Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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or curtailment of sound according to their prosodial quantity. Many distinguished scholars re-
commend this effort, as MatthiEe, Michcelis, Foster, Butlmann, and others, with the assurance that
perseverance will attain the object. But it is believed that very few, if any, ever succeed in the
effort. Bwckh is said always to follow both accent and quantity; and Hermann to do it in prose,
while he confesses his want of success in poetry. It is indeed not very difficult to give a mere
elevation to the syllable that has the tone, and still pronounce it in half the time employed in utter-
ing either of the other syllables. Such enunciation, however, must to our ears seem like singing
rather than accented pronunciation. Nor is elevation by any means synonymous with our ac-
cent; for the syllable which has the stress, in our language, is not always elevated above the
others in enunciation, but is very often depressed below them.— A second method is tr> place the
stress always on the syllable which has the Greek tone, and make no effort to exhibit the rela-
tive quantity of the syllables. This is done by the modern Greeks, and is perfectly easy for us.
But it is a method, which inevitably violates all the prosodial measures, and utterly destroys
Greek versification. On this account, chiefly, scholars in this country, although often urged,
have been reluctant to adopt it. — The third mode is to place the stress on the syllable (whether
the Greek tone be on that syllable or not) on which it would fall by Latin analogy : i. e. on the
penult, if the penult be long, or the antepenult, if the penult be short. This method, of course, is
very easy for us, and it also accords with the Greek prosodial quantity far better than the se-
cond, although it does not by any means perfectly harmonize therewith. It however makes
distinctly perceptible the quantity of the penult in all words of three or more syllables ; and this
is neatly all that can be accomplished by modern utterance, even according to Bultniann's state-
ment, although he advocates a regard to the Greek lone in pronunciation.

On the second method above named ; /. ficfterijig-, Memoir on the Pronunciation of ancient Greek. Camb. 1818. 4; also inAfcni.
«S. .5. S vol. iv. — Liscomus, Ueber die Aussprache des Griechischen. — Eloch, Revision der Lehre von der Aussprache des Altgriechi-

schen. 1S26. For the cited statement of Butlmann; Robinsmi's Buttmann, § 7, note 7. On this subject, also, the following

works may be mentioned. H. C. Henninius, Grsecam Lingiiam non esse pronunciaiidani secundum Accenlus. Traj. ad Rhen.
16S4. S.—John Foster, An Essay on the different nature of Accent and Quantity, with their Use in the English, Latin, and Greek
Languages, &c. Third edition, containing Dr. H. Gally's Two Dissertations against pronouncing the Greek according to Accents.
Lend. 1&20. S.—T. S. Velasttis, De Literarum Graecarum Pronunciatione. Rom. 1751. 4. defending a regard to accents.— fTi^'iam
Primatt, Aocentus Redivivi, or a Defence of an accented pronunciation of Greek prose. Camb. 1764. 8. — Melronarision, or a new
pleasure recommended in a Dissertation upon a part of Greek and Litin Prosody. Lond 1797. 8.—/. JValker'i Key to the classical
pronunciation, &c. with observations on Greek and Latin Accent and Quantity. Lond. 1798. 8. Boston, 1818. 2l.— JVillinm Mil-
Jjrd, An Inquiry into the Principles of Harmonv in Language, &c. Lond. 1S04. S.— fVagner, cited P. IV. § 51.— See »lso Barks,



Introductio, &c. Prol. § 6, and Supplement.— itf. Minos, Sui la veritable Prononciation de la Ls.ngue Grecque. Par, 1827.—^. F
Moore, Remarks on the Prnnuiiciaiion of the Greek Language. N. York, 1819. 8.— & B. Potion, On the Nature and Application
of the Greek Accents, in Sibl. Rejijs. vol. ix. p. 457.

§ 6. It is important to begin the acquisition of this language at an early-
period of life. But a tedious, unfruitful mode of study must be avoided, lest a
language so beautiful and excellent should become disgusting to youth. The
pupil must first be well grounded in the principles of the Grammar, the under-
standing of which and the fixing of them in the memory may be aided by
exercises in the translation of easy passages from suitable text-books.

The best mode of studying and teaching the languages has been a fruitful theme for
discussion. In this place a few general remarks only will be offered.

1. Perhaps no one method of teaching can be devised, which shall, by its essential
peculiarities as a method, be the best in all circumstances. It is essential to great suc-
cess, that the teacher's own mind should be roused to wakeful activhy and interest;
and also that the student should be put upon a kind and degree of exertion which
really tasks him, and which yet is fully within his present ability. It must be obvious
to every observer, that the method, which might secure these objects in some cases,
would utterly fail in others. The teacher, therefore, who rehes upon any plan, as
possessing in hself certain efficacy, and on that account promising infallible success,
will inevitably be disappointed. The efficacy of any method will depend very much
on his own spirit and feelings ; and if he trusts to a favorite method merely or chiefly
as such, however successful it may be when executed with his own mind glowing
M^ith enthusiasm, he will soon discover that his method will not work by magic ; as a
machine or instrument employed with wakeful ardor by him it accomphshes much ;
but it can Ao little or nothing of itself alone. The judicious and skillful teacher will
be regularly guided by certain general principles, but will ever be on the alert to
watch" among"his pupils the first flagging of interest in his present methods, and put
himself to devise new expedients to forward his ultimate object.

2. The analytical and synthetical methods, as they have been termed, have often
been brought into comparison. The former is less adapted for the study of a dead
language than for almost any other branch of learning to which it can be applied.
Much has been urged in its favor in this study, but only doubtful evidence can be ad-
duced from experience. Where there is time sufficient and constant oral instructions
can be afforded, such a method is no doubt adequate. But no abiding foundation is laid
until the student is well grounded in the principles of grammar, as hinted in the section
above. The principles of grammar are nothing but classifications or synthetic state-
ments of those facts respecting the language, which by the analytic process the pupil
learns by induction from a series of particular cases ; i. e. if he learns them by the ana-
lytic process in reality ; but in point of fact, he usually learns them, if he learns them
at all, because his teacher orally states the general facts to him again and again, as suc-
cessive particular instances occur; and thus when one of these facts has been stated
so often that he cannot help remembering it, he has learned simply what he learns
when he commits to memory from his grammar the rule or principle, in declension or
syntax, which presents that one general fact ; and the former process is as truly syn-
thetic as the latter, with only this difference, that the pupil commits the thing to memory
from hearing it said over and over again by the master, instead of commuting it in a
vastly shorter time and in a more accurate form from his grammar at the outset.

The remark of the author above, that the fixing of the principles of grammar in the
memory may be aided by suitable accompanying exercises, is just and important.
Much of the prejudice against the method, which has been called synthetic, has arisen
from the practice of forcing the beginner to spend many weeks in merely committing
the grammar to memory. It is far better that he should be put upon the application
of what he learns as he learns it, and that he should be furnished with exercises adapted
for the purpose. This is the method most generally practiced in the schools of our
country. Most of the elementary books now in use, in the study of both Greek and
Latin, contain portions designed for such exercises.

A very good help for acquiring and filing in this way the principles of Greek Grammar is the following. Lessons in Greek Part-
ine, or Outlines of t%e Greek Grammar, illustrated by appropriate exercises in Parsing ; by Chatincy A. Goodrich. New Haven,
1829.— We may also niention, A. C. Kendrich, Introduction to the Greek Language; containing an Oatline of the Grammar, wi;h
appropriate Exercises. N. York, IS41. pp. 192. Cf. Bibl. Rep. 2d Ser. vol. vi. p. 489 —E. A. Sophodes, First Lessons in Greek.

Attempts have recently been made in England to introduce (in the language of the advocates of the system, to restore) the method
of /n(crii?iear Translation. A series of text-books has been published adapted to this design. The Greek course commences with
Selections from Lucian's Dialogues. The beginner is freed from the toil and delay of studying a grammar or turning to a lexicon.
The ti inslation is given word for word, the English directly under the Greek ; and the learner is expected to be able, on examina-
tion by the master, to render the Greek into English, word for word, and also without the book to give the English for each Greek
word, and the Greek for each English word. The second volume in the course consists of the odes of Anacreon, and is to be studied

in the sime way, but accompanied ivilh the study of a grammar adapted to the plan. For an account of this system, see An Essay

in o System of Classical Instruction, combining the me'hods of Locke, Milton, Ascham, and Colet ; the whole series being designed
«o ejrhibit a Restoration of the primitive mode of Scholastic Tuition in England. Lond. 1829. Cf. Land. Quart. Rev. No iTtvii.


—J. T. Fhinipa, Compendious Way of leaching Languages, practised by T. Faber.Sic Lond. 1750. S.— Roger Ascham, The School-
master, &c. Lond. 1751. 4.

3. It is sometimes asked whether a youth should begin with Greek or with Latin.
The question is not perhaps of so much importance as some have supposed. But it
may be observed, that some of the most distinguished scholars, both in this country and
others, as Pickering, Wyttenbach, &c., have thought that the classical course should
commence with Greek. The chief remark we wish to urge here is, that it is of the
utmost consequence that both languages should be commenced in early life ; although
very high attainments have been made by persons who began classical study at a com-
paratively advanced age.

4. Whatever methods are employed in the first stages, it is obvious that as the
student advances his attention should be turned to various points by suitable exercises.
The habit of thoroughly analyzing sentences upon grammatical principles must be
formed and never lost. It is a profitable exercise to the most advanced scholar occa-
sionally in his readings to select a sentence and go over it in a perfectly minute exami-
nation of every word, and make a formal statement, even a written one, of all that is
true respecting it in its place in that sentence.

Another exercise, which will be found of much utilhy, is that of analyzing upon
logical principles. This analysis extends of course beyond the parts of a single sen-
tence, and examines not only the mutual relations of those parts, but also the nature
and ground of the connection between the sentences. It may be united with a tracing
out of the train and order of thought in the mind of the author through successive para-
graphs or a whole piece. The nature of this exercise is partially exhibited in an Out-
line given under ^ d c.

Exercises in oral or written translation from the original into the vernacular are of
indispensable importance. It is advantageous to vary the mode of translating. The
scholar may sometimes be required to give the vernacular for the original, word for
word, taken in grammatical order ; a mode absolutely essential with beginners. Some-
times he may proceed exactly in the order of the original ; a method which will be
found very useful in gaining familiarity with an author's mode of thinking and with the
idioms of the language. Sometimes he may, either beiore or after reading the ori-
ginal, translate a sentence or passage as a whole, giving as far as possible the exact
meaning of the author's words in the best words of the vernacular, and using only
vernacular idioms ; a method of peculiar advantage in cultivating accuracy and prompt-
ness in the use of the vernacular. Loose and paraphrastic translation cannot be safely
indulged even in advanced scholars.

Various other exercises, connected with inquiries on the facts and allusions, the sen-
timents, figures, and general scope of the original, and with topics of history, chrono-
logy, geography, arts, and antiquities, will be suggested to every competent teacher.

In all cases it is to be kept in mind, that repeated reviewing cannot be too much


On the last point, and on this whole subject, see Dissertations on the injporfance and best method of studying the Original Lan-
fuages of the Bible, by Jahn, with notes by M. Stuart. Andov. I82I. Also, Observations on the Importance of Greek Literature,

»nd the best method of studying the classics; translated from the Latin of Prof IVytlenbach. Boston, iS20. On the importance

of thorough study, see Hints on the Study of the Greek Language, by Prof. Stuart, in the BiW. Repository, No. vi. vol ii. p. 200.

Of. Prof. A. S. Packard, On the best method of studying the ancient Languages ; in the Lectures before the American Institute

j/ Instruction. Boston, 1834. S.—Niebuhr, Letter to a young Philologian, translated by Prof. Hacketl, in tlie Christian Remnc,

Dec. 1S42.— ff. Felton, Dissertation on reading the Classics. Lond. 1718. 12. 1730. 8. We may here recommend to the schohr

Ihe work euti ted Classical Studies, hy B. Sears, C. C. Fdlon, :ini B. B. Edwards. Bost. Is-43. 12.

Translating from the vernacular into the language which the student wishes to learn,
is eminently useful. In the study of Greek, this exercise has been practiced among us
much less than in the study of Latin ; owing chiefly to the want of suitable helps to
enable the learner to begin it in the outset of his course ; that deficiency is now sup-
plied (cf. § 7. 5) ; and the student should commence the writinr: of Greek as soon as he
enters upon his Chrestomathy or Reading-book.

5. How far Readingr-Bnoks, comprising mere extracts and selections, should be used, has been
I subject of inquiry. In this country f'^r niany years, until recently, the course of study has been
".hiefly confined to such books in the Collesres as well as other schools. Lately, objections have
aeen ursred which have awakened some prejudice aj:ainst them. No friend of learninij can ob-
ject to the reading of "whole authors," which has been demanded. BiU the time allowed to
Greek, in the present systems of study at our Colleses, is not sufficient for reading the icliole of
more than one or two important authors; and there are many advantajes in using a well pre-
pared hnnko^ selections. Yet that the sttident, who would derive full advantasjeor pleasure from
Ihe study, must go beyond his Collectanea or Excerpta needs not to be stated. In what order it
is best to read the Greek authors is less obvious. The Odyssey of Homer and Jlnabasis of Xeno-
phon are adapted for an early place in the course.

Cf. Prof. Stmce's remirks in Ihe BM. Repository, vol. ii. p. 740.—/. G. Schilling, Deber den Zweck nnd die M-thode beym
Lespn der Gr u. Rom. Class. Hamb. and Kiel, 1795. 1797, 2 Abth. S.—Fr. Creiizer, Das akad. Stud, des Alterthums. Heidelb. I?07. 8.
-K. G. Schelle. Welche alie class. Autoren, wie, in welcher Folge und Verbindung mit andern Studien soil man sie auf Scbulen
tesen ? Lpz. 1'24. 2 Bde. S.—H Sulzer. Gedanken Ober d. beste Art d. class. Schriflst. zu lesen. Berl. 1765. 8.— Thiersch, Ceber
fchulen, &c 3'e Abth. as cited above, § 2 — Cf Fuhrmann, as cited P. IV. \ 29. 4.

$ 66, The following extract, from the Calendar of the London Universily for 1832, macnot be wbolly


without interest; since it gives a view of the method of instruction proposed to be followed in
that Institution, as presented in outline by the two Professors of the classical department.

" The instruction in the Laiin and Greek classics is communicated by daily examination of the students in certain portions of a
Latin or Greek author (for which they are required to prepare at home) ; by questions on the subjec'-matter and the words of the
author ; by remarks on the peculiarities of the language and on important facts ; by reference to books, or parts of books ; by the
aid of maps, plans, views, models, coins, medals, &c. ; and finally, by requiring from the student translations from these two lan-
guages into English, and from English into Latin or Greek, with other exercises of various kinds.— There are, in all the classes,
regular eiaiuiaitions at Christmas, Easter, and the close of the Session, conducted chiefly after the Cambridge plan, by written
answers to questions privately printed ; by these it is determined to whom Certificates of Proficiency shall be granted and the prizes

Outline of Count in Latin Language and Literature. — " The insfrucfion in this department will, from the commencement of
the Session 1S31-32, be divided into three courses, as follows -.—Tbt Junior Class will begin with two or three books of Caesar's Gallic
War. A certain portion of this will be daily translated by the student himself, in the lecture-room.. But to make him accurately
acquainted with the language, he will be called upon, both orally in the lecture-room, and in writing out of it, to translate a num-
ber of short sentences from English into Latin. All of these will be selected from Csesar's own writings, so as to illustrate the dif-
ferent idioms, as they from time to lime occur. Those for immediate translation will, of course, be very simple ; while such as are
to be translated out of the lecture-room will be of a difEcully somewhat greater, but still simple. These exercises are already pre-
pared, and will be printed before the autumn of the next year. No English-Latin Dictionary will be required by Ihe student ; all
those words for which he might want to consult such a book will be supplied with the exercises. After he has thus overcome the
difEculties occurring in narrative, he will read Terence's Andria, where the idioms peculiar to dialogue will present themselves.
These also w'l be fully explained to him, and impressed upon his memory in the same way, viz. by easy passages, carefully selected
for translation from the other plays of Terence, and those of Plautus.— The Manilian Oration will close the Session.— In this class
by far the largest share of the student's attention will be directed to the idioms and structure of the language. At the same time it
will not be forgotten, that an acquaintance with certain portions of history, geography, and antiquities, is necessary to the full under-
standing of e . ery Latin author. The translations from English into Latin will be required four times a week, and once a week a

written translation from the text of the author. The Senior Class will commence with the twenty-first and twenty-second books

of Livy, a"d ihe ninth book of the .ffineid ; they will afterwards read part of Cicero's Letters, and the Satires or Epistles of Horace.
In connection with the two prose writers, there will be regular exercises adapted to each author, as in the Junior class; but they

will be of a more difficult character. In this class also, a weekly translation from some portion of the text will be required.

In the Higher Class, the instruction will be of a different character. The Professor will himself translate and explain some portion
of a more difBcult Latin author, or read a lecture connected with the history, antiquities, or language of Rome.— Thus in the Session
of 1831-32, it is proposed, that the subject should be,— 1st. A play of Plautus ; fragments of Ennius and the earlier writers, with some
of the old -St inscriptions; and a Course of Lectures on the etymological structure of the Latin language.— 2d. History of Cicero's
times, illustrated by his Orations and Epistles."

Outline of Coarse in Greek Language aiid Literature.—" There are two regular academical classes. Junior and Senior, besides
a class for more advanced students. In the Junior and Senior cLisses, instruction is given daily, except Saturday ; in Ihe Higher class,
twice a week.— JuJiior Class. This class is intended for those young students who enter the L'niversily at the earliest peri"od that is
recommended; and also for students of a more advanced age, who have learned Grees only a short lime, and wi>ih to avail them-
selves of the more elementary kind of instruction. The Anabasis of Xenophon is the text-book, of which small portions are read
daily, except Saturday. At the commencement of the Session, the etymological structure of the language is developed by explaining
the particular forms that occur in each lesson, and by exhibiting on the bkck board other examples of the classes to which they
belong. Each lesson is twice read on successive days, and the mere difScult parts are also translated and explained by the Professor.
AVritten translations of certain portions are required once a week, and they are corrected with reference both to the meanins and
the mode of e .pression. One student's exercise is also selected to be read aloud in the lecture room by the Professor, who makes
such remarks as he may judge proper, and calls on other students to read aloud parts of their exercises, and to explain any thing in
them that is imperfect or obscure. When this exercise htis been corrected, each student is expected to be able to give orally, and
with closed book, the Greek text cornsponding to the English, which the professor reads out in short portions, and whenever it is
practicable, in distinct propositions. To aid the student still further in acquiring the language by written exercises, short English
sentences are given to him to be turned into Greek, the model or example to be imitated being always contained in some part that
he has read, and to which he is referred.— During the Session the Professor explains the geography of Greece, and the Greek
ishnds of the Mediterranean, and gives also such instruction on the geography of Asia as is necessary to understand the narrative
of Xenophon. Every well ascertained fact of physical or modern political geography that can elucidate ancient geography comes
within the plan. These explanations are always followed by examination. The student is reconimended to use the maps of Ihe
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and is referred to others on a larger scale in the Lecture room and the Library.—
The subject matter of the Anabasis is explained to the student, as well as the language ; it being the Professor's desijn to connect,
as far as he is able, all kinds of useful information with the accurate study of the Greek text.— For the Session lf.30-31, the first

four books of the Anabasis are read. In the Session of 1831-32, the last three will be read. The Senior Class. This class is

intended for those who have passed through the Junior Class, and for others who have come prepared to enter it. The general
plan for the Junior class applies to this also, with such modifications as the higher acquirements of the pupils may render necessary.
In the Session IS30-31, the class reads Herodotus, Book iii. ; Ihe Orestes of Euripides ; and two books of the Iliad. In the Session

1831-32, Ihe Senior Class will read Herodotus. Book viii. ; the Persse of .^Ischylus; and two books of the Odyssey. Higher

Class. The object of this class is to assist those students of more advanced age or acquirements, who are privately prosecuting
their Greek studies. For this purpose the Professor explains some portion of a Greek author, by translating the Greek text, making
the necessary remarks on the subject-matter and the words, and by referring the students to books, maps, coins, &c., for further
illustration. It is his intention to choose for explanation such books as will be most instructive to older pupils ; Tliucydides, the
Attic orators. Homer, Aristophanes, &c. During part of each Spring Course, Greek inscriptions will be explained to the class,

Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 91 of 153)