'apres les desseins colories fails par P. S Bartnli. Par. 1757. (im-
proved, 1784.) fol. — Raaul-Rochetle, Peintures Antiques Inedils, precedees de Recherches sur I'Emploi de la Peintures dans le deco-
ration des Edifices sacrees el publics chez les Grecs et cl cz les Romains. Par. 1836. fol. illustrated by plates ; a Supplement to bis
Monum. Ined. cited \ 191. 4.— See Sulzer's Allg. Theorie, Art. Malerei.— Lanz\'s Sloria Pittorica (3d ed. Bassan. 1809. 6 vols. 8)
is a history of Painting in Italy fiom the Revival of Arts to the end of the eighteenth century. Transl. into German, by A. JVagner
(Gechichle der Malerei, &c.), with additions by Qu^ndt. Lpz. 1833 ; into English, by T. Roscoe. Lond. 1828.

IV. — Architecture.

§ 227. Architecture may be contemplated in two different points of view, —
as a mechanic art, or as a fine art. In the latter view it is to be considered
here ; that is, so far as the general rules of taste are applicable to it; so far as it
has not mere utility, comfort, or durability, but rather beauty and pleasure, for
its object. Order, symmetry, noble simplicity, fair proportions and agreeable
forms, are the chief peculiarities that are requisite to render a buildinof a work
of taste ; and these are the points to which the artist and the observer must turn
their attention.

1 u. In its origin archhecture was only a mechanic art, and scarcely deserved that
name. It commenced in the first human society, as men must have immediately felt
the need of defence against the heat of the sun, the violence of storms, and the at-
tacks of wild beasts. The dwellings of men, after they were dispersed and lived in
an unsettled state, M'ere at first, it is likely, caves and clefts of rocks ; and then huts
and cabins, rudely constructed, according to the nature of the climate and the genius
of the occupants, of reed, cane, boughs, bark, mud, clay, and the like.








13S 6^S c3



2 u. The writings of Moses {Gen. iv. 17. xi. 4) present the earliest notices of archi-
tecture in the residence of Cain, and the tower of Babel.

§ 228. " There are three grand causes of structure and form in architecture ; three
leading principles, which not only originated the primeval elements of design, but
which to a great degree have governed all the subsequent combinations of these.
This influence extends not merely to the essentials of stability, equilibrium, and
strength, but has suggested the system of ornament. These master dispositions are,
tirst, the purjmse ; secondly, the material of architecture; and thirdly, the climated

Climate will necessarily exert some influence on architecture ; chiefly, however,
upon the external arrangements. According to the latitude of the situation, buildings
will be contrived to admit or exclude the sun, to give shelter from biting cold, or to
secure against scorching heat, or merely to yield shade, without immediate reference
to either extreme. All these, however, will not affect the internal harmonies or pro-
perties of the constituent parts. Climate, therefore, is only modifying, not creative,
as the two other causes; it may suggest composition, but hardly design.

'5> 229. " The materials employed in architecture have influenced its forms and cha-
racter ; not only in the peculiar styles adopted in difierent countries; but likewise in
the general principles of the science. The choice of materials in the first instance is
determined by the resources of the particular country ; but the arrangement of the
materials must be, in some measure, determined by laws which are universal, and
over which taste and ingenuity can exert only a limited control. Since a mass of stone
is heavier in all positions, and weaker in most positions, than timber of equal dimen-
sions, it is obvious the whole structure, that is, the system of architecture, will be
modified as the one or the other material is employed. In wooden erections, the sup-
porting members may be nmch fewer and less massive than in structures of stone; be-
cause, in the former, the horizontal or supported parts are both lighter, and will carry
an incumbent weight — as a roof— over a much wider interval than in the latter. It is
apparent, also, even for the ordinary purposes of stability, that, in constructing edi-
fices of stone, whether of the perpendicular or horizontal members, the dimensions
would be greater than in elevations of wood ; and in the case of columnar structures,
that the altitude, in proportion to the diameter, would be far less in stone than in tim-
ber supports. Hence the two grand characteristics of a massive or solemn, and
a hght or airy, archkecture. Hence, also, when genius and taste had begun to consi-
der the arrangements of necessity and use in the relations of effect and beauty, new
combinations would be attempted, which approached to one or other of these leiding
divisions. It must, however, be obvious, that the field of these experiments is nar-
rowed by the very principles on which they would be first suggested. In the art we
are now considering, the human agent has less power over the inertness of matter
than in any other. Imagination comes in contact with reality at every step."

1 u. In early times, wood seems to have been the most common material. But the nse of this
in biiilflins presupposes the invention of various instruments and tools, which probably were
made of stone, earlier than of metal (cf. J 10. 2). Edifices of stone were of later orijrin, as the
construction of such demands a greater advance in knowledge. We learn from Moses (Ex. i.
14. v. 7 — 14), that in his times burnt bricks were common in Egypt. How early hewn stone,
mortar, and eypsum, were employed in building, cannot be determined. Several auxiliaries
seem evidently prerequisite; as, for example, machines for collecting the materials, and for
working metals, especially in iron. In Egypt, a country destitute of wood, appears to have been
the earliest and most frequent use of stone, which the people could easily transport upon their
canals, from inexhaustible quarries.

2. In Plate XXXVII. of our illustrations, figures 7 and 8, are seen several of the tools employed by the ancients in architecture and
in the mechanic arts ; they are given by Mcmtfaucon (vol. iii. pi. 187, 189), as taken from ancient monuments, in part from the
tomb of Cossutius. Among them are the saw, serra ; the hammer and mallet, tudes, malleus ; the hatchet or adz, Kalprum, ascia;

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