Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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are the Ludu^ Magnus, Satutinus, Dacicus, and ^milius. There were also several
structures for exhibiting naval engagements, cdMcA NauinacldcB ; as Naumachia Au-
gusli, Domiliani. (Cf. P. III. ^^233.)

Finally, there were large edifices sacred to the nymphs, and called Nymjphcea; one
particularly noted, which contained artificial fountains and water-falls, and was adorned
with numerous statues of these imaginary beings. Cf P. II. § 101.

§ 6C->. The Porticos or Piazzas (porlicus) were very numerous. These were covered
rolonnades, adorned with statues, and designed as places for meeting and walking for
pleasure. They were sometimes separate structures ; sometimes connected with other
large buildings, such as basilicae, theatres, and the like. The most splendid was that
of Apollo's temple, on Mount Palatine ; and the largest, the one called Milliaria or
Milliarensis (i.e. of the 1000 columns). Courts were sometimes held in porticos;
and goods also of some kinds were exposed for sale in them. Cf. P. IV. ^ 237.

The city was adorned with Triumphal arches {arcus triumphales), to the number of
36, having statues and various ornaments in bas-relief (P. IV. § 188). Some of them
were very magnificent ; as e. g. those of Nero, Titus, Trajan, Septimius Severus,
and Constantino. These were of the finest marble, and of a square figure, with a
large arched gate in the middle, and a small one at the sides.

^ 67. There were single pillars or columns, column<B, also erected to commemorate
particular victories, e. g. those of Duillius, Trajan, and Antoninus. Ruins of the
first, as has been supposed, were discovered in 1560 (cf P. IV. % 133. 1). The last
two are still standing, and are reckoned among the most precious remains of anti
quity (cf P. IV. ^ 188. 2). — With great labor, obeHsks were removed from Egypt,
of which those still existing, having been conveyed there by Augustus, Cahgula, and
Constant ius the second, are the most remarkable.

Innumerable also were the statues, which were found not only in the temples, but
also in many public places, in and upon large edifices. More than eighty of a colossal
size are mentioned.

There were likewise erected at Rome a few trophies, tropcBa. These were trunks
of marlile, sometimes of wood, on which weie hung the spoils taken from the enemy,
especially the weapons of war. There are two trunks of marble decorated like tro-
phies still remaining at Rome, and supposed to have been erected by Marius for his
victories over Jugurtha, and over the Cimbri.

§ 68. Among the memorable things of Rome, the Aqueducts, aqucp.ductus, should
be mentioned. Their design was to furnish the city with a constant supply of water,
and great expense was laid out in constructing and adorning them. There were 14 of
the larger sort, besides others of less importance ; the Aqua Appia, Marcia, Virgo,
Claudia, Sepfimia, and Alsielina, are the most known. The smaller reservoirs Qacus)
were commonly ornamented with statues and carver's work.

Snnte of the aqueducts broujiht water more than 60 miles, through rocks arid mountains,
and over valleys, supported on arches, sometimes above 100 feet high. The care of these origi-
nally belonced to the tediles ; under the emperors, particular officers were appointed for it, called
curatnres aquarum.

R. Falirelli.lle Aquaeductibus veteris Roirae. Rom. 16S0. 4.—/. Randeht, Frencli Translation of Frontinus on the jlqueducts of
Rome. Cf. P. V. § 491 — F. B. Tower, The Croton Aqueduct ; with an Account of similar Works Ancient and Modem. N. Y. 1S43.

The Cloacae were also works of great cost and of very durable structure. They were a sort of
sewers or drains, some of them very large, passing under the whole city, and discharging its
various impurities into the Tiber. Many private houses stood directly upon the cloacae. These
were under the charge of officers styled curatores cloacarum. The principal was the Cloaca
Maxima, built by Tarquinius Priscus, cleansed and repaired by M. Agrippa; it was 16 feet broad
and 30 feet high, formed of blocks of hewn stone. The Pantheon ($ 59) was over it.

See Sluart's Did. of Architecture, cited P. IV. ^ S38. 3 NiebuhrU Hist, of Rome, F.Dg. Transl. Phil. 1835. vol. i. p. 299.

% 69. Splendid tombs and monuments to the dead were sometimes erected (cf. P. III.



§ 341). We may name here particularly the Mausoleum of Augustus, of a pyramiclical
form, 385 feet high, with two obelisks standing near it; the Moles Hadriani ; and the
Tomb or Pyramid of Cestius (cf P. IV. § 226, P. III. § 187. 4).

^ 70. The number of private buildings amounted, in the reign of Theodosius, to
48,382, including the domus and the insulcB ; the former of which classes comprised,
according to Gibbon, the " great houses," and the latter the "plebeian habitations" (cf.
P. III. §325). Among these buildings were some of great splendor, partly of marble,
and adorned with statues and colonnades.

1. The more celebrated were the palaces of Julius C^sar, Mamurra, Junius Verus, Cicero, and Augustus, the golden house of Nero,
the palace of Licinius Crassus, Aquilius, Catulus, ^niilius Scaurus, Trajan, Hadrian, &c.— " The Imperial palace (Palatiiim) was
the most distinguished. It was built by Augustus upon the Palatine hill, and gave name to the tenth region of the city. The front
was on the Via Sacra, and before it were planted oaks. Within the palace lay the temple of Vesta, and also that of Apollo, which
Augustus endeavored to make the chief temple in Rome. The succeeding emperors extended and beautified this palace. Nero "jurnt
it, but rebuilt it of such extent that it not only embraced all the Palatine hill, but also the plain between that and the Coeiian and
Esquiline, and even a part of these hills, in its limits. He ornamented it so richly with precious stones, gold, silver, statues, paint-
ings, and treasures of every description, that it received the tame of domus aurea. The following emperors stripped it of its orna-
menlB ; Vespasian and Titus caused some parts of it to be pulled down. Domitian afterwards destroyed the main building. In the
reign of Commodus, a great part of it was burnt ; but it was restored by him and his successors. In the time of Theodoric it needed
still further repairs ; but this huge edifice subsequently became a ruin, and on its site now stand the Farnese palace and gardens, and
the Villa Spada."

2. Before the conflagration of the city under Nero, the streets were narrow and irregular, and the private houses were incom-
modious, and some even dangerous from their imperfect architecture and the height of three lofty stories. In the time of Nero,
more than two-thirds of the city was burnt Of the fourteen districts, only four remained entire. The city was rebuilt with more
regularity, with streets broader and less crooked (cf. Tac Ann. xv. 43) ; the areas for houses were measured out, and the height
restricted to seventy feet.

$ 71. The suburbs of ancient Rome were so extensive that its neighborhood was almost one
immense village ; but at present, the vicinity of Rome called Cnwpa^va di Roma, is a complete
desert. Modern Rome is built chiefly on the ancient Campus Martius. The accumulation of ruing
has raised very sensibly the soil of the city, as is evident from what has been said respecting the
entrance of the Pantheon ($59), and the height of the Tarpeian rock ($53).

For notices of Modem Rome, see Piranesi, Vedute di Roma, 2 vols. fol. (Cf. P. IV. 5 243. 2 )—Rome in the Nineteenth Century.
— TV. Fish, as cited P. IV. § IS6. G.—EncyUop. Americana, under Mod. Rome, and under Travels in Italy • and the worhs there

§ 72. We proceed now to what remains to be described in the south of Europe (cf.
^27) ; and we might include the whole under the term GrcBcia, taken in a very com-
prehensive sense, in which it has sometimes been used. For it has been made to cover
not only the Peloponnesus and Greece Proper, but also Epirus, Thessalia, Macedonia,
and even Thracia. The victories of Philip having procured him a vote in the Amphic-
tyonic council, his Thessalian and Macedonian dominions were consequently ranked
among the Grecian states. The valor and policy of the Epirote kings procured the
same honor for Epirus not long after; and finally, Thrace was raised to the same dig-
nity, when it became the habitation of the Roiuan emperors. But Grsecia is rarely
used in so large a sense : and we shall first consider ancient Thrace separately, and
include the other countries under Grcecia.

Thracia was bounded on the north by the chain of mount HEemus, which separated
it from Moesia; on the east by the Euxine sea, Thracian Bosphorus, and Hellespont,
which divicled it from Asia ; on the south by the ^Egean sea ; and on the west by the
river Strymon, dividing it from Macedon. In consequence of the conquests of Philip,
the river Nessus became the mutual boundary of Thrace and Macedon, the interme-
diate district being annexed to the latter country. — The peninsula contained between
the Bay of Melas and the Hellespont was called Thracics Chersonesus ; celebrated in
the wars between Philip and the Athenians.

?i 73. The capital of Thrace, and at one time of the civilized world, was Byzantium,
or Constantinopolis, built on the north-eastern extremity of the Chersonese, called from
its beauty Chrysoceras, or the golden horn. By whom this city was founded is a mat-
ter of dispute ; but it was greatly enlarged and beautified by Constantine the Great,
who, in the fourth century of the Christian era, transferred the seat of government
hhher from Rome. On the division of the Roman empire, this city became the capital
of the Greek or eastern part ; it retained this distinction for many years, until from
the vices of the inhabitants, and the imbecility of their rulers, it was captured by the
Turks on the 29th of May, A. D. 1453.

On the topography of Byzantium and the changes made by Constantine, see DxLcant;e., Histor. Byzantina. Par. 16R0. fol — G. Co-
rfi'nuj, De Antiquitatibus Cons'antinop. Par. 1655. — .3;ij. iJniirfuri, Imper. Orient. seuAntiquita'esConstanlinopolilanae. Par. 1711.
2 vols. fol.-These works are included in the Orrfus of Byzantine History, noticed P V. § 239 a — Cf. Gibbon, ch. xvii.-yameJ
Dallaway, Constantinople, ancient and modern.— Lond. 1797. 4. Nyrtfi Amer. Rev. 16th vol. or 7th of New Series, p. 43S.

The Other principal towns were, Salmydessus (Midi.jeh), celebrated for shipwrecjks ;
Thmiia, a town and promontory, whence came the Thyni. who colonized Bithynia in
Asia Minor ; Apollonia, called afterwards Sizopolis (Sizeboli), and Mesemhria, built I y


a colony of Megarensians ; all on the Euxine sea. — Selymhria (Selibria), and Pennthtis,
or Heraclea (Erekli), on the Propontis. — Callipolis (Gallipoli), at llie junction of the
Propontis and Hellespont; the small towns Madytos and Cissa, near where the little
river ^g-os Potamos joins the Hellespont, the scene of the battle in which Lysander de-
stroyedlhe naval power of the Athenians; and Seslos (Zenunie), where Xerxes built
his bridge of boats across the Hellespont. — Sestos and Abydos on the Asiatic side are
also celebrated for the loves of Hero and Leander.

The possibility of swimming across Ihe Hellespont was for a long time doubted, but it was performed by the late Lord Byron.—
On the doubts here alluded to, see De la Aauze, and Mahudel, as cited P. V. § 49. 4.

On the bay of Melas, so named from the river Melas, that empties itself into it, were
Cardia, destroyed by Lysirnachus, to procure inhabitants for a new town; Lyaimachla,
that he had built a Uttle farther south; and Eioii,, which was burned by its governor,
Boges. — In the interior were Trajanopolis, buih by Trajan; and Adrianopolis, its suc-
cessful rival, built by Adrian, and now the second city of the Turkish empire. — At the
east mouth of the Hebrus, stood M,nos, said to have been founded by jEneas, near the
territory of the Cicones; on the west side, Doriscus, where Xerxes reviewed his im-
mense armament after passing the Hellespont, and it is said that his army were so nu-

erous as completely to drain the neighboring river Lessus. At the mouth of the Nes-
sus was Abdera, the birthplace of the philosopher Democrhus, near which were the
stables of Diomede, who is said to have fed his horses on human flesh.

§ 74. The principal rivers of Thrace were the Hebrus (Marhza), celebrated for the
clearness and rapidity of its waters ; Nessus (Nissar), and Strymo?t (Jamboh.) — The
principal mountains were Mount Hcpmus, extending from the Euxine sea in a western
direction between Moesia and Thrace ; Ehodope, extending from the Euxine sea to the
sources of the Nessus ; and PangcBus, extending thence to the north of Macedon. It
was on the PangcBus that the wonders ascribed to the lyre of Orpheus were said to have
been performed (P. V. $ 48). Two precipices of this mountain, now called Castagnas,
approach to the sea nearly opposite to the island Thasus, and form very narrow passages,
which were defended by walls. — The principal seas and bays adjoining this extensive
maritime country were, Pontus Euximis, Bosphorus Thracius, Propontis, Hellespontus,
Melcmis Sinus (Gulf of Saros), and Strymonicus Sinus (Gulf of Contessa).

J 75. Thrace was anciently possessed by several independent tribes ; one of these, the Dolonei,
being hard pressed by the Msynthi, their neighbors, sent to Delphi- to consult the oracle about
the event of the war. The ambassadors were directed to choose as leader the person who should
first invite them to his house. Wliile passing through Athens they were hospitably entertained
by Miltiades, the son of Cypseliis; they immediately requested liiin to accompany them to the
Chersonesus, and Miltiades, having consulted the oracle at Delphi, accepted the invitation. — On
his arrival he was immediately created king, and the Absynthians were soon after defeated. He
fortified the Chersonesus by building the long walls across the Isthmus, and after a prosperous
reign bequeathed the crown to his nephew Stesagoras. — Stesagoras dying after a short reign,
his brother Miltiades was sent from Athens by the Pisistratidae as his successor. He had not
reigned long, when Darius, king of Persia, sent a fleet of Phoenicians against the Chersonese,
«nd Miltiades, unable to make any effective resistance, retired to Athens.— The Chersonese, after
the defeat of the Persians, was principally possessed by the Athenians, who colonized all the
coast. The interior of Thrace remained subject to the native princes, until the whole country
was united to Macedon by Philip and Alexander.

76. What remains to be described in Europe we shall include, as already remarked
($ 72), under G R^ CIA , using this name in what is commonly considered its most
comprehensive sense (cf P. III. $ 2). The extensive region thus included in Graecia
presents four general divisions, which are obviously suggested by the natural face of
the country. The 1st is that part which lies north of the chain of mountains called
Camhunii, which are connected by the Stymphaei Monies with the Aero Ceraunii. the
2d is the part between the Cambunii on the north, and another hne of highlands and
mountains on the south, which may be traced from the Sinus Maliacus on the east, to
the Sinus Ambracius on the west ; in hs eastern extremity it forms the pass of Ther-
mopylae, and the chain is in this portion of it called CEta ; as it stretches back in a
northerly and then westerly direction, it is called Pindus; this sends dow^n a spur from
the sources of the river Achelous to the Sinus Ambracius, where it forms another pass
corresponding to that of Thermopylae on the east : the 3d is the part between the
mountains just traced and the gulfs on each side of the isthmus of Corinth, Sinus Co-
rintkiachs and Si7ms Saronicns : and the 4th is the peninsula connected to the main
by that isthmus. The first is Macedonia; the second, Epirus and Thessalia; the
third, Hellas ; the fourth, Peloponnesus.

"§ 77. (1) Macedonia, considered as including the first of the natural divisions above
described, was bounded W. .by -the Mare Hadriaticum; N. by lUyricum and 3)ce
sia; E. by Thracia, from which it was separated by Mt. Rhodope and the river Nes
tus flowing from Rhodope ; S. by the ^.gaeum Mare, the Cambunii Montes and the
other mountains forming the chain already mentir^.ed, which terminates in the Aero
Ceraunii on the western extremity.


In noticing the physical features of Macedonia, it will be observed that Mt. IIcBmus
and Mt. Ehodope, meeting on its N. E. corner, stretch along on hs north in a single
chain; this was called Orhelus Mons ; a spur from Orbelus will be noticed running
down south through Macedonia, and forming a connection with the Stymphm, or Mons
Stympha, already named, between the Cambiinii and Aero Cerataiii. The waters east
of this spur flow to the ^gean ; those west of it, to the Hadriatic.

^ 78. The principal river of the west was the Drilo (Drino), which runs through
Lake Lychnidus, and empties into a bay of the Hadriatic, north of the point called
Nymphaum P romontorium. — One of the most important places in this western por-
tion was Apollonia, on the Hadriatic coast, celebrated in the Roman age of Greek
hterature (P. V. § 9) for its cuhivation, and said to be the place where Augustus ac-
quired his knowledge of Greek, and finished his education. Another place is worthy
of notice, Epidamnus, farther north, called Dyrracldum by the Romans, the place
where travelers from Italy to Greece generally landed. This portion, west of the
spur, was taken from Illyricum by Philip i^RoUin, B. 14. ^ 1).

^ 79. The country east of the spur is principally champaign. We notice three most
considerable rivers; the Haliacmon (Platemone), in the southern part, flowing east to
the Sinus Thermaicus (Gulf of Thessalonica, or Salonichi) ; the Axius (Vardari), rising
in the heights between Macedonia and Moesia, and running S. to the head of the same
gulf, receiving on its way many tributaries, and uniting with the Eri^on on the west
before its discharge ; the Strymon, rising in Mt. Rhodope, and flowing to the Sinus
Strymonicus (Gulf of Contessa). — Between the two gulfs or bays just named, was the
peninsula sometimes called Chalcidice, and presenting pecuhar features, having a
cluster of mountains on its neck, and being spht into three smaller peninsulas by two
bays, the Toronaicus (G. of Cassandra), and the Siugetiais (G. of Monte Sancto). The
western of these smaller peninsulas was Pallene or Phlegra, the fabled scene of the
battle between Jupiter and the Giants {Ov. x. 151); the eastern was marked by 3It.
Athos, extending several leagues upon and projecting into the sea, and was celebrated
for a canal said to be cut across its neck by Xerxes to avoid the passage around Mt.
Athos, that passage having proved so fatal to the fleet of Darius.

§ 80. This portion of Macedonia had numerous subdivisions, many of which are
not important, even if they could be accurately traced. Pceoiiia was in the northern
part. The part between the Strymon and Nestus was called Edonis. The southern
part on the Avest of the Sinus Thermaicus was Pieria. Emathia was north of Pieria,
and of the same gulf.

Emathia was the most important province. In this w^as situated Edessa, the ori-
gmal capital of the country, on the Erigon; also Pella, on the Lydias, subsequently
made the capital by Amyntas, the father of Philip. Further east, on the Sinus Ther
maicus, was Thermce, afterwards called Thessalonica, the place of Cicero's banishment
and the caphal of the country as a Roman province.

Al Thessalonica there still remaiDS an ancient structure which is supposed by some to have been a Cabirian temple (ct P. II.
§ 129. 2) ; a view of it is given in our Plate V.

On the peninsula which has been described CS 79) were Potidwa, or Cassandria, on the
neck of Pallene, celebrated forits splendor under king Cassander; Olynthus , memorable
for its siege by Philip, who after much labor captured it by treachery; Chalcis, which
gave name to the region; Slagira (Stagros), on the eastern coast, the birthplace of Aris-
totle. — In Pieria, one of the most memorable places was Pydna (Kitra), where Olym-
pias was murdered by Cassander, and where the Roman g-eneral Paulus iEmilius made
a prisoner of Perseus the last king of Macedonia, B. C. 168. North of this, on the
coast, was Methone, at the seige of which Philip lost his right eye. — In Edonis were
two important towns ; Amphipolis, originally on an island in the river Strymon, an
Athenian colony; Philippi, further east, near Mons Pangaeus, a branch from Rho-

The latter was built by Philip, for the same purpose for which the Athenians built Amphipolis ;
to secure the valuable gold and silver mines found in this region. It is celebrated for the battle
ifi which Brutus and Cassius were defeated by Augustus and Antony, B. C. 42; and nieinorable
as the place where Paul and Silas, having been "thrust into the inner prison, with their feet
fast in the stocks, {Acts xvi. 25) at midnight sang praises unto God."

The site of Philippi is still marked by ruins {Miss. Herald, Sept. 1836, p. 334).— Like most of the Grecian cities, it was at the foo.
of a hill or mount on which was its Acropolis. A view of the Acropolis and of the plain below is given in our Plate IV. A traveler
on horseback is advancing on the road from Neapolis to Philippi ; he is just passing a moilem Turkish burying-ground on his right
hand under a near hill ; the Acropolis, with its ruins, appears on the eminence beyond at the right; at the base of this eminence, was
the lower city, on the south and south-west ; farther to the south is an open plain ; the mountain on the left is the southern extremity
u{ Paniaaxs.

J 81. Tlie kingdom of Macedonia was said to be founded by Caranus, a descendant of Her-
cules, B. C. 614 ; but it did not acquire consequence until the reign of Philip, who ascended the
throne B. C. 360. It has been stated, that 150 different nations or tribes were finally included
'Viihin its limits.

§ 82 (2) Epirus and Thessalia, embraced in the second natural division pointed
u u (§ 7b), are next to be noticed.

Thessalia is described by Herodotus as a very extensive plain, embosomed m



mountains. The Camhunh and Olympus were on the north ; Pelion a:^d Ossa on the
east ; Pindus on the west ; and (Eta on the south : so that only the small portion oi'
coast between the Sinus Felasgicus and the Sinus Maliacus is without the guard of
mountains ; and even this has a guard a httle in the ulterior, by Ml. Olhrys, which
strikes across from Pindus to Pelion.

The extensive plains of Thessaly were peculiarly favorable to the breeding of horses ; and the
Thessalians were the first who introduced the use of cavalry, horses having been, at first, only
used for draught. Hence, perhaps, arose the fable of the Centaurs, a people of Thessaly, who
were supposed to have been half man and half horse. The Thessalian cavalry maintained
their superiority to a very late period, and to them Philip was indebted for many of his victories.

$83. The northern part of Thessaly was called Pelasgiotis, from the Pelasgi, an
Asiaiic wandering tribe, who are supposed to have been the first inhabitants of Greece
(P. IV. § 33). The principal chies in Pelasgiotis were Larissa, the capital of the
province ; Gomplii, destroyed by Caesar ; Goniius and Gyrtona, near the entrance of
the vale of Tempe, so celebrated for its natural beauties; Scotussa, near which are
some hills, called, from their shape, Cynos Cephale, where Phihp was defeated by
Quintus Flaminius ; and Pharsalus, neg-r which, in a plain called Fharsalia, Pompey

was overthrown by Caesar. 1 he eastern part of Thessaly was named Magnesia;

the most remarkable places were Sepias, a small village on a promontory of the same
name, where the fleet of Xerxes received an omen of their final overthrow, being
shattered in a storm; Demelrias (Vloo), built by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and which,
from the commercial advantages of its situation, almost depopulated the neighboring
towns; 3Ielib(Ba, the city of Philoctetes ; lolcos, the residence of Jason and Medea;
Pagasm, where the ship Argo was built, from which the Sinus Pdasgicus is some-
times called Pfirro^cEMs: Aplieta (Fetio), whence the Argonautic expedition sailed;
Pherae, the residence of the tyrant Alexander; and ThtbcB, near the river Amphrysus,

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