Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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brated was the '^k:ov of Pericles at Athens.

A plan of a Greek theatre, from Vitruvius, is given in Plate XLIX. fif;. 1. In fig. 2, is a plan of a Roman theatre ; cf. P HI. 523?,

For a mare full description of Greek theatres, see Stuart's Dictionary of Architecture.— ^Jntfton's Lempriere.— Pompeii, (cited

5 226) p. 213.— & Ch. Genelli, das Theater zu Athen, hinsichtlich auf Architectur, Scenerie und Darstellungskunst. Berl. 1SI8. 4

G. C. JV. Schyieider. Das Attische Theaterwesen zum bessern Verstehen der Griech. Dramaliker.— .Boinrfin, du Theatre des

Anciens, in Hist, de I'.icad. des Inscr. ^c. vol. i. p 136, with plate.— Groddecft, De theairi Graeci partibus, &c. in IVolf's Liter. Ana-

lekten, vol. ii. p. 99. For notices of remains of particular theatres, Ferrara, Storia e Descrip. de' princip. teairi ant. e moderui.

Mil. ! >30.— Consult also Clarke's Travels, Gdl's Itinerary, DodweU's Class. Tour, &c. Cf. § 243.— Respecting the Odea, see Martini,
cited § 65.— See also P. L § 63, § HI.

§ 236. The Gymnasia, or schools for bodily exercises, first introduced at
Lacedaemon, became afterwards common in the Greek cities, and were adopted
among the Romans. They consisted of several buildings, or particular parts,
which were united together, and thus formed often very spacious structures
capable of holding many thousand persons. The principal gymnasia of Athens
were three; that of the Lyceum, that of the Cynosarges, and that of the Aca-
demy. Cf. § 74.

1. The fnllnwin? description notices the principal parts of the ancient Gymnasium nr Pa-
laestra ; it is adapted to the plan, which is given, after Vitruvius (L v. e. 11), in Plate XVI. tie.
A.— The uppp.r portion of the figure represents the eastern end, on which was the principal
entrance. The shaded square, with the arrow in it pointing to the left side, is the Peristylivm
(■r:epiarv\iov), i. e. place surrounded with pillars ; this portion seems also to have been some-
times termed Paltsstra (TraAatoroa), as being a common place for wrpstling; including also liie
Sphmristerium, or place for playing ball (cnpaiciarfipinv). ' Around this square were Ilie Porticus
(jTuai), with seats (s^ii'ioai) ; the pillars of the porticos are indicated in the plan by the dois :
they show a double portico on the north side. Around these were various rooms ; those marked
by the letter a were Halls, where philosophers and others might enjoy intellectual enteriain-
nient ; that marked by the letter 6 was the Ephebeum {ij)ri!3eXov), where the youth attended to
preparatory exercises ; that by c, the Coryceum (KionvKciov), so called, it is said, from its having
a sactc of sand suspended from the roof for some gymnastic purpose ; this is by some considered




as the same room with the ^podyterium (dnoSvTfiniov) or room for undressing; d, the Coviste-
rium {KovicTfipiov), where the dust was kept for sprinkling those that had been anointed ; e, ihe
Loutron {Xnvrpov), or room for washing ; /, the F.laothesium (i\aioi)iaiov. dXen7ri)oioi'), the room
for anointing the wrestlers, or such as had bathed ; g, the room calltd by the Romans Frtgida-
rium, for the cold bath ; h, the room for the stove used for producing heat; t, the isudatorium, or
Caldariam for the hot bath ; j, the Propnigeum, the " place of the chimneys," or perhaps the Su-
da<orii/rn, the room for the sweating baih (imiyia) ; k, Ihe l^epidarium, ihe room for the warm
bath. On the west was another square inclosure, m, having porticos on three sides ; the
ground thus inclosed was adorned with rows of plane-trees, and walks between the trees, with
seats made of a sort of plaster called signine work (opys si^ninum). On the north side of this
square a single portico is indicated; here was the Xystns {^varog) or covered portico, marked
by the letter v., where the athletae exercised themselves in the winter and in bad weather ; the
portion in which they exercised is represented as being twelve feet wide and sunk a foot and a
half below a margin often feet on each side for a path on which spectators could walk. Beyond
the Xijstus was the Siadium {aTaSioi^) marked by the letter o, extetiuing nearly the whole length
of the structure, and of size suthcient to accommodate a large number of spectators. On the
south side of the square inclosure ?n, a double portico is indicated; and beyond is an inclosure
ti, corresponding to that for the Stadium, and adorned with rows of plane-trees with walks. In
fair weather, the athletae performed their exercises in uncovered walks or galleries, termed, by
the Greeks, Trapacpofiihs, or f txxra ; the Romans also applied Ihe term JCystum to an open
terrac? or gallery and Xystus to a covered one. The whole structure is represented as about a
stadium square: designated by the term yvfivd<riov ; sometimes yvuvaarfipiov.

It nay be remarked here, that although a part of the gymnasium was sometimes termed Ka\a(<TTpa. there were, at Athens,
palaestrae entirely distinct from the gymnasia ; but what was the essential distinction between them is not well understood ; there
appears not to have been much difference in the buildings. The Romans, who had no such structures or institutions until they bor-
rowed thean from the Greeks applied the terms gymnasium and palaestra indiscriminately.— It should also be remarked that oiher
plans, somev/hat different ff om the one above given from Bartlielemy't Anacharsis, have been constructed from the description of
Vitruvius ; that of W. Newton, to bis translation of Vitruvius (cf. P. V. § 490. 4), is given in Smith's Diet, of Autiq. p. 461, as being
the best.

See Barlhelemy's Anacharsis, vol. ii. ch. viii.— /"o^o-'j Archaeoi. Grsc. bt. viii. Boyd'i edition, p. 42 ; where is a plan of the
reoiains of Ihe gjqinasium at Ephesus.— Sticjittz, Archaologie der Baukunst. Weimar, \hOl, —Auiitius, De coustruetione Gymnasii,
in Fallen^e, vol. iii. as cited P. III. § 197. \.—KmvJe, Theagenes, as cited P. III. § 88. 2.

2. Althotigh the Stadium was commonly attached to a gymnasium, yet at Athens and
where, it was sometimes constructed entirely by itself. Both the length and the breadth varied ;
but the length was usually the Greek anxoiov, or about 600 feet (see table in Plate XXV a). In
shape it was an oblong area, terminated at one end by a straight line, at the other by a semi-
circle, having the breadth of the stadium for its base. After the conquest of Greece by the Ro-
mans, both ends of the stadium were sometimes made semicircular. Around this area, were
ranges of seats rising above one another in steps. Commonly the stadium was constrticted on
the side of a hill, the natural slope forming one side, and an artificial mound the other; the seats
were often formed of marble. The semicircular end was called acpevSovfi. Three square pillars
stood in the area : one at the starting place; one at the goal ; and the other halfway between
them; on the first was inscribed the word dpinTeve; on the second, ly-ivce; on the third or that
at the goal, Kapxpov. The stadium was originally designed for the foot-race ; but other games
were at length introduced. Among the most celebrated stadia, were the Pythian at Delphi,
the Olympic in the grove Altis at 01ympia,and the Panathenaic at Athens; of which, as of that
at Delphi, interesting remains still exist.

bee P. 1. 5 113. § 122 ; P. III. 5 79.— In Smith's Diet of Antiq. p. S95, is a plan of the Ephesiin Stadium, taken from Krause, ai
eited P. III. § 88. 2.— Cf. MilUer^s Archaeology.

§ 237. Porticos (tj-foat, porttcus) were very common and important works of
Greek and Roman architecture, and were constructed either alone by them-
selves, or in connection with other buildings, temples, theatres, baths, market-
places, and the like. They served at the same time for protection against the
sun and rain, for secure and convenient public promenades, for common places
of resort where friends might meet, and where philosophers, especially the
Peripatetics, imparted instruction. They consisted of columns or pillars, with
greater or less spaces between them {inter columnia), where statues were often
fixed, while the interior was decorated with paintings. They were not always
covered above, but were generally long and spacious. There was one at Rome
a thousand paces in length, and thence termed Porticus Milliaria. One of the
principal at Athens was that styled Pcccile.

On Ihe paintings in the Pfficile, cf. Harris, Miscellanies, vol. iv. p. 264. — See § 74.

§ 238. There were three forms of pillars (arrXat., otv'koi) in use among the
Greeks, commonly called the three orders of architecture ; the Doric, Ionic, and
Corinthian. The Doric exhibits the greatest simplicity and solidity ; the Ionic
has proportions more agreeable and beautiful ; the Corinthian is most highly
ornamented, and was less frequently employed in large and public buildings.
The Tuscan and Composite orders are not of Grecian origin; the former was, as
its name imports, from Etruria; the latter was of Roman invention.

1. Although a particular description of the distinguishing marks of the different orders
may belong more properly to the ilieory of architecture than to its archaeology, yet the
classical scholar should have some information on the subject. On this account the


Plate L. is inserted ; and the following remarks and explanations of terms are given.
They are necessarily brief; but it is hoped that they may serve to excite, in the minds
of such as may use this Manual, more interest than classical scholars of our country
have usually fell in cultivating the taste in reference to an art so noble and elevating.

The front of any edifice, claiming notice as a production of the architectural art, is called its
facade (fas-sade). This, when viewed perpendicularly, presents three pans, which are readily
distinguished; the columns, which usually first strike the eye of the observer, and which form
the middle part ; the pedesfa/, which forms the lower part, and supports the columns; and the
entablature, which is the upper part, and rests upon the columns. These three parts may be
noticed and discriminated in an instant by glancing at fig. 17, or tig. 18, in Plate LII. ; or at tig. 1,
or fii,'. 3, in Plate XX^ Two of these parts, the cnluvin and the entablature, are seen in the

figures/, 0-, h, i,j, and k, in Plate L. In some ancient edifices, constructed after the art begin

to decline" a portion of the pedestal directly under each column, and also a portion of the en-
tablature directly above it, were made more prominent than the remaining portions extending
between the columns ; thus forming an appearance which is exhibited in fig. I, of Plate L. ; in
which the proper column and those more prominent portions of the pedestal and entablature,
taken together, seem to form merely a coluinn or pillar; a peculiarity which in part has oc-
casioned, in modern times, the absurd mistake of making the squared prominence of the entabla-
ture a part of the column itself, and then placing another entablature above it.— Each of the
parts already named is subdivided again into three other parts. The pedestal, also called
the st'ihibate, is divided, as may be seen in fisi- I, into the plinth, p, at the very bottom ;
the die, d. in the middle; and the cornice, or surbase, co, at the top. The column consists,
as may be seen in fig. A:, of the base, b, resting on the cornice of the pedestal ; the shaft, s, the
middle and longest part : and the capital, c, the ornamented portion at the top. The entabla-
ture includes the architrave or epistylium, ar, the lower portion ; the frieze, F, in the middle ;
and the cornice, co, at the top. To the different parts above named various moldings may be
attached, which need not be described. — The pediment of a building is the triangular face above
the entablature ; formed by the cornice of the entablature and the projecting e.xtremities of the
two sloping sides that make up the roof (see Plate XXI. fig. 1); these projections are sometimes
called the cornice of the pediment, and the fiat triangular portion between them is called the tym-
panum ; it was termed by the Greeks deroiiia or dsro?, perhaps because the tympanum of the
earliest temples was adorned with the figure of an eagle, as being sacred to Jupiter. This part
of the edifice was often richly adorned with statues and bas-reliefs. The Latin tarm fastin-ium
was used to include the whole pediment, although also often limited to the ape.x or ridge.

The arcliitectural orders are discriminated by certain peculiarities in the column and the en-
tablature ; there are three respects in which these peculiarities may appear : 1. the proportions
of the column ; 2. the form of the capital ; 3. the ornaments of the entablature. — The Doric is
the earliest and most massive of the Grecian orders. Its proportions vary in different ancient
edifices ; in those at Athens, the height of the column is about siz times the width at the base,
which is always called the diameter ; in older buildings, as at Psslnm, the column is but four
or five diameters in height. Its capital is formed, as may be seen in fig. p, by a few annulets or
rings at the extremity of the shaft, a molding above them of the kind called echinus, and above
this a i^at portion called the abacus. The pure Doric column had no base, and had twenty su-
perficial flulings, as in fig. g; which is a specimen of the lime of Pericles, when it is thought to
have been in its greatest perfection ; as employed by the Romans it usually had a base, as it ap-
pears in fig. h, a specimen of the Roman Doric; in which the height is increased to eight dia-
meters, and the capital is more complicated. The entablature of the Doric, as may be noticed in
fig. ^, and in fig. h, presents an architrave, usually perfectly plain ; a frieze, marked by perpen-
dicular oblong prominences, called trig-lyphs, which are divided each into three parts by vertical
furrows and ornamented beneath hyguttcB or drops; with a cornice composed of a few large
moldings having on their under side a series of square sloping projections called mntules, which
resemble the ends of rafters and are also ornamented beneath by gutt(B. The spaces of the frieze
between the triglyphs were called metopes, and commonly contained sculptures in bas-relief.
The Elgin sculptures, representins; the Cnntaurs and Lapithse, were metopes of the Parthenon.

Tne I<iNic is a lighter order than the Doric in its proportions ; the column is usually eight or

nine diameters in height ; having a base called Mttic, con)posed of several moldings. Its capital
is instantly known by the spiral volutes on its opposite sides, as is seen in fig. i, and in fig. s;
on the shaft between these volutes are moldings which may vary with the pleasure of the artist ;
but above the volutes is always an abacus molded at the edges. The regular Ionic capital has
two pairs of parallel volutes; the Romans gave it a different form, in which it had four p;iirs
of diagonal volutes. The Ionic entablature presents an architrave plain or merely lined by a
molding horizontally attached as in fii;. i; a. frieze perfectly plain and unbroken ; a cornice com-
posed of various moldings, and usually marked by a row of small square ornaments somewhat

resembling teeth and called dintels. The Corinthian order is still lighter than the Ionic.

Its proportions allowed a column often ten diameters in height. The base of the column was
like the Ionic, but more complicated. Its capital presents the shape of an inverted bell ; and is
richly ornamented, as in fig. j, and fig. q, having around it two rows of acanthus leaves, and
above them eight pairs of small volutes, and upon these the abacus, which was marked by trun-
cated angles and by concave sides, each adorned with a flower in the center.— This capital, ac-
cording to Vitruviiis, had its origin in accident. By the tomb of a Corinthian virgin, an afl>fC-
tionate nurse had left a basket containing various articles precious in the estimation of the vir-
gin while alive ; on the basket was a tile to protect the contents ; an acanthus plant, on which
the basket chanced to rest, had pushed its shoots and foliage around the basket up to the tile, in
a beautiful manner, as in fig. w ; in this state it was seen by the sculptor Callimachus, an«l
suggested to him an idea of architectural ornament, to which he soon gave reality in the Corin-
thian capital. Notwithstanding this delightful little story, it is most probable that the capital in
question was a mere improvement upon some Egyptian model, such e. g. as is given in fig. c.
The entablainre of the Corinthian order resembles that of the Ionic, differing from it chiefly by
having more complicated moldines, and by ha^'ing on the cornice a row of^ projections which
correspond to the Doric mutules, but are ornamented each with a volute or a leaf, and are called
viodillions. The Tuscan order was quite similar to the Doric ; it is given in fig. /. Its pro-
portions are lighter, as the column was seven diameters in height. The column has a base

PLATE L 1 1.

! I. Great Pvraiiiirl.
: 2. Spire of IMechlin.

3. Rt Peter's.

4. St. Paul's.
Straslnira-h Cathedral.

6. Hotel de Villa, Brussels. 12. Trajan's Column.


7. Salisbury Spire. 13. Nelson's Column.

8. Notre Dame. Paris. 14. Obelisk, front of St. Peter's.

9. Pag-odaby Sir W. Chambers. 15. Cleopatra's Needle.

10. Wellington's Testimonial. 16. Leaning Tower at Pisa.

1 1. Monument. London. 17. Temple of the Giants. Agri-

18. Pa.nhr,

[gen turn.



which is very simple. Its capital is generally as simple as the Doric. Its entablature is eome-
what like the Ionic, but more plain. This order is the one most entirely stripped of ornament.
The Composite order is exhibited in fig. A-, formed out of the Corinthian by merely com-
bining together the Corintiiian capital and the Roman Ionic capital with diagonal volutes. The
frieze" has a convex surface instead of a plane one.

In reference to the columns in all the orders, it may be remarked, that they are fluted or not
according to the choice of the builder. Sections of fluted or reeded columns are seen in fig. w,

X, and n, of Plate L. Pilasters are a sort of square column attached to the wall of a building,

and projecting from it sometimes only a sixth of their diameter, and sometimes as much as a
third. They are often constructed with the peculiar ornaments of the several orders, although
this was not originally the practice.

2. The best specimens of the Doric order are found in the Parthenon^, the Propylsea,
and the Temple of Theseus'-^, at Athens ; of the Ionic, in the edifice called Erectheum, at
Athens (of F. I. § 107), consisting of two, and according to some of three temples; of
the Corinthian, in the choragic monument of Lysicrates, the small but elegant struc-
ture, at Athens, sometimes called the Lamp of Demosthenes^. — Of the Tuscan there
are no remains (cf % 241). The best example of the Composite is presented in the Arch
of Titus (cf. % 188. 2). The Corinthian appears to have been the tavoriie order with the
Romans. — The monumental columns of Trajan' and Antonine, already mentioned on
account of their sculptured ornaments (cf § 188), are Doric. — The column at Alexan-
dria, celebrated as Pompey's Pillar, is represented as having "a fine shaft surmounted
by a Corinthian capital^ e.xecuted in the worst manner." The ruins of Psestum^ pre-
sent very interesting remains of Doric architecture.

1 For a view of the Partlienon, see Plate XXI. fig. 1. Cf. Plate LII. fig. IS. 'i See Plate XXI. fig. 3. 3 The Monument of

Lysicrates is given in Plale XLIX. fig. A. Cf. P. I. § 115. ■» A view of Trajan's Column is given in Plate LII. fig. 12. 5 For

a view of Ponipey's Pillar, see Plate 3d of the Atlas accompanying Denari's Travels in Egypt. &c. Lond. 1804. 2 vols. 4. Cf. vol. u
p. 17. 8 Delagardette, as cited § 243. 1.

For a brief account of Ihe five orders, see Bigelow's'Techao]ogy. Tost. 1829. 8. containing views of several Greek and Roman

edifices, reduced to the same scale ; also, Amtricaii Family Magazine, 1837, vol. v. p. 63, 140, &c. For explanation of terms,

illustrated by plates, Stuart^s Dictionary of Architecture. Lond. 1830. 3 vols. 8.— Cf. § 243. 4. Oa the state of Architecture in

our country, cf. N. Amer. Rev. Apr. 1841.

3. Our Plate L. is enriched by cuts of a great variety of columns ; those belonging to the re-
gular orders have been sufiiciently explained ; the specimens of Saracenic, Gothic, and Chinese,
will be mentioned below ($ 245) ; the Egyptian, Persepolitan, and Hindoo, we will notice here.
In fig. d. we have a very singular column, from the famous Cave at ElephaiUa, near Bombay, a
remarkable subterranean structure, excavated by the ajicient Hindoos out of the solid rocki. In
fig. e, a column from the ruins of Persepolisi is represented ; the capital is very peculiar, seeming

to combine several in one, atid being, it is said, beautiful in apjtearance. The cnlumvs uf

Kaypiian buildings vary greatly in their proportions and style. Nothing like any regular distinc-
tion of orders any where appears. Tlie relative height is usually below that of the common
lioric, being in general not more than four and a half diameterss. In appearance the columns
sometimes resemble the plain trunk of a tree; sometimes bundles of reeds or of the plant pa-
pyrus, bound together at difterent distances, as in fig. c. The capitals present, it is said, nearly
ail the flowers peculiar to the country, the capsules, petals, pistils, and most minute parts being
exhibited. In fig. c, is shown a capital, which resembles those found in the temple of Her-
inontis, and in the temple of Apollinopolis at Edfow, bearing parts of the lotus flower. Elegant
capitals were formed by combining the branches, leaves, and fruit of the palm tree ; by weaving
together the stems, leaves, buds, and flowers of the lotus ; and by intermingling these or other
fl'iwers and plants with the vine and the papyrus. "On beholding," says Denon, "so many
varieties of form, and such richness in the ornaments, united with so much grace in the contour,
one is astonished that the invention of architecture should have been ascribed to the Greeks on
their own testimony, and that the three orders should have been considered the only truths of
that art." The head of the goddess Isis was sometimes wrought into the capitals, adorned with
the various symbols of her imaginary attributes, as in fig. b, which is a specimen from the cele-
brated temple of Denderah.

« Ou the Ca\e of Elephania, see Goldingham, Memoir in the .isiat. Researches, vol. iv.— On Hindoo architecture, Langhs, cited

§ 213. 3. 2 See Palace of Persepclis, &c. cited ^ 243. 3.— Consult references P. I. ^ 153. 3 See Denon, as cited above, Plates

xxix. xxxiv. xliv. xlv. xlvi. Cf. references § 231. I.

§ 239. Various ornaments, exterior and interior, were used in ancient archi-
tecture. In the best periods of the art they were introduced with propriety,
taste, and in moderate number ; but in later times too abundantly, and so as to
destroy both beauty and convenience. Among the exterior ornaiTients, for ex-
ample, were the following: statues upon the ends of the buildings; bas-reliefs
on the architrave ; imitations of human forms combined with the pillars, like the
Caryatides^ znA Atlantes ; with various embellishments in the capital and en-
tablature, and about the doors, vaults, and other openings. In the interior, the
ceiling and walls were ornamented with stucco-work, gilding, painting, and
mosaic^. The ordinary decoration of an apartment consisted in coloring the
walls and attaching to them small pictures of diversified character. Ceilings
adorned with fretwork were called by the Greeks (jjarrw^uara ; by the Romans,
icda laqueata or lacunaria.

» The pillars termed Caryatides are seen in the Plale given p. 30 ; representing the ruins of the temple of Minerva Pandrosos, or
tlie Pandroseum, connected with the Erectheum. Cf. P. I. § 107. A neat view of the whole structure, restored, is given in Boyd*
Potter. s See 55 219*, 189, and references there given.


See notices of ornanrenh in the buHdiDgs at Pomperi, in Pompeii, (cited § 228), p. 449, 156, 163, 166, &c— i. rulluimy, Exam-
ples of Ornamenial Sculpture in Architecture, drawn from the originals in Greece, Ac. engraved by A. Moats. Lond. 1628. lol. forty

Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 88 of 153)