Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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sand plates. For eont^nts of these vols, see Stuart's Dictionary (cited § 238. 2), Appendix II.— G. L. Taylor and £ Cresy, Archi-
tectural Antiqviities of Rome. Lond. 1821 ss. 2 vols. imp. fol.— G. Valadier, Raccolta delle piu insigni Fabbriche di Roma Anticha
e sue Adjacenze. Rom. 1810-26. imp. fol. sixty-three plates.— Sir W. Gell, Topography of Rome. Lond. 1834. 2 vols. 8. with
plates, and a large map of Rome and its environs.— G. Valadier, Arco di Tito. Rom 1822. 4. eight phtes.— .^nt. Nibby, Del Foro
Romano, della Via Sacra, &c. Rom. 1819. %.— Robert Mam, Architectural Remains in Rome, &c. from drawings by Clerisseau.—
Rossini, Veduta di Roma ; one hundred and one large folio Views of the most remarkable antiquities and buildings in Rome and its
neighborhood. Rom. 1823. 4. — Z)uiourg-, Views of the most remarkable Buildings and ancient Remains in Rome. Lond. 1838. 4.
■with twen'y-six plates, colored.— Sat'nt Sauvcur, L' Antique Rome, &c. Par. 1796. 4. orne de cinquante tableaux.— >/oH(/aucon,
Antiquite Expliquee, as cited P. II. § 12. 2 (H).— Le .antichi d'Ercolano, &c. Napol. 1765-92. 9 vols. fol. with a great number of
engravings of buildings, and also of busts, statues, paintings, bns-reliefs, &c. discovered among the ruins of Herculaneum. — Hercula-
mum et Pompei, Recueil General des Peintures, Bronzes, Mosaiques, &c. diScouverts jusqu'a ce jour, et reproduits d'apres tons les
ouvragespublies jusqu' a present. Par. 1841. 8 vols. 8. with 700 '•planches."— Afartt/n and Le«if£, History of the Antiquities of Her-
culaneum.— renuft, Descrizione delle prime Scoperte d'Ercolano. Ven. 1749. 8.— Sir If. Hamilton, Discoveries at Pompeii (with
plates), in the Mrchseologia, as below cited, vol. iv. p. 160 —Sir IV. Oell and J. P. G. Deering, Pompeiana, or Topography, &c. of
Pompeii. Lond. 1824. 2 vols. 8. \m-p.—Bibent, Plan of Pompeii. Par. 1826.— Coofte's Delineations. Lond. 1S27. 2 vols. fol. ninety
plates. — F. Mazois, Ruines de Pompeii. Par. 1830. — Pompeii, as cited § 226. — Thesaurus Antiquitatum Beneverttanarum. Rom.
1731. fol.— The splendid work entitled Viaggio Pittorico della Tuscana (Firenze, 1803. 3 vols, fol.) contains some views of ancient
remains.- G. Micali, as cited § 231. 3.

3. Remains in other countries.— iJ. Mam, Ruins of the Palace of Diocletian, at Spalatro in Dalmalia. Lond. 1764. Cf. Gibbon,
Hist. Rom. Emp. ch. x\\.—L. Langlcs, Monumens Anciens et Modernes, de I'Hindoustan. Par. 1818. 2 vols, fol.— Morier, Journey
through Persia. Cf. Lond. Quart. Rev. ix. 57.— iJ. Kerr Porter, Travels in Persia.— jj/ex. de Laborde, Voyage Pittoresque de I'Es-
pas-ne. Par. 1812. 2 vols, fol —C(W»a«, Voyage Pittoresque de la Syria, de la Phenicie, de la Palestine, et de la Basse Egypte. 2 vbls.
fol. with many plates —R. Wood, Ruins of Palmyra. Lond. 1753. fol. — By same, Ruins of Balbec. Lond. 1757. fol. — Les Ruinei
de Palmyra. Par. 1819. l.—F. C. Gau, Antiquites de la Nubia. Par. 1824. M.—Denon, Voyages dans La Basse et la Haute
Egypte.— The ancient and royal Palace of Persepolis, destroyed by Alexander the Great. Lond. 1739. twenty-one plates.— Se!/ne«,
Monumens Romains de Nismes. Par. 1818. fol. sixteen plates.— JVfoiard, Histoire des Antiquites de la Ville de Nismes, et de ses
Environs. Nism. 1826. 8. — Various notices of Roman Remains in England are found in the work styled Archmologia, or Miscella-
«eous Tracts pertaining to Antiquity (as cited ^ 32. 5). Also in the work, published by the same society, entitled Vetusta Monu-
menta, 6 vols. fol.—/. Gordon, Itinerarium Septentrionale, or a Journey over a part of Scotland. Lond. 1729. fol. — Stuheley, as
cited P. III. § 197. 5.— J. Hartley, Roman Antiquities of Britain. Lond. 1732. {ol.~HuttonU Roman Wall. Lond. 1802.— See
Catalogue, in Stuart, below mentioned.

4. It will be proper to add in this place some of the principal works pertaining to the history and theory of Architecture.— C. le
Roy, Observations sur les edifices des anciens peuples. Par. 1768. 4.— C. L. Slieglitz, Geschichte der Baukunst der Alien. Leipz.
1792. 8.— By same, Archlologie der Baukunst der Griechen und ROmer. Weimar, 1801. 8.— By same, Geschichte der Baukunst
(from the earliest time to the present). NUrnb. 1827.— jj. Hirt, die Baukunst nach den Grunds;ltzen der Alten. Berl. 1809. fol. fifty
plates.— By same, Geschichte der Baukunst bei den Alten. Berl. 1821. 2 vols. 4.— The two following are said to be valuable, in
reference to architecture as well as Ihe other arts : Rumohr's Kunslgeschichtliche Italienische Forschungen. 1827 ; A. fVendt, Ueber
die Hauptperioden der schOnen Kunst. 1833. L. Le Brun, Theorie de I'Architecture Grecque et Romaine, &c. Par. 1807. foL


tirenty-six plates —IV. fVilkins, The Civil Architecture of Fitruvius ; contaiDing the Earl of Aberdeeo's Inquiry into the Beauty
of Grecian Architecture. Lond. 1812-17. 2 vols. 4. forty-one plates. — Pugin, New Parallel of the Orders of Architecture, accord-
ing to the Greeks and Romans and modern Architects, transl. from the French of C. Normand. Lond. 1829. fol. sixty-two plates.
— /o*. Gwilt, Rudiments of Architecture, practical and theoretical. F. S. A. Lond. li!26. 8. with plates and vignettes.—/. RondtUt,
Traile Theorique et Pratique de I'Art de Batir. Par. 1829-30. 6 vols. 4. wiih plates.— .«»««• Benjamin, Practice of Architec-

ture, &c. Bost. 1836. 4. with sixty plates; a work much used by common practical architects. See SJHort'j Dictionary (cited

§ 238. 2), Appendix II., where is a catalogue of works relating to Architecture, arranged in thirteen classes.

^ 244. Although, strictly speaking, it is only classical art that belongs to our subject,
it may not be out of place to allude here to a style of architecture which grew up after
the dismemberment of the Roman Empire. "The arts degenerated so far, that a
custom became prevalent of erecting new buildings with the fragments of old ones,
which were dilapidated and torn down for the purpose. This gave rise to an irregular
style of building, which continued to be imitated, especially in Italy, during the dark
ages. It consisted of Grecian and Roman details, combined under new forms, and
piled up into structures wholly unlike the antique originals. Hence the names Greco-
Gothic and Eomanesqiie architecture have been given to it. It frequently contained
arches upon columns, forming successive arcades, which were accumulated above each
other to a great height. The effect was sometimes imposing."

The Cathedral and Leaning Tower at Pisa (see Plate Lll. 16), and the Church of St. Mark at
Venice, are named as the best specimens of the Greco-Gmhic stylo. The ancient Saxon archi-
tecture in England was in some respects similar ; as e. g. in the Cithedra! at Ely, which exhibits
arches upon columns; a specimen of which is given in Plate L. fii^. n. The same peculiarity is
seen in some remains of Diocletian's palace at Spalatro. Of these we have a specimen in fig. m
of Plate L.; in which arches appear between the columns and the entablature.

§ 245. Besides the different styles which have been named, E<ryptian, Grecian, Eo-
man, and Greco-Gothic, there are three others which we ought^just to mention; viz.
the Saracenic, Gothic, and Chinese.

" The Chinese have made the tent the elementary feature of their architecture; and
of their style any one may form an idea by inspecting the figures which are depicted
upon common China ware. The Chinese towers and pagodas have concave roofs, like
awnings, projecting over their several stories. The lightness of the style used by the
Chinese leads them to built with wood, sometimes with brick, seldom with stone."

A specimen of this style is given in Plate LII. 9. — A Chinese column is given in Plate L. fig. t,
from the viceroy's palace, at Canton.

The Saracenic style is distinguished by a peculiar form of the arch, which is a curve
constituting more than half a circle or ellipse. It is exhibited in the buildings of the
Moors and Saracens in Spain, Egypt, and Turkey. A flowery ornament called
Arabesque is common in the Moorish buildings. The Alhambra at Grenada furnishes
a specimen of this style. — The Minaret, a tall, slender tower, appears in the Turkish

In Plate L. fig. o, we have a specimen, from the Alhambra, of Moorish double columns, sup-
porting arches which are adorned with arabesque.— The minaret is seen in Plate V.

The Gothic style is not so called in order to designate a mode of building derived
from the Goths. The name was first applied as a term of reproach to the edifices in
the middle ages, which were at variance with antique models. It is now chiefly ein-
ployed to designate a style of building religious edifices, introduced in England six or
eight centuries ago, and adopted nearly at the same time in France, Germany, and
other parts of Europe. "Its principle seems to have originated in the imitation of
groves, and bowers, under which the Druids perforined their sacred rites. Its cha
racteristics. at sight, are its pointed arches, its pinnacles and spires, its large buttresses,
clustered pillars, vaulted roofs, profusion of ornaments, and the general predominance
of the perpendicular over the horizontal."

Specimens of the Gothic style appear in Plate LII. 2, 5, 6, 7. — A specimen of clustered pillars
forming one, and supporting an arch, is given Plate L. fig. r, from Salisbury Cathedral. A twist-
ed pillar, from a cloister belonging to St. Paul's church at Rome, is seen in fig. v. The figures z,
1, and 2, are sections of different Gothic columns.

See Bisdovti's Technology, ch. vii. as cited 5 23S. 3.— On tlie early use of the pointed arch, in oriental countries, see E. 0- Clarke,
Travels in various Countries, &c. p. 4. vol. iii. ed. N. York, !815.— On Gothic Architecture, /. Gwill, Origin and Progress of Goth.
Arch, transl. from the German of G. AfoiZer. Lond. 1826. 8.— ./J. Puftn, Specimens of Gothic Architecture Lond. 1?23. 2 vols 4
Lond. 1838. 3 vols. 4. with two hundred and twenty-five engravings and " historical and descriptive l«ter press ;" by E. J. Wilson.
— G. D. WHUinston, Survey of Ecclesastical Antiquities of France. Lond. 1816. 8 Cf. Lond. QuaJl ii. 126. vi. 62.

LI la.





55 20





§ 1. The Greeks, beyond any other nation of antiquity, enjoyed a happy
union of important advantages for the promotion of civilization and literature.

1 t. The nature of their country, washed on every side by the sea, whh its coasts
formed into numerous guU's and peninsulas, afforded the people peculiar facilities for
mutual intercourse. The singular mildness of their climate was such as to favor the
happiest development of the physical and intellectual powers, uniting a vigorous con-
stitution with a hvely imagination and profound sensibility.

G. Hermann, De Mytbologia Grxcorum antiquissinia. Lpz, 1817.— WacAier, Geschichte der Literatur, vol- i. p. 106, as cited
P. IV. 5 34. 2.

2t. Their free forms of government afforded powerful motives to stimulate exertion.
The commerce with foreign countries furnished a source of favorable inlluence.
Equally favorable were the high honors and substantial rewards bestowed on knovviedge
and merit. Some have supposed that the existence of slavery contributed to the hterary
advancement of the Greeks, as it left the citizens more leisure for public life and study.
But a more fortunatR circumstance was, that oriental influence never established among
the Greeks any thing hke the system of castes, which prevailed in Egypt and some of
the Asiatic states, and which confined the arts and sciences by a sort of hereditary right
to the priests.

Skua's Kadmos, &c. ISIS.— G. Hermann, De Hist. Gr. Primordiis. Lond. 181S. 4.— Of. P. IV. § 34, 40.

3 u. The plan and scope of Grecian education deserves also to be mentioned here.
It was in general more adapted to the common purposes of the whole community than
in modern times, and was less modified by the individual and private aim of the pupil.
The apparent good of the state was the object constantly in view. I'his gave to all
their ideas and efforts not only a definite direction, but also a liberal and diffusive cha-
racter. In this circumstance we find one obvious source of the permanent excellence
and utility of the Greek writers and their works. Here was a foundation for their pre-
eminent and lasting renown.

On education amon? the Greeks, cf. P. IV. 55 63, 64, 75. To the references there given, we add the followinj : C. F. A. Hoch-
heimtr, Versuch eines Systems der Erziehung der Griechen. Dess. 1765. 2 vols. 8.— G. Bernhardy, as cited § 7. 9. p. 44 ss.— G. F
G'dss, Die Erziehunsswissenschaft nach den Grundsatzen der Griechen und Romcr, &c. Ansp. 1808. 8.— jj. H Niemeyer, Original.
slellen der Gr- uud Rom. Classiker aber die Theorie der Erziehung. Halle, ISI3. 8.—Fr. Jacobs, Ueber die Erziehung der Griechen
zur Sittlichkeit ; in vol. iii. of his Venniachte Schriflen, commenced in 1833 ; tr. by Ftlton, in CUua. S:itdut, p. 313, as cited P. V.
5 6. 4.— Good, Book of Nature, I.ect. xi—F. Cramer, Gescbicbts der Erziehung im Alierlhume. Elberf. 1822-3d. 2 vols. S. "Best
author on Greek and Roman education." S.

§ 2. No nation in the history of letters is so celebrated as the Greeks. And
the imperious obligation is laid upon every one, who makes any pretensions ta
literature, to acquaint himself with the language and the most valuable pro-
ductions of the ancient Greeks. This knowledge is alike essential to the states-
man, the orator, the physician, the theologian, philosopher, historian, and
antiquary; to the polite scholar and the philologian, to the connoisseur and
the artist, it is absolutely indispensable.

See an elegant and masterly discussion on the Study of Greek Literature, by G. B.
Cheever, in the American Quarterly Register, vol. iv. p. 273 ; vol. v. p. 33, 218. The
writer aims " to prove that Greek literature ought to be profoundly studied : — First, foi
the native excellence of the Greek classics; Second, for the inAngorating discipline
which this study affords the mind ; Third, for the practical knowledge and mastery of
our own native language ; Fourth, and most important, as a preparation for the study
of theology."

For references on the value and importance of classical studies, see P. IV. § 29. To those there given we add the folloving : .*»»
dent Languages. Inquiry whether the study of them be a necessary branch of modem education. Edinb. 1769 S. — F. F. Friede
tnann, Parlnesen fUr studirende Jilnglinge aufGymnasieu und Universilaten. Braunsch. 1827. " A collection from the greatest
scholars, on the importance, methods, 8:c. of classical study; with valuable notes." A second impioved edition, 1S38. 8.—Fr
TfticrjcA, Ceber gelehrte Srhulen, &c. 1826. 8—/. C.7aAn, JahrbQcber far Philologie und Pidagogik, cited § 7. 11. vol. ii. p- ISl •
where is a valuable article with references to recent worlis.



§ 3. But, independent of these considerations, the language itself presents
sufficient inducements to the study; such is its own intrinsic beauty; the high
degree of perfection it exhibits, above all other languages; its unequaled rich-
ness in the most significant words and combinations ; its symmetrical structure
and syntax; its elegance in turns of expression; the singular skill in the
arrangement of its particles, clauses, and members ; and its wonderful harmony
in prose as well as poetry. These are excellences which impart to the best
works of the Greeks a charm in outward dress fully corresponding to the value
cf their contents.

Of. p. IV. § 39.— r. G TrendiUnbur^, Verg'eichung der Vorzlge der deulschen Sprache mil den Vorz. der lat. und griech. im
Vierten BanJe der Schriflen der deutschm Gesellsch. zu Mannheim. Frankf. I7S8. 8. — £itg. Schelz, Versucb Uber den Werth der
alten Sprarhen und das Stud, der Lit. der Gnech. far Jurist. Frankf a. d. 0. 1810. 9.— A. F. Lindau, De Usu et Pisslantia Artium
et Liierarum Grsecorum. Vraiisl. 1S15. \2 —F- Jacobs, Ueber einen Vorzug der Griech. Sprache in dem Gebrauche ilner Mundar-
ten. Mlnch. I80S. i.- Cvleridse, Study of Greek Poets, p. 34, as cited § 2\.— Class. Journ. vi 242; xi. 141; xiii. 16S.

§ 4 /. Respecting the origin of the Greek language and the causes of its per-
fection we have already remarked (P. IV. §§ 35 — 39). Here we may further
remark, that in the different provinces and settlements of the Greeks arose those
differences in their language which are named dialects. The principal, which
are found in written composition, are four; the iEolic, Doric, Ionic, and Attic.

The ^alic prevailed in the northern parts of Greece, in some northern islands of the
JEgean sea, and especially in the jEolic colonies in the north-western part of Asia
Minor. It was chiefly cultivated by the lyric poets in Lesbos, as Alcseus and Sappho,
and in Bceotia by Corinna. It retained the most numerous traces of the ancient Greek.
The Latin coincides with this more than with any other of the Greek dialects.

The Doric was spoken chiefly in the Peloponnesus, with a few places north of the
Isthmus, in the Doric colonies in the southern part of Italy, and in Sicily. It was par-
ticularly distinguished by the use of what was termed the broad sound of the vowels
(-rXareiaaiios). The most eminent writers in this dialect were Theocritus and Pindar.
Bion, Moschus, Stesicliorus, and Bacchylides also used it.

The Ionic was the softest of the dialects, in consequence of its numerous vowels,
and its rejection of aspirated letters. It was spoken chiefly in the colonies in the south-
western part of Asia Minor and in the neighboring islands. The principal writers in
this were Homer, Hesiod, Anacreon, Herodotus, and Hippocrates.

The Attic was considered the most refined and perfect of the dialects, free from the
extremes of harshness and softness. It had its seat at Athens, and prevailed in the
most flourishmg period of Grecian literature. It is the dialect used by many of the
best writers of Greece ; jEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Thucydides,
Xenophon, Plato, Isocrates, Demosthenes, and others.

These dialects passed through diflferent changes, and included under them several
varieties. They may be traced to two primary dialects, as the Ionic and Attic were
originally nearly or quite the same, and the Doric and .iEolic were at first the same, or
had a common basis. Their first distinct and definite separation from two into four,
may be referred to the time when the JEolmn and Ionian colonies were planted in Asia
Minor, between 1030 and 1100 B. C.

On the colonies referred to, see Mitford's Greece, ch. v. §2.— On the dialects, /. F. Faeii Compendium Dial. Grjec. Norimb.
1782 —Mich. Mattairt, Graec. Ling. Dialecti. Lips. 1807. 8.— £. W. Slurz, de Dialecto Macedonica et Alexandrina. Lips. 1807. 8.
-Hermaniu Progr. de Dialectis. Lips. MQH .— Htrmann, de Dialecto Pindari. Lips. 1809. 8.— Also see Matthiss's Greek Gram-
mar; Robinson's Buttminn, § I. ; and Sluarfs Grammar of New Testament— On the Doric peculiarities, see MUller^t Dorians,
vol. ii. App. viii.— On the reasons for the use of particular dialects by particular poets, Class. Journ. xvii. 82.

The followine remarks are from MS. notes of Lectures by Hermann, 1834. " We need a work on Dialects ; for the written lan-
guage and also for ihe spoken. The dialects of the written language should be divided into the Epic, the Lyric, and the Tragic. On
the two first, we have scarcely any thing. I have done something; very little. On the Tragic, Kuhlttadt is tolerably good; also
the notes of Porson and Elmsly. On Ihe popular dialect, Stepfunius (in his Thesaurus) is the best.— Gregory on the dialects, and
the notes to it, are poor. Mattaire is imperfect. On the dialect of Herodotus, Struve is pretty fair. On the Doric and .Slolic, there
is nothing very good ; Bopp's Comparative Grammar is the best."

§ 5. The true pronunciation of Greek, since it must be viewed as a dead
language, cannot be determined with certainty.

1 11. The principal difference in the actual pronunciation of modem scholars on the
European continent is in the enunciation of v, ai, oi, a, ov, and ev, which are sounded
in two different ways. Erasmus and Reuchlin, in the 16th century, were the distin-
guished original advocates of the two modes respectively ; and from this circumstance
one is termed the Erasmian and the other the Reuchlinian method. Very probably
there was a different utterance of these vowels in the different provinces among the
Greeks. .

2. I'hose who adopt the Reuchlinian method sound 17, 01, and £(, like the continental
I fas in machinf) ; ai like e in there ; and v in au and rv like / ox y. Those who follow
Erasmus sound >? hke a in hate ; ai hke ai in aide ; a like ei in height ; oi hke oi in


Boiotia; av and ev like mt and eu in Glaums and Eurus^. The former are often
called lolistcB and the latter Etistce, from their respective modes of sounding the
vowel V ; these terms instantly suggest to a continental scholar the ground ot their
application ; but to an EngUsh or American eye and ear, they would best convey the
meaning by being written and spoken eotistae, or etistcB and dtistcs (etists and «tists).
In England and in this country, especially in the northern schools and seminaries, it
has been the common practice to sound the Greek vowels according to the prevailing
analogy of the vernacular tongue. I'he controversy between Reuchlinians and Eras-
mians^ has therefore excited hitle interest among us.

1 Cf. Robinson's Buttmann, § 2. 6. 2 for references to authors who have discussed the subjert, consult Horla, Introduclio in

Historiam Linguse GrEcae (Frol. ^ 7, and Supplement). Harles expresses the opinion hinted above in this section, that the vowels
had not always and in all places a uniform sound.— Cf. Messrs. dt PjrlRoyal, Gk. Gram. Pref. \x.—Lond. Quart. Rev. xi. 471.

3 21. The chief difficulty in pronouncing Greek is found in the expression of what
is called the accent. The tone in Greek is placed upon short syllables as well as
long; in German, it accompanies regularly only long syllables. The consequence
is, that in reading Greek with the accent always placed where the Greek tone is
marked, a German naturally violates quantity, and in verse destroys all poetical mea-
sure. Yet attention and practice will enable one to give the accent to the syllable
marked by it, and at the same time regard and exhibit the quantity in his pro-

4. The mode of expressing what is called the accent, is viewed as a subject of
greater importance than the sound of the vowels. In giving an accent to a syllable in
an English word we thereby render it a long syllable, whatever may be the sound
given to its vowel, and in whatever way the syllable may be composed ; so that as
above stated in relation to the German, an English accent, or stress in pronunciation,
accompanies only a long syllable. The consequence is that, if we, in pronouncing
Greek, put our accent wherever the Greek tone {rovos) occurs, we shall in many cases
grossly violate the laws of quantity ; because the Greek tone is placed on short syl-
lables as well as long ones. " Let one take, for example, the word avOpu-o^, and at-
tempt to place the stress on the first syllable, and yet make the second seem as long
in quantity. He will certainly find some difficulty. It is of no consequence in the
matter, which sound he gives to a in the first, the open or contracted; the quanthy, to
an English ear, is the same whether he says dn'thropos, or dn'thropos. Nor does it
make any difference, as to the point in question, whether he gives to w in the second
the contracted sound or the open ; in ehher case, the quantity will be the same to Eng-
hsh ears, whether he says an'throp os, or an thro pos, and must be the same in
Enghsh verse, just as in the two words big' dt ed and temp' 6 ral. Kow in this diffi-
cuhy what shall the student do ?"

Three different methods have been followed by different persons. One is to persevere in the
effort to separate stress and quantity, and give stress in all cases to the syllable which has the
Greek tone, and at the same time to pronounce that syllable and the others with a prolongation

Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 90 of 153)