Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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the square, norma ; the rule anil compass, rc^^w/a et circinus ; the plumb-line, amussis, or perpendicuhim ; the instrument for
cultin? lines, or carvine, cxlum, scalper ; a sort of gimlet or piercer, tertbra ; and^olher tools whose use is not obvious, as one with
a spear head and a star, cuspis stdlifer, and another consisting of a handle, capultis, and a sort of notched wheel, rolvda serrato,
perhaps designed for marking, by its revolution, equidistant points or dots.

3. The influence of the material in modifying the style of architecture is strikingly exhibited,
when we contrast the ancient structures reared in Egypt with those of Palestine and Syria. We
see the heavy and massive style in those mysterious edifices, still standing as landmarks between
known and unknown time. "In the ponderous members of these solemn piles, the narrowness
of the intervals, the crowded pillars, the massive base, and the lessened perpendicular, is found
every principle previously assumed as characteristic of that architecture, which would be go-
verned by necessity before the sensation of beauty had been felt, or at least methodized. In
that rpsion of Asia, already noticed as the scene of the earliest recorded labors of the art, wood
was abundant. From the descriptions of Holy Writ we accordingly find, that this material was
mtich employed even in their most sacred and important buildings. Thus, though few details
capable of gi'ving any just architectural notions, are preserved of Solomon's Temple, it is yet
plain, that cedar wood was the chief material both for roofs and columns, that is, both for sup-
ported and supporting members. Hence, the temples of Palestine, and of Syria generally, by
'vhich we understand the Asia of the Old Testament, already described, were more spacious, but
less durable, than those of Egypt, and with fewer uprisrht supports. Of this, a sincularly strik-
ing proof occurs in the catastrophe of the House of Dason, when Samson, by overturning only
two columns, brought down the whole fahric. In an edifice constructed on the plan of the Egyp-
tian temple, where pillar stands crowded behind pillar, in range beyond range, to give support to


the ponderous architrave and marble roof, the overturning of two of these columns would pro-
duce but a very partial disintegration." It is obvious, that the style may have a different

modification, when different materials are combined in the same structure, as was evidently the
case in the buildings of Persepolis. The marble columns were connected by cross-beams of
wood, and they probably supported a roof of light structure; and they are accordingly loftier,
further apart, and fewer in number, than in Egyptian buildings. {Memes, p. 233, ss.)

§ 230. The purpose of a building, or use for which it was designed, would necessa-
rily, in an early stage of art as well as in a later, in a great measure determine both
the magnitude and the form. The purpose or design of structure is the foundation of
a division of Architecture into three general kinds, or grand branches, Civil, Military,
and Naval. The two latter, which treat of ships, castles, towers, forts, and the like,
come not into consideration among the fine arts. The former is subdivided according
to its various purposes into Sacred, Monumental, Municipal, and Domestic.

Sacred architecture appears among the earliest eflbrts of the present race of man.
" The first impress of his existence left upon the soil, yet moist from the waters of
the deluge, was the erection of an altar; and the noblest evidence of his most accom-
plished skill has been a temple."

Montane f it al architecture is also of very early origin. Pillars of stone and mounds
of earth are the primitive records both of life and death. Mounds or barrows have
been used for monumental purposes throughout the globe. The pyramids of Egypt
and India may be considered as mounds of higher art and more durable materials.
Columns and triumphal arches are a species of monumental structures.

Under the head of Municipal architecture may be included all public buildings more
especially coimected with the civil and social aflairs of men; as, for example, halls of
legislation and justice, baths, theatres, and the like.

Domestic architecture refers particularly to the dwellings of individuals, w^hether
palaces, manors, villas, or common houses.

§ 231. It was in the east, and particularly in Egypt, that architecture first
reached any considerable improvement, and this was in respect of solidity and
grandeur rather than beauty. The Egyptians in their most celebrated works
of this art seem to have intended to awaken the wonder of the latest posterity,
rather than to gratify the taste of the connoisseur. Their most famous struc-
ture was the Labyrinth of extraordinary extent, situated near lake Moeris, the
work of twelve Egyptian kings. Their pyramids and obelisks too, which were
probably designed both for monumental erections and for display, are ever re-
markable for grandeur and solidity.

Some of the pyramids have been opened in modern timps; in one of them Belzoni found the bones of an ox (cf. P. II. § 96. 3). In
(be excavations of 1S37 or 18.3S, several chambers having been opened without revealing any thing, in one was found a cartouch of
hieroglyphics, i. e. a proper name in the Iiieroglyphic alphabet.

Grobert, Description des Pyramids de Ghize. Par. 1900. (Transl. into German, Gera, l?OS.)— Clarke, Travels in Greece, E^ypt,
ic.—SelzoT)i, Narrative of the recent operations and discoveries within the pyramids, tsmples, &c. in Egypt and Nubia. Lond.
1820.— Cf. Lond. Quart. Rev. xvi. S ; xvii. 166; xii. 195, 394.— ff. Vyse, Operations carried on at the Pyramids of Gize in 1837,
with an Account of a Voyage into Upper Egypt, &c. Lond. 1841. 2 vols. 8. with plates.— £izcfcmg?iam's Lectures, N. Y. Observer,

Oct. 27, \S3S.—Zoega, De origine et usu obeliscorum. Rom. 1797. fol. — See also references given P. I. § 177. For a view of

iome obelisks, see Monlfaucon, Antiq. Expl. vol. ii. pi. cxliii. ; and Denon, as cited § 238. A view of some on a smaller scale is
given in our Plate Lit. figs. 15, 14, 10. This plate exhibits the comparative height and magnitude of various celebrated structures,
both ancient and modern.

1. The temples of the Egyptians should be noticed as among their remarkable
structures. One of the most ancient and celebrated is the Memnonium at '^I'hebes. It
is represented as having been about 200 feet wide and 600 feet long ; with an exten-
sive propylaeon, of which above ?00 feet are still observed. In this is a colossal statue
of Osymandyas, which is sometimes confounded with the vocal statue of Memnon,
but must be distinguished from it. Cf. § 169. 2. — Another celebrated temple, called
the finest in Egypt, is that at Denderah ; this, however, belongs to a later period,
being ascribed by Belzoni to the age of the first Ptolemy. — MonoUthal temples are
mentioned among the Egyptian structures. One of great size, and consisting of a
single mass of stone, is described by Herodotus as having been hewn out of the solid
rock and transported from Elephantis to Sais, and placed near the temple of Neith,
which was itself another very celebrated edifice. Another monolithic teniple is found
at Antasopolis.

"The elementary features of Egyptian architecture were chiefly as follows. 1. Their walls
were of great thickness and sloping on the outside. This feature is supposed to have been de-
rived from the mud walls, mounds, and caverns of their ancestors. 2. The roofs and covered
ways were flat or without pediments, and composed of blocks of stone reaching from one wall
or column to another. The principle of the arch, although known to them, was seldom if ever
employed by them. 3. Their coltinms were numerous, close, short, and very large, being some-
times io or 12 feet in diameter. Tliey were generally without bases, and had a great variety of
capitals, from a simple square block, ornamented with hieroglyphics or faces, to an elaltorate
composition of palm-leaves not unlike the Corinthian capital. 4. They used a sort of concave
entablature or cornice, composed of vertical flutings or leaves and a winged globe in th*> center.
[This symbol is sometimes called the "winged serpent," two heads cf serpents being coniiec"id


with the globe ; it has also been termed cnephim, a Hebrew v/ord signifying wings.] 5. Pyramids
well known for their prodigious size, and obelisks composed of a single stone often exceeding 70
feet in height, are structures peculiarly Egyptian. 6. Statues of enormous size, sphinxes carved
in stone, and sculptures in outline of fabulous deities and animals with innunierable hierogly-
phics, are the decorative objects which belong to this style of architecture. The architecture of
the ancient Hindoos appears to have been derived from the same original ideas as the Egyptian.
The most remarkable relics of this people are their subterraneous temples, of vast size and ela-
borate workmanship, carved out of the solid rock at Elephanta, Ellora and Salsette." Enc. Jimer.

Quatritnere de Quincy, De I'Archi'ecture Egyptieune. Par. 1803. 4. with eighteen plates. Cf. Review of it in the Amcr.
Quirterly, vol. v. p. 1.— Description de VEgtfpte, 2d ed. Par. 1818-28. 10 vols. fol. " de texte," with 13 vols fol. " des planches."
Cf. P. I. ^'in.—Ltnormant, Musee des Antiquites Egyptiennes, ou Recueil des Monum. Egypt. Architecture, Statuaire, &c. Begun
P.-,r. 1836. fol. Plates, with explanatory text.

In our Plate L. figs, a, b, c, are seen specimens of Egyptian columns, which may show the massiveness of style prevalent in
Egyptian edifices. Fig. a represents a column of a tomb at Silsiles ; as given in Denon's plate xliii. (as cited § 238), it appears still
more massy. On Egyptian pillars, see further remarks § 238. 3.— For a view of a massy Egyptian doorway, see our Plate XXXII.
fig. c. On Egyptian art in general, consult especially MUller's Archaologie, cited § 32. 4.

2. It is an interesting fact, that architectural remains are found in the regions of
central America, which bear a striking resemblance to those of Egypt. These have
been supposed by some to be the monumental relics of a great nation, whose exist-
ence had become, at the time of the Spanish conquest, a matter of vague record under
the name of " giants and wandering masons." They are called Taltecan monu-
ments. Among these remains are pyramids, some of them said to rival those of
Egypt. The pyramid at Cholula resembles the tower of Babel as described by He-
rodotus. There are also temples and other structures, the most remarkable being
at the city of Palenque, where are hkewise bas-rehefs and other sculptured monu-

Del RiOf^umi of an Ancient City, lately discovered in Guatimala. Lond. 1822. 4. — Bulloch's Travels in Mexico. — Nebel's Archae-
ological Voyage. Par. 1&35.—Ditpaix, Antiquites Mexicaines. Par. 1836. fol. The author was at the head of a Commission sent
out by the Spanish government for the purpose of investigating the sutject.— Cf. jimer. BiU. Repontury, No. xxvii. Ju'y, 1837,
p. 219.— Also, the Repullicatim of Quarterly and other Reviews. Oct. 1836. p. 17, 137.— A^. Jlmer. Reo. vol. li. p. 397.—/. L.
Stcph.ns, Incidents of Travel in Central America, &c. N. York, 1841. 2 vols. 8. with plates.—^. M. Norman, Rambles in Yuca-
tan, including a Visit to the Ruins of Chi-Chen, Zavi, and Uimal. N. York, 1842. 8. with plates.

3. We may properly here advert to the Cyclopean archhecture. In Greece and
Italy there are celebrated remains of vast rock-built walls and fortresses, which are
called Cyclopean, because said to have been built by the Cyclops. In the regions of
America above-mentioned, there are structures which very much resemble them,
called by the natives, granaries of the giants. The most celebrated of these remains
in Greece are at Tiryns and Mycenae. They consist in both places of a wall or fortifi-
cation, inclosing the summit of a nearly insulated rock, the Acropolis, in the languages
of the later Greeks ; the inclosure of which was at once a palace, a fortress, and a tem-
ple. They are composed of large blocks of unhewn stone ; the blocks are generally
polygonal and well fitted to each other. At Tiryns the inclosure is about 220 yards in
length and 60 in breadth. At Mycenfe the inclosure is 300 yards by 200 ; in the east-
ern^'side a remarkable gateway still exists, called the Gate of Lions, from two lions
rudelv sculptured over the lintel. Remains similar to those at Tiryns and Mycenos are
found at Cosa, Norba, and Cortona, in Italy.

W. Gell, Argolis, or Itinerary of Greece, cited § 243. \.—E. D. Clarke, Travels in Egypt, Greece, &c. Lond. 1824. 10 vols. 8.—
Leake's Travels, cited P. I. § \29.— Miss. Berald, 1834, p. 4i3.^Pompeii, p. 64, as cited § 226. 1.— TK Hamilton, Fortresses of
ancient Greece, in the jirchsologia, (cited § 242. 3), vol. xv. p. 3\d.— Class. Joum. vol. v. p 2e2,—Foibroke, as cited P. III. § 13,
ei. 1840, p. I-I2.— G. Micali, L'ltalia avanti il dominin d. Romani. Firenz. 1821. 4 vols. 8; Storia d. Antichi Popoli Italiani.
» irenz. 1S32. 3 vols. 8. with an atlas in fol. Cf. A", ^mer. Rev. vol. 49.

§ 232. In Asia Minor architecture must have made considerable advances by
the time of Homer. Of this there is evidence from the descriptions he gives of
buildings in both his epic poems, even if we allow much for poetic ornament
and exaggeration. As examples, notice the description of the palace of Priam
at Troy^ and of Paris^, and especially the palace of Alcinous, king of Pheeacia^
and that of Ulysses in several passages of the Odyssey. The manner also in
which Homer, in these poems and in the hymns, speaks of temples*, seems to
presuppose a construction of such edifices by no means rude.

• //. vi. 243. 2 II. vi. 313. 2 Odyss. vii. 85. •* On the condition of domestic architecture as exhibited in the Iliad and

Odyssey, see Memes, p. 252, 2i5, as before cited, § 169. Cf. P. III. § 26.— Also, Sallier, Etat de I'Architecture au temps d'Homere,
m the Mtm. Acad, hiscr. xxvii. 19.— Cf. MUller's Hist, and Ant. of Doric Race, bk. iv. ch. 1.
Respecting architecture among the Hebrews, as exhibited in Solomon's Temple, see Prideaux, Calmet, &c as cited P. I. § 169 b.
-On the architectural remains of ancient Idumsea, see Laborde, Robinson, &c. as cited P. I. § 171.— On those of Persia, see Hock,
,ited § 171. Cf. P. I. § 153.

§ 233. Yet the art was very far from the perfection which it afterwards at-
tained among the Greeks. With them, its most flourishing period may be dated
from about The middle of the fifth century before Christ. Daring about a cen-
Mry succeeding this date, or between the time of Pericles and Alexander, there


were erected in 'Greece, and particularly at Athens, a vast number of superb
edifices of various kinds; temples, palaces, theatres, gymnasia, porticos, &c.
Religion, policy, emulation, luxury, all united to encourage and advance archi-
tecture, "which the Greeks were the first to raise fully to the rank of a fine art.
It was, however, chiefly upon public buildings that they bestowed their care.
Private dwellings, even those of the more celebrated personages, and in the
most flourishing period of the art, were comparatively simple and free from

For ID historical view of Grecian architecture, consult Memes, p. 249.— New Edinb. Enq/dop. Art. Civil Architecture.— £firf,
Geschichte der Baukunsi, and Slieglitz; both cited § 2a3. 4. On the origin of Grecian archtitecture, conip. Chateaulriarid, Tra-
vels in Grerce, &c. translated by F. Schoberl, (p. 354), Am. edit. N. York, 1814.

§ 234. The countless naultitude of divinities occasioned an immense demand
for lemp/es,- and those consecrated to a particular deity were, both in number
and magnificence, proportionate to his supposed dignity and importance. These
structures were, in general, not designed to receive within them assemblies of
worshipers, but to form as it were habitations and memorials of their appro-
priate gods. Hence they were often small in size. They were usually raised
so as to be entered by an ascent of steps, ornamented with statues, and with
pillars erected completely around them, or at least in their front.

1 u. The porch or space in front was called -nrpovaog. In the Dorian temples, the doors
were brought to a point at the top, and generalh', it was by these openings alone that
light was admitted ; they were commonly lighted also by lamps within. The interior
was adorned, on the covering and on the walls, wiih the ornaments both of architecture
and sculpture.

Quatr. de Quiticy, sur la maniere dont etoient eclaire-s les temples des Grecs et des Romains, Mem. de VInstitut, 01 a s se d'Hist.
a Lit. Anc vol. iii. p. 166.

2. The temple was frequently surrounded by an inclosed court {mpilSoko;), which often
included a grove, statues, and buildings appertaining to the temple. The body of the
temple was usually quadrangular, oblong, and inclosed by walls ; this was the temple
in the strict sense; and was called by the Greeks the vaoi; by the Romans the cdla.
The number and di.?position of the pillars which were employed to adorn it, gave occa-
sion for ihe archiiectural terms used to designate different kinds of temples. Vitruvius,
in this way, discriminates seven kinds.

In our Plate XXI., are given plans to represent these kinds. The first, is the Temple with
^ntie CAi/TiTngf) which has only square columns or pilasters on the sides, with two square co-
lumns or pilisters in front, one at each anjjle, and two round columns between them ; as in fig.
d in the r\are.— The second, the Prostyle inoouTvXos), having a row of columns in the front, and
only in front : as in fi<i. e. — Third, the Awphiprostijle ( \it6i-p6oTv\ns), having colutnns at both
ends ; as in &s. f. — Fourth, the Peripteral (.nepi'^repoi), havins a single row of columns e.xtend-
ing wholly around the building; as in fig. a; and also in fig, //, in which the cell and its sur-
ronndir^g colonnade is circular. If the walls of the cell were thrown back so as to fill the
intercolumniations, the temple was called Pseudo-peripteral.— Fifth , the Dipteral (AiTrrepog'),
having a double range of pillars around the whole cell ; as in fig. c. — Sixth, the Psevdo-diptrral
i'^EVcoci-Tepog), having one row of pillars only, these pillars being at the same distance from the
cell as in Dipteral temples, and the inner row of pillars being omitted. — Seventh, the Hijptelhral
C^t^aiOpos), was so named because the temple was open to the sky ; it was also marked by the
number of its columns, being the largest and most magnificev.t kind of temple ; it was dipteral,
having a double row around it, and amphiprostyle, having ten pillars besides at each end ; it has
also a ran2e of columns within the cell, as in fig. b. — There was another variety, termed Movop-
tf.ral a^lovoTTTEpoi), which consisted of a circular colonnade, withoiu a cell, but with an aliar in
the center; as in fig. ^. Temples were also designated according to the nearness of their co-
lumns to each other; being cMeA Pycnostyle {U.vkv6gtv\os'), when the columns were placed in
the closest order allowed, i. e. one diameter and a half apart ; Syslijle (YvcttvXos) , when they
were two diameters apart; Eustyle C Ev a Tv\ol;^, when two diameters and a quarter; Diastyle
(AidaruAof), when three diameters ; and Araostyle CApatoarvXoi), when the interval was greater.

See niruvius, On the Temples and Intercolumniations of the Ancients. Lond. 1794. S. with plates.—/. Bigelow, Elements of
Technology. BosL 1?29. 8.— Pompeii, p. 104, as cited § 226. I.

3. Among the temples most celebrated for their extent and magnificence were the
fcillowing ; that of Diana at Ephesus ; those of Apollo at Delphi and Miletus ; those of
Jupiter at Athens and Olympia ; and that of Minerva, called the Parthenon, at Athens.
The temples at Agrigentum in Sicily were celebrated; especially that of Jupiter, called
also the temple of the Giants, a colossal building now completely in ruins. The di-
mensions of the temple of Diana of Ephesus were 425 feet by 220 ; those of Jupiier at
Athens, 354 (or according to some over 400) feet by 171 ; and those of Apollo Didy-
mseus, 303 by 164.

For a comparative view of the Parthenon, the Temple of Giants, and other structures, see our
Plate LII. fig. 17, 18, &c. In Plate XXI. fie. 1. is a view of the Parthenon restored ; in the Plate
on page 432, is a view of its actual appearance in ruins as given by Hobhouse. In Plate LI. we
have the temple of Diana, drawn from the descriptions of ancient aiUhors. In Plate VII. is a
View of the remains of the temple of the Sun at Balbec, with a ground-plan.

L'jiibe Mcv, Temples anciens et modernes. Par. 1774. 2 vols. ^.—Stieghtz, as cited § 243. 4.— lVinckdrnann, Observations oa

2 N


le tenip'e de Girgenli ; in the Histoire, S,-c. cited § 32. 4. vol. ii.— C. R. CocTierdl, Temple of Jupiter at Agrigentum (temple of the
Grants). Lond. 1750. {ol.—Hirl, Beschreibung des Tempels der Diana zu Ephesus. Berl. 1809. i.—Arundell, Visit, ic ciied P. I
§ 161 (containing remarks on the temple of Diads).— Falconer, Pliny's account of Diana's temple, &c in the ^rchsokigia (as cited

§ 32. 5), vol. xi. p. 1. — Comte de Caylui, La Diana d'Ephese et son temple, in the Mem. Acad. Inacr. vol. xxi. p. 428. For a

notice of existing Greek temples, see New Edinb. Eiicycl. article Civil Architecture.— Alio Stuart's Dictionary (Lond. 1830. 3 vols. 8),

under the words Temple, Agri^entum, &C.—CC Lond. Quart. Rev. vii. 301 ; xiv. 514. On the temple of the Sun at Balbec, and

the ruins at Palmyra, cf P. 1. § 166.— Consult the references below, § 243.

§ 235. The ancient theatres were structures of vast extent, sometimes wholly
built of marble. They had on one side the form of a semicircle with its ends
somewhat prolonged, and on the other side the ends were united by a building
passing directly across from one to the other. The Greek theatre was divided
into three principal parts. One was the stage or scene (oxj^v^) in the part ex-
tending across the semicircle ; this was appropriated to the actors. A second
was the part occupied by the spectators, who sat in the concentric rows (fgti^ia,
urdines) around the semicircle ; this part strictly speaking was the theatre (^tarpov,
called also zor^ov, cavea). The third was between these two, and called the
orchestra (6p;;t^cr'pa), being the part assigned to the choir of mimes, singers, and

1 u. The seats for spectators rose behind each other in regular succession ; they were
often however divided into two or three compartments, according to the size of the
building, by means of wide passages (oiajaj/iara, prcEcincliones) running the whole length
of the seats and concentric with them. There were Ukewise openings or stair-ways
(K\i^iaK€i) passing like radii to the semicircle, transversely to the seats. These free
spaces facilitated the distribution of the audience. The several portions or compart-
ments of seats between them {KepKidsg) resembled wedges in shape, and were called cunei
by the Romans. The magistrates and distinguished persons took the lowest seats, in
the portion (called /?ouX£uti>coV) nearest the stage. The successive rows of seats were, by
a detinite arrangement, appropriated to other citizens, and were often designated by a
specific name ; e. g. a cerrain part was assigned to youth and called i(Pnl3iKdv. A par-
ticular place was also reserved for strangers. Outside of the whole part occupied by the
spectators there was usually a portico.

2. The Greeks usually constructed their theatres on the side of a hill ; and when the
nature of the place allowed, as at Chagronea, Argos, and other places, many of the sea;s
were cut out of the solid rock. The principal instances now known of theatres built on
a plain are those of Mantinea and Megalopolis. The size of the Grecian theatres is
sometimes very great. It is asserted that the theatre of Bacchus av Athens capa-
ble of containing 30,000 persons. The theatre at Epidaurus is 366 feet in diameter ;
those at Argos and Sparta were about 500.— Cf P. III. <S 89, §238.

3n. The edifices called Odea, designed for the exhibitions (cf '^ 65) of musicians,
poets, and artists, were constructed in a manner similar to theatres. The most cele-

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