Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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plates.— C. H. Tatham, Grecian and Roman Ornaments. Lond. 1825. fol. ninety-six plates.

§240. The most celebrated Greek architects^ were the following: Dsedalus^
to whom are attributed many of the most ancient and extensive structures of
Greece, with much exaggeration and mere fable however (cf. § 174); Ctesiphnn
or Chcrsiphron, celebrated as builder of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus; CciUi-
machus (not the poet), who was also a sculptor, and said to be the inventor of
the Corinthian Order; Dinucrates, who lived in the time of Alexander, and was
employed by him in building Alexandria in Egypt; Snsiratus, -d favorite of
Ptolemy Philadelphus, who erected the celebrated tower of Pharos; Epimac/ius,
an Athenian, known by a stupendous war-tower^ constructed by him for Deme-
trius Poliorcetes in the siege of Rhodes.

» Franc. Milizia, Memoire degli Architetii antichi e moderni. Farm. 1781. 2 vols. 8. A catalogue of Greek and Roman archi-
tects may be found in Junius, de Pictura Veterum, as cited § 226. 2. Cf. Sillig, as there cited.— Also in SluarVa Dictionary, as cited
5 238. 2, Appendix No. 1, with a notice of their works, and the time when they flourished. a See P. ill. § 147. 3.

§ 241. In Italy, almost as early as in Greece, architecture was cultivated,
especially in Etruria. The Tuscan order is among the proofs of this. In the
early times of Rome, also, many temples and other buildings were erected there
by native art. But their architecture was greatly improved afterwards, when
the Romans imitated Grecian models, and many Greek architects of celebrity
resided in Rome. As the power, refinement, and luxury of Rome advanced,
splendid architectural works were multiplied, and thus arose in rapid succes-
sion temples, amphitheatres, markets, baths, bridges, aqueducts, palaces, ma-
nors, &c. These buildings were magnificent not only from their architecture,
but in their various embeflishments, for which the other arts, especially sculp-
ture and painting, were brought into requisition. The most distinguished
Roman architects' were chiefly Greeks by births, or scholars and imitators of
Grecian masters ; the following may be named ; Cossutius, Hermodorus, Vi-
truvius, Rabirius, Frontinus.

1. Time has not spared a sin<:le edifice of the Etruscans ; the Tuscan order is therefore known
only from the description of Vitriivius. Yet some sepulchres e.xisl in Italy whose architeciure
agrees with the character ascribed to the Tuscan buildings.

MUller, Die Etnisken. Cf. \\ 109, 173— Micah', as cited § 231. 3.

2. Among the peculiar decorations of Roman edifices we may notice those termed antefxa, of
terra coita, e.xhibiting various ornamental designs and used for covering the frieze of the en-
tablature. The name seems to be derived from their being fixed before the building; being
fastened by nails, since in some cases thev have been found attached to the frieze by leaden
nails, and "in other cases found, as at Velle'tri, with holes for the nails. These ornaments were
formed in molds and then baked in fire. The devices on them appear in bas-relief; showing a
great variety and great beauty of workmanship ; often painted with different colors. They are
supposed to have been derived from the Tuscans. A collection of these terra cotias belongs to
the British Museum.

See T. Comie, Terra Cottas of the British Museum. Lond. ISIO. to\.— Smith's Diet, of Aniiq. p. 51.

§ 241 a. "According to the account given by Vitruvius, the ptiblic buildings of the
Romans in the regal and consular times were rude enough, exhibiting a state of the
science as already described among the early nations of the East — vertical supports of
stone, with wooden bearers. This continued to be their style of design and practice, till
extending empire brought the Romans acquainted with the arts of the Dorian settle-
ments on the eastern and southern shores of Italy. Down to tlie conquest ot Asia and
the termination of the republic, Rome continued a ' city of wood and brick.' Only
with the establishment of the empire and the reign of Augustus, with the wealth of the
world at command, and the skill of Greece to direct the application, commences the
valuable history of architecture among the Romans.— Of all the fine arts, poetry not
excepted, architecture is the only one into which the Roman mind entered with the real
enthusiasm of natural and national feeUng. Success corresponded with the exalted sen-
timent whence it arose ; here have been left, for the admiration of future ages, the most
magnificent proofs of original genius. This originality, however, depends not upon in-
vention so much as upon application of modes. To the architectonic system, indeed,
the Romans claim to have added two novel elements in their own Doric, or Tuscan, and
Composite orders. But in the restless spirit of innovation which these betray, the al-
leged invention discovers a total want of the true feeling and understanding oi the



science



of Grecian design. As far as concerns the invention of forms, and the just conception
of the elemental modes of Greece, the Romans failed. Their architecture was imper-
feet, both as a system of symmetry, and as a science founded upon truth and taste.

" But when their labors are viewed as regards the practice of the art, their merits are
Dresented under a far different aspect. Whether the magnitude, the utility, the varied



428 ARCH.EOLOGY OF ART.

combinations, or the novel and important evidences of their knowledge, be considered,
the Romans, in their practical works, are yet unrivalled. '1 hey here created their own
models, while they have remained examples to their successors. Though not the in-
ventors ot the arch, they, ol' all the nations of antiquity, first discovered and boldly applied
its powers ; nor is there one dignified principle in its use which they have not elicited.
Rivers are spanned, the sea itself, as at Ancona, is thus inclosed within the cincture of
masonry; nay, streams were heaved into air, and, borne aloft through entire provinces,
poured into the capital' their floods of freshness and health. The telt-balanctd dome,
expending a marble lirmament over head, the proudest boast of modern skill, has yet
its prototype and its superior in the Pantheon^. — The same stupendous and enduring
character pervaded all the efforts of Roman art, even in those instances where more an-
cient principles only were brought into action. Where tlie Greeks were forced to call
the operations of nature in aid ot the weakness of art, availing themselves of some hol-
low mountain side for the erection of places of public resort, the imperial masters of
Rome caused such mountains to be reared of masonry, within their capital, for the The-
atre, Amphitlieaire, and Circus^. Palaces^ — Temples — Baihs — Porticos — Arches of
Triumph — Commemorative Pillars — Basilica, or IJalls of Justice — Fora, or Squares —
Bridges — without mentioning the astonishing highways, extending to the extremities of
the empire — all were constructed^ on the same grand and magnificent plan." Mem.es,
p. 270,

Here migtit be mentioned Ihe cloacse or sewers of Rome, and the emtssana or channels constructed for the purpose of drainins;
lakes and large collections of stagnant waler in the counlrj-.— The mouth where the Cloaca Maxima reaches the Tiber slill remains.
Cf P. I. § 6S. — Remains slill exist showing that several lakes, as Thrasymenes, Albaaus, Fucinus, were thus drained. The emissa-
rium conveying Ihe waters of lake Fucinus lo Ihe river Llris has been partially clesred in modern limes. Its length was above
three miles. For more than a mile a tunnel was carried through a niounlain of which Ihe highest peak is a thousand feet above the
level of the lake. This slupendons work, conceived, it is said, by Julius Caesar, was carried into effect by Ciaudius. Compare Sue-
tonius, Jul. 44 ; Claitd. 20 ; Taciluj, Ann. xii. 57 ; Pliny, H, N. xxxvi. 34 ; Dion Cassius, Ix. \].— Smith's Diet, of Anliq.

» Cf. P. I. § 6i. 2 Cf, P. I, § 59. 3 Ou Ihe structures here mentioned, cf. P. HI. §5 232, 23S, 239. 4 On the structures

named in this seulence. cf. P. I. §§ 52-70. 5 See Ant. Mcmgez, Sur les travaux publiquts des Romains, in Mem. de Vln-ititut,

Classe rfe Lit. et Beaux A' ts. vol. i. p. 492.— Cf. on the grandeur of Grecian works, Chateaubriand (cited § 233), p 146.— Ou
Rjman Architecture, see also ScliolL Hist. I.ilt. Rom. vol. ii. p. 191.

$ 241 b. The edifices designed for public baths, although difTering in magnitude and splendor and
in the details of arrangement, were all constructed on the some coniiiion plan. " They stood
among extensive gardens and walks, and often were surrounded bj' a portico. The main biiild-
ii.g contained spacious halls for swimming and bathing; others for'conversation ; others for va-
rious athletic exercises: others for the declamalion of poets, and Ihe lectures of pliilosopliers;
in a word, for every species of polite and manly amusement." Those erected by the emperors
especially had these appendages, and were of a great magnificence. "Architecture, sculpture,
and painting, exhausted their refinements on these establishments, which fur their extent were
compared lo cities ; incrustations, metals, and marble, were all employed in adori;itig them.
'I'he baths of Caracalla were ornamented with two hundred pillars, and furnished wiih sixteen
hundred seats of marble: three thousand persons could be seated on them at one time. Those
of Diocletian surpassed all the others in size and sumpluousness of decoration ; and were, be-
sides, enriched vvitli the precious collection of the Ulpian library. We can entertain some idea
of the extent of this edifice, when we are told that one of its halls forms at present the church
of the Carthusians, which is among the largest and at the same time most magiiificeiit temples
of Rome. Here we are furnished with one of the many monuments of the triumphs of Chris-
tianity, in despite of the most persevering and cruel persecutions of the then sovereigns of the
world. On this very spot, where the organ and the choral strain of devotion are now daily
heard, Diocletian is said to have employed in the construction of his baths forty thousand Chris-
tian soldiers, whoin, after degrading with all the insignia of ignominy, he caused to be massa-
cred when the edifice was compleied —It may be added that the private baths, at some of the
villas of the rich, vied in splendor with the" public therma. Accordins; to Seneca, the walls
were of Alexandrian marble, the veins of which were so disposed as to resemble a regular pic-
ture; the basins were set round with a most valuable kind of stone imported from the Grecian
islands ; the water was conveyed through silver pipes, and fell by several descents in beautiful
cascades; the floors were inlaid with precious gems; and an intermixture of statues and co-
lonnades contributed to throw an air of elegance and grandeur over the whole." (Bell on Eaths
Philad. 1S31. 12)

The following description is drawn principally from the public baths discovered at Pompeii.
It will apply substantially to the Greek baths (P. 111.$ 170) as well as the Roman.— "The build-
ing, which contained them, was oblong, and had two divisions; the one for males, and the oiher
for females. In both, warm or cold baths could be taken. The warm baths, in both divisions,
were adjacent to each other, for the sake of being easily heated. In the midst of the biiildii!g,on
the ground-floor, was the heatiii?-room. Iij/pocavstum, by which not only Ihe water for bathing,
but sometimes also the floors of the adjacent rooms, were waimed. Above the heatiitg-room
was an apartinent in which three copper kettles were walled in, one above another, so that the
lowest (ruldarihiit) was immediately over the fire, the second (tepidarium) over the first, and the
X\\'\rdX.fngidariuiu) oxtix the second. In this way, either boiling, lukewarm, or cold water could
he obtained. A constant communication was maintained between these vessels, so that as fast
^as hot water was drawn off from the caldarium, the void was supplied from the tepidarium,
which, being already considerably heated, did but slightly reduce the temperature of the hotter
boiler. 'I'he tepidarium, in its turn, was supplied from the piscina or frigidariutn, and that from
the aqueduct ; so that the heat, which was not taken up by the first boiler, passed on to the se-
cond, and instead of being wasted, did its office in preparing the contents of the second for the
higher temperature which it was to obtain in the first. The coppers and reservoir were elevated
considerably above the btiths, to cause the water to flow more rapidly into them. The terms
frigidarium, tepidarium, and caldarium, are applied lo the apartments in which the cold, tepid.



p. IV. ARCHITECTURE. ROMAN EDIFICES. BATHS. 429

and hot baths are placed, as well as to those vessels in which the operation of heating the water
is carried on.

The bathins-rooms had, in the floor, a basin of masnn-work, in which there were sents, and
round it a sallery, where the bathers remained before they descended into tiie bath, and where
all the attendants were. In the division of the Ponipeian baths supposed to belonp to the men,
the principal public entrance led directly into the vestibule, a sort of court, along three sides of
which there ran a portico or walk (ambulacrum). Seats were ranged round the walls, perhaps
for the slaves, who accompanied their masters to the bath. In this place was the box for the
quadrans (fourth of an as, less than a farthing), the piece of money given as a fee for bathing by
each visiter. A corridor or small passage, in which were fjund above 500 lamps, conducted from
the court into the room for undressing, apodyterium. This room had three seats, made of lava,
with a step to place the feet on. The room was stuccoed from the cornice to the ground, highly
finished, and colored yellow. In the vaulted roof was a window with a single lar^e pane of slass
(cf P. III. $ 325). Various ornaments were carved in the cornice.— The floor was |)aved with
white marble in mosaic. Several doors communicated with the room. One of these led to the
cold bAih, frirridarium. This was a round chamber, encrusted with yellow stucco, having its
ceiling in the form of a truncated cone, apparently once painted blue. It was lighted by a win-
dow near the lop. In it were four niches, equidistant from each other, with seats, schulce, in
them for the bathers. There was also a basin, nearly 13 feet in diameter and 2 feet 9 inches
deep, entirely lined with white marble, with two marble steps to aid the descent into it, and a
sort of cushion, p!</rini/s, also of marble, at the bottom, for the balhv^rs to sit upon. AnfUher
door of the undressing-room opened into a passage leading to the tepidarium, or warm chamber,
so called from its warm but soft and mild temperature, which prepared the body of the bather
for the more intense heat of the vapor and hot baths, and also softened the transition from the
hot hath to the external air. This room was divided into a number of niches or compartments,
was lighted by a window with a bronze frame of four panes of glass, and had many ornaments
in stucco. A door-way led from it into the caldarium or sudatorium. This apartn'ient e.xacily
corresponded to the directions laid down by Vitruvius, for constructing the vapor-bath. It's
length was twice as great as its breadih, exclusive of the laconicum at one end, and the lavi.crvm
at the other. It was stuccoed like the oth^r rooms, painted yellow, and decorated with various
ornaments. The floor and walls of the sudatorium were made hollow, tiiat the heated air might
pass freely around: the design was to furnish a sudatory of dry air ; "it corresponds precisely
with a hot stove room of the present day, except that the stove proper was beiieaih and outside
the sudatorium." The laronicum was a large semicircular niche, seven feet wide and three feet
six inches deep, in the middle of which was placed a vase for washing the hands and face, called
labrum ; this was a large basin of white marble, elevated three feet six inches above the pave-
ment and about five feet in diameter, into which the hot water bubbled up through a pipe in the
centre : an inscription on this labrum states that it cost 750 sesterces. There is in the Vatican a
magnificent porphyry labrum, found in one of the imperial baths at Rome. The larucrum, or hot-
bath, at the other end of the room, was twelve feet long, four feet four inches wide, and one fool
four inches deep; entirely of marble, into which the hot water was conveyed by a pipe; it was
elevateil two steps above the floor ; the descent into it was by a single step, which formed a con-
tinuous bench around it for the convenience of the bathers.

" Besides the rooms thus described, there was also a room called the uvctvarium or elccothesium ;
in which the bathers anointed their bodies with oil before taking their exercise, or with perfumes
after bathing. This room was usually stored with pots containing numerous varieties of ungu-
ents appropriated to different parts of the body (P. 111. $ 170). There was likewise another room,
in which various exercises were performed before taking the bath; this room was sometimes
called cphebefiv), more frequently sphcsristerium. because the favorite exercise was the ball. The
conisterium was an apartment where was kept the powder which was sprinkled over the body
after the exercises just mentioned. In the more splendid imperial baths there were various other
rooms and halls."

For fuller details, with notices of some of the imperial baths, see Pompdi, p. 153 — Cf. .'^mith, Diet, of Antiq p 133. — Lucian,
la his 'IiTTta; or Ba^avtiov, eives a full descrif tion of the ThenriE erected by the architect Hippias (cf. P. V. § 121) — The most
copious work on the Roman baths and their remains, is that of Cameron, entitled The Baths of the Romans, explained and illu>trated.
Lond. 1772. fol. with the illustrations of Palladio, srventy-five plates.— Cf. Les Thermes des Romaiijs, deisinees par An d re Pal-
lad io, &c Viceoza, 1785. fol— See also G. A. Blcuet, Restauration des Thermes d'Aut. Caracalla. Par. IS2?. fol. fine plates. —
Wichdhavsen, (Baths of the Anrienls). Mannh. Ig07.— /. B. Piranesi, vol. 2d, a« cited § 243. 2.— There is a notice of baths dis-
covered at Wroxetcr (ancient Uriconium), England, in the Archxologia (cited 5 32. 5), vol. ix. p. 323, and of similar remains at
Stoke, in vol. xxii. p. 26, with a plan — Carlelti, Terme di Tito. Rom. 1761, fol.

§ 242. The strength and solidity of Greek and Roman edifices were such as
to have easily preserved them to distant ages, had it not been for earthquakes,
conflagrations, and the desolations of war. The remains of ancient architecture
yet standing are highly interesting; especially those in Greece and Italy.

1 u. Only some of the principal can here be named. — Magnificent ruins of cities
remain on the sites of Palmyra, Heliopoiis, Persepolis (cf P. I. S>§ 153, 166). In
Egypt, monuments of earlier and later architecture are presented in pyramids, obelisks,
and temples. — At Athens we see still the ruins of the celebrated temple of I\Iinerva,
and traces of other beautiful temples at JEg'ma, Eleusis, Corinth, Thessalonica, Ephe-
sus, Priene, Antioch, &c. ; ruins of theatres are found at Athens, Smyrna, IMylasa,
Hierapolis ; of palaces and royal mansions, at Alabanda, Ephesus, JMagnesia. — Still
more numerous and in better preservation are the remains of Roman architecture ; e. g.
at Rome, the Pantheon, the temple of Vesta, several porticos, the Coliseum or Amphi-
theatre of Vespasian, ruins of the theatres of Pompey and Marcellus, and of splendid
aqueducts, the baths of the Emperors, the pillars and triumphal arches already named
(§ 188), gates, bridges, tombs, mausolea, &.c. (cf P. I. § 52 ss. § 105 ss.).

2. France exhibits some monuments of Roman architecture, particularly at ]S'isme3



430



ARCHAEOLOGY OF ART.



(cf. p. I. § 17). Some remains also, principally of military structures, have been found
in England.

§ 243 u. Besides the numerous accounts of these vnrious remains given by modern
travelers, there are works prepared expressly to make them known, with engravings
and explanations ; such are the following.

I. Remains in G r e e c e, or of Grecian architecture. — Le Roy (or Leroi), Les Ruines des plus beaux monumens de la Grece. 1758.
2d ed. 1770. 2 vols. fol. The first picturesque tour of Greece; the drawings not always accurate.— 72oie/( Sayer, Ruins of Athens.
Lond. 1759. fol —Sluart and Revett, The Antiquities of Athens. Lond. 1762-1S16. 4 vols, fol.— The same, edited by fV. Kinnard,
with many valuable additions. 1825-30. 4 vols. fol. two hundred plates. — /. Stuart, Antiquities of Athens, and other Monuments
of Greece. Lond. iSS?. 2 vols. 12. with seventy plates.— CAa7idier, Revett, and Pars, Ionian Antiquities. Lond. 1769-97. 2 vols.
fol. — The same, 1817. 2 vols. imp. fol. with fine plates — CAoisewZ-Gouffier, Voyage piltoresque de la Grece. Par 17^2 fol. — P. 0.
Broiiisted, Voyages dans la Grece, accompagnes de Recherches Arch^ologiques. Par. IS26. — IVilkins, Atheoiensia, or Remarks on
the Topography and Buildings of Athens. 1816. 8. — The unedited Antiquities of Attica. By the Society of Dilettanti, and edited
by Wilkins, Deering, and Bedford. 1817. imp. fol. seventy-nine plates. — By the same, Dilettanti Society, The Antiquities of Ionia.
Lond. 1817-21. 2 vols. fol. — J. S. Stanhope, Olympia, or Topography illustrative of the ancient state of the plain of Olynipia. 1824.
imp. fol. with fine plates.— B. C. Cncherell, Grand Restoration of Athens, its Temples, Sculpture, &c. Engraved by J. Coney. 1829.
large fol.— By the same. Elucidation of the Temple of .Sgina — F. Gartner, Architectural Monuments of Greece and Sicily. Mun-
Bter, IS19. fol. ; in German, with lithographic plates.— Sir W. Gell, Itinerary of Greece. Lond. 1810. 4. with twenty-seven
engravings.- W'm. Wilhins, The Antiquities of Magna Grsecia. Cambridge, 1807. fol.— T. Major, Ruins of P^stum. Lond. 1768.
fol.— DfZagaidcde, Les Ruines de P^tum, ou Posidonia. Par. 1799. fol — / Hittorfs Architecture Antique de la Sicile. Par. 1825-
30 6 livraisons, with plates. — /. G. Legrand, Monumens de la Grece, ou Collection des Chefsd'oeuvres d'Architecture, de Sculpture,
et de Peinture antiques, &c. Par. (first volume published) 1808. fol. In Kru^e's Hellas is a notice of works on this subject.

In a Memoir prefixed to Chateauhriandh Travels in Greece (cited § 233) is found a brief notice of the state of Athens and her
monuments since the Christian era, and of the travelers who have visited and described the remains of Greece. He closes with the
following remark : " It is a melancholy reflection, that the civilized nations of Europe have done more injury to the monuments of
Athens in the space of one hundred and fifty years than all the barbarians together for a long series of ages ; it is cruel to think that
Alaric and Mahomet II. respected the Parthenon, and that it was demolished by Morosini and Lord Elgin.'' — Several travelers must
be added to Chateaubriand's list.— An incomplete notice of modern travelers in Greece is also given in the anonymous work entitled
History of Modern Greece, with a view of the Geography, Antiquities, and present condition, (from ihe Engl, edit.) Bost. 1827. 8.
— Some notices of travelers in Greece, in Lond. Quart. Rev. No. 127, June 1839, p. 64.

2 Remains in Italy.— G. f'asi, Magnificenze di Roma Antica e Moderna. Rom. 1747. 3 vols. 4. two hundred views, with
descriptions.— ProjiJt (incisore), Nuova Raccolta di cente Vedutine Antiche della citta di Roma, &c. Rom. 1795. 4. containing one
hundred views.— Giamb, Piranesi, Le antichita Romane. Rom. 1756. 4 vols. fol. — R. Venuti, Descrizione topografica ed istorica
di Roma antica e moderna. Rom. 1763-66. 2 vols. i.—Barhault, Le plus beaux monumens de Rome ancienne. Rom. 1761. fol. —
B.d'Ovabehe, Les Restes de I'Ancienne Rome. Amst. 17C9. 3 vols, fol.— iJ. rmttft, Veteris Latii antiquitatum amplissima col-
lectio. Rom. 1769-80. 7 vols. M.—AiU. Desscdetz, Les edifices antiques de Rome dessines, &c. Far. 1682. it. 1697. it. 177). it. fol.
Engl, tnnsl. by G. Marshall, 1771. 2 vols, fol.— fr. Piranesi, Raccolta de' tempi antichi. Rom. 17S0. fol.— The complete works of
Giov. B. (John Baptist) Piranesi, published after his death by his son Francis Piranesi, in 29 vols. fol. containing nearly two thou-



Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 89 of 153)