Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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from BoeckVs Corpus Inscriptionum, and from the marbles of the British Museum "

On the studies of the University of Cambridge in England, cf. Korth Amer. Rev. for Jan. 1837. For a notice, by Prof. B.

Sears, o( [he mode of instruction iu the celebrated Orphaii-house Gymnasium at Halle, see the Annals of Education (or Ihe
yen 1834.- There is a late work on the slate of education in the west of Europe ; Fr. Thiersch, Ueber den gegenwirtigen Zustand
des Offentlichen Unterrichts in Deutschland, Holland, Ffaukreich und Belgien. 1838. 3 Parts.

} 6 c. We introduce here an outline of a Method of Logical Analysis applied to the Greek Lan-
guage, which may be of service in suggesting hints to students and to teachers.

PKELIMINAKY REMARKS. I sentence and the different sentences of a com-

1. Logical Analysis examines and unfolds the position bear to each other. It does not consi-

•jaiural relation, which the different parts of a 1 der the etymological forms nor the grammatica.



p. V.



EXERCISES IN STUDYING GREEK. LOGICAL ANALYSIS.



441



syntax of words ;'it presupposes a knowledge
ofthese ; but it particularlj- confines itselt'to the
connection of tlie language and the thought.

2. There are peculiar advantages to the scho-
lar in applying this analysis to the Greek lan-
guage. The Greek is constructed on principles
more uniform and consistent, more thoroughly
eysteniiitical and logical than most other lan-
guages. When its sentences are properly ana-
lyzed, they present not only a beautiful sym-
metry of parts which pleases the taste, but also
a logical and philosophical structure and con-
nection, to examine and contemplate which will
necessarily promote the discipline of the mind.



EXPLANATION OF PRINCIPLES.

3. The composition to be analyzed consists
of sentences, and two things are to be consider-
ed; 1. the relation and connection between the
parts of each sentence taken by itself; 2. the
relation and connection between the sentences
themselves taken as wholes.

I. Relation and connection between the parts of a
sentence.

4. A simple sentence has one subject, and one
verb not iii the infinitive mood, with or without
an object.

E. g. of fiaStjTal tyvo<rav raina navra, " the disciples
knew atl these things ;" — oi ayaOol Tijiovvrcu, " the good are
lionored."

Where two or more simple sentences fall
within one and the same period, they consti-
tute a compound sentence.

E. g. jrdvTiS, 04 a.CiKov<ri., rLpLuigCav Soirovcri.; "all, who
do injury, shall render satisfaction."

5. Simple sentences, whether alone or con-
stituents of compound sentences, may have
three principal parts, viz. the subject, the at-
tribute, the object ; and must have two principal
parts, viz., the subject and the attribute. — The
subject is the person or thing chiefly spoken of,
and is the nominative case to the'verb of the
sentence. — The attribute is the action, passion,
or circumstance affirmed or denied respecting
the subject, and is always the finite verb of the
sentence, or the finite verb taken in connection
with an adjective, or participle, or infinitive
mood. — The object is the person or thing affect-
ed by the action affirmed or denied, and is the
word which the verb governs grammatically.

E.g. vi/ita-iS i'Xafie Kpolaov, "justice seized Croesus;"
vi/iims the subject, i'Xapi the attribute, and KpoXaov the ob-
ject ; 6 t'x9pos airlSavt, " the enemy perished ;" b £',\;5pos the
subject, OKidavt the attribute.— The subject is sometimes a
clause of a sentence, or even a whole sentence, as tzi,(7t£V£i.v rots
Xgr)(rTols ffpos^/C£i, " to confide in the virtuous is proper;" the
clause liKTTtvtiv rots XP'/"''''''? '' "'^ subject. — The object
also, although usually a noun or pronoun in the accusative, geni-
tive, or dative case, is often a clause of a sentence, as, e. g.
ipovXero tw naXdi ajii^oTigm nagtXvai, "he desired that his
two sous should be present ;" the object is the whole clause rto
vaWc, &C.— The attribute likewise frequently includes some
word or words connected with the finite verb. E. g. b ttqkt-
PvTtpos nagiiv iTvy;\;ai'£, the attribute is irvyxa-v^ Traowv
taken together ; so in ^ yvvf) X^ysTa: irpoSKEKo^uctvat, " the
woman is said to have brought," Xiytrai ngoiKiKo/iiicivai is
the attribute.

6. These principal parts are in their natural
order, when the subject precedes the attribute
and the attribute precedes the object.

E. g. ii yga<ii^ lSij\ov Tocravra, "the letter exhibited thus
much," the order is natural.— In any other arrangement of the
parts the order is inverted. E. g. TO<Tavra fj ygaipi) U-^Xov ;
the order is inverted.— Perhaps it may be doubtful what order is
the most (ru.'y natural. It is evident, that the same order that is
most common in one language is not the most common in an-
other. But it certainly seems to be the most natural mode in

6G



logical arrangement to place the subject first, the afhmmlion or
denial respecting it next, and then whatever is affected ti- it.

7. Each of the principal parts may be accom-
panied with an adjunct or with adjuncts. An
adjunct consists of two or more words rishtly
combined, but containing no assertion, ai'd ap-
pended to the subject, attribute, or object, to
express some modification.

E. g. Tj ndvSeia, ix riuv farri); ;fpj)^<£T(uv, XC"'^"^'!'
8(uga<a iTToiija-aTo, "Fautheia, from her own property, made
a golden breastplate," Ik tUv lavrvi jjpij/idTcoi' is at adjunct
of the attribute, lizoirjcraTo ; and, in b jilv i|£7rXT;(T£ roiJ bvU-
gov T/^i/(J^/i»)i/, "he fulfilled the predictive voice of the dream,"
ToC bvUgov is an adjunct of the object, ryv (prjurjv ; in ^'ii/i.»/
liira <pgov^(rcius ajfpiKrjatv, " strength with wisdom is profit-
able;" /itTo. <t)govq<rcuj$ is an adju)ict of the subject pw/i?;

Sometimes a single word constitutes an adjunct. E. g. ngotm-
noirjTo airfi ngocUCgri, "there had been constructed lorbim
a seat ;" here avTw is an adjunct of the attribute.

The subject taken together with its adjuncts may be considered
as the logical subject, in distinction from the grammatical sub-
ject, which does not include the adjuncts. Cf. Andrews and
Sloddard't Lat. Gram. § 201.

8. Adjuncts may be modified by other ad-
juncts connected with ihein. In such casea
the adjuncts may be termed complex, and in
analyzing should be divided into their suiiple
parts.

E. g 'iTTTToKgdru y&g, Idvri ISliott), Kal Btwgiovn t*
'OAv/tn-ta, TE'paj iyivtro. "To Hippocrates being a privata
person, and observing the Olympic games, a prodigy hAppened."
Here is a complex adjunct of the attribute, iyivtro ; i. e. 'Ijt-
itoKgdrti is the primary adjunct, and this has its adjuncts iovri
Uiwrij, and SiuigiovTi. to. 'OAi'/inia. — The simple parts of this
complex adjunct are 'limoKgaTU, — IbvTi ItJieoTj), — and Biuigi-
ovTi TO, 'OAti/iTria.

9. An adjunct may be located in its natural
place or out of it. Its natural place is immedi-
ately after the part (whether subject, attribute,
or object) to which it belongs. In any other
situation it is out of its natural place.

E. g. lyui (J' £t'/it iirrdTTXtos c£(>aTOS, " I am full of fear."
(j£i>aTos is an adjunct of the attribute fi'/it i)jrd7:X£os, and is in
its natural place; but in the following iyii it itifiaros trpu
vKOTT^to^, it is out of its natural place. — Here may be repeated
the remark respecting the natural order of the principil parts.
Different languages allow different practices in the arraagemeut
of adjuncts, and in this consists usually a characteristic difference
between languages. When, therefore, it is said in any sentence
the adjunct is not in its natural place, it will not inif ly ttiat the
adjunct is where it should not be, or that it is not in tf.c best
place, but only that it is not in the place where it v.ouii natu
rally be, in a simply logical statement of the proposition or sen-
tence, which it modifies.

10. Sometimes there is in a sentence an ad-
junct not directly connected with either of the
principal parts. In such cases the adjunct is
equivalent to a simple sentence, and may be
termed the adjunct independent.

E. g. Toto-t a 'A6T]valwv (rTgaT-qyol(ri tyXvovro ^Ixa. ai
yviiijiaV Twv fiiv oi)< iiiivruiv avji^aXXav, "Among the
Athenian generals there were different opinions; some of them
beins opposed to an engagement ;" too v jiiv oi/c, &c. is as an ad-
junct independent. So is (Tvvt\dvTi 6' cittuv in the following;
(TVVtXdVTl 6' tiTTCLV, rjv iiptuiv ai)T(uv iSiXTJcriTe ytvla9ax

" to speak in a word, if you would be masters of yourselves ;"

and in the following, navras oT'tid iiaTiBd^ dntiriuvsTO,
wcB' iavTui ^LXovs trvai— " he dismissed all, making on them
such an impression, that they became his friends ;" wcrB' iavr^,
&c. constitutes an adjunct independent.

11. The attribute is often modified or quali-
fied by an adverb, and the subject or the f)bject
by an adjective. In such cases the word is
termed the qualifier of the attribute, sulgect, or
object, as the case may be.

E. g. 'AyaBbs argdrriyos dti £|£i naga o-rpaTito-iJv tH



442



HISTORY OF GREEK LITERATURE.



r >«v pipauzv, " a good general will always enjoy the full
confluence of his soldiers," dya9os, dn and fii^aiav are
puUifiers.

11. Relation and connection between different

sentences.

12. Sentences are usually joined to each other
by some relation or connection, which is ex-
pressed by means of connectives. Tiiese are
either conjunctions, adverbs, or relative pro-
nouns. In analyzing, it is necessary not only
to point out the connective, but also to state the
nature of the relation, which binds the sentence
to that, with which it is connected.

13. It will be impossible to specify here all
the varieties of relation which may exist. A
few only will be stated, and the rest must be
left for the student's discrimination in the exer-
cise of analyzing.

14. Very frequently one sentence is explana-
tory or definitive of another sentence, or of one
of the principal partsof another sentence. This
is the relation usually expressed when a relative
pronoun is the connective.

E. g. ovg IvBivfi ndvrt^ &.nrj\avvov, Toirov; ayawS —
"he esteems those, whom all banish from this place;" here the
relative pronoun ci'S is the connfcdre joining its sentence to the
other toiStous ayanS, and the sentence ov^, &c. is explanatory
of TOVTOVS the object of the other.

15. Sometimes the relation is that of corres-
pondence or comparison as to time, quantity,
quality, or the like. This is the relation usu-
ally expressed, when adverbs are the connec-
tives.

E. g. h TL ■KTalctit, tot'' aKpi/Su>; ravTa lltTa(r$iijcrcTai.,
"if any misfortune sh.iuld occur, then (at that lin)e) these things
will be fully exposed ;"' the adverb tot' is the cminectiie, and
the relation is that of correspondence as to time.

16. A much greater diversity of relations is
expressed by means of the words termed con-
junctions. The following are the more fre-
quent ; namely, continuation or addition, by
(cai, St; explication or expifsvion, by oti, ws ;
inference or consequence, by Siori ; cause or rea-
son, by yap, on ; opposition or contrast, by dXXa,
Si; supposition or condition, by el, av ; exception
by nXijv.

PRACTICAL ILLl^STEATION.

17. To analyze logically a piece of composi-
tion is to determine and point out the relations
of its sentences to each other, and to se[)arate
each sentence into its constituent elements,
according to the principles now explained.

When a passage is offered for analysis, the
following is the method, in which one should
proceed :—l. State whether the period consists
of a simple or compound sf ntence ; if com-
pound, state separately the simple sentences.



attribute, object) , and state whether their order
is natural or inverted ;— 3. If either principal
part have any qualifier mention it, and the re-
spect in which it is qualified; — 4. If there are
adjuncts, assign them to the parts to which
they belong, — slate in what respect they modi-
fy those parts, — if they are complex adjuncts,
specify their simple parts,— and stale whether
they are in their natural place or out of it; — 5.
In reference to each simple sentence, if it be
not connected to any other, slate that it is not ;
but if it be connected, stale with what sen-
tence,— what word is the connective,- and
what is the relation expressed or intended,

E. g. Let the following sentence be taken for analysis.
'EnctSy 6i iTtXtvTTjcrt Aapeios, Kal KUTiiTTr) tl; rf/v ^a(ri»
Mav /lpTa|ip|»)S, Tto-o-ai^^pr'j)? dia/SdXAti.rdv Kiipov ?rpdj
ibv ddcXip6v, (US impovXfuoi aiiT^.

1. The period comprises a compound sentence, having /our
simple sentences, viz. first, inaoi) 6t iTtXtvTTi<Ti Aoptioj ;
second. Kal KaTicTTr], &c.— 2. The principal parts of theyirrf
are AapiXos the subject, and IreArfTijo-t the attribute; there it
no object. The order is inverted.— 3. The attribute has a quali.
fier, in-ad^.— 4. There are no adjuncts.— 2. The principal parts
of the second sentence are ' ApTa?ip|7)S the subject, and /cot^o-tij
the attribute ; there is no object ; the order inverted.— 3. Tha
principal parls have no qualifiers.— 4. The clause eIj ti/v j8o<rt-
XtCav is an adjunct of the attribute KaTltr-ri) ; it modifies the
attribute (established), by showing in what condition or titua-
tion the subject (Artaxerxes) was established ; it is in its natura!
place.— 2. The principal parts of the third sentence are Titraa-
(jjipvTjS the subject, ftapdWci, the attribute, tov Kvgov the
object; they are in the natural order.— 3. The principal parts
have no qualifiers.^-4. The clause Trpdj tov aitX<f)Ov is an ad-
junct of the attribute diapdXXn, expressing the per.son to whom
the accusation was presented, removed from its natural place by
llie intervention of the object Kvpov.—2. The principal parts of
the fourth sentence are ixeivos implied (referring to Kiipov) the
subject, InilSovXiioi the attribute, and aijTui the object; their
order natural.— 3. 4. There are no qualifiers, no adjuncts.—
5. The first sentence, inudij, &c. is connected to the third,
Tio-(ra0£pr?;s CLapdXXii., &c. by the connective iireidij (which
is both a connective and a qualifier at the same time), and the
relation is that of correspondence in ti)nt . Tissaphernes accused
Cyrus at that time, or after that time, when, ^-c— The second
sentence /cut Karia-Trj k. t. A. is connected to the first, ir£id'^
iTtXtVTTjO-e by the connective Kal ; the relation is that of addi
(io?i.— The third sentence is referred back to the preceding para-
graph by the coi.nective di (between intidrj and htXtvTi)a-t) ;
the relation is that of cond'jmation. Here is exhibited a striking
peculiarity of Greek construction, the hiding, as it were, of one
particle behind another. — The fourth sentence is connected to
the third by the connective toy, and the relation is that of erpli.
cation, i. e. it explains wherein or of what Tissaphernes accused
Cyrus.

See .4. X Sylvestre de Sacy, Principles of General Grammar,



of which it is composed; — 2. Separate each ' proper to serve as an Introduction to the Study of Languages.
simple sentence into its principal parts (subject, i Part 3d, as translated by D. Fosdich. Andov. 1834. 12.



help



§7/. Here it will be in place to mention some of the numerous and various
s which the student in Greek may bring to his aid.



There are many ■ It consists of four parts or Courses. The first is designed for
beginners, and is the part published in this country under tha
title of The Gruk Reader. The second part, styled AHiha, con-
sists of extracts illustrating the history of Athens, from the his-
torians and orators. The third, styled Siicrnles, is composed of
philosophical extracts. The fourth is si yled Pr.erisc/ie 5/«men-
lese, and consists of poetical pieces. The Boston Stereotype Edi-
tion of the Reader contains some of the extracts u( Ihf second
and of the fourth parts of the original work : this if the best
American edition ; entitled TTie Greek Reader by Frederic Ja-
Gedike's Griechisches Lesebuch. (edited by Buttmann) cobs. Professor of the Gymnasium at Gotha, &c. 4th American
Berlin. 1821. 8. j f''"'" '^^ ^^^ German edit ; adapted to the Gramcjars of Butt-

/. C. F. Hein:enman't Griech. I^esebuch. Halle. 1816. 8. niann and Fisk.

F. Jacobs, Elereentarbuch der Griech. Sprache. Jena, 1824. 4. ] A Dalzel, 'AvaXtKTa'^XXriviKa 'Hira-ova, sive ColIectaDea
Th. 8. This has been a very common text book in Germany. Graeca Minora ad usum Tironum accommodata. 2d edit. Edicb.



I. Chrestomalhies and Reading Booht.
which are valuable.

Jo. Math. Gctneri Chrestomathia Grseca. Lips. 1731. Several
later editions.

Christ. Frid. Matthis, Chrestomathia Graeea. Mosc. 1773.

Frid Andr. Stroth, Ecloga;, sive Chrestom. Grajc. Quedl.
1776.

Jo. Fnd. Faciut. Griechische Blumenlese. NQmb. 1783.

Jo. Heiar. Martin Emesti, Erstes Vorbereitungsbiich der
Griechischnn Spmche. Altenb. 1784.



p. V.



INTRODUCTION. HELPS IN THE STUDY OF GREEK.



443



1791. Several editions have been published in this country. It
was the common text book for bejinners until the publication
of the Greek Reader, and is still used in some of ihe schools.
The following is considered as the best edition : Collectanea
Grseca Minora, with explanatory notes collected or written by
jS. Dalze', Prof of Greek in the University of Edinburgh. Sixth
Cambridge edition, in which the Notes and Lexicon are trans-
lated into English.

jiiUhon'i Greek Reader is used in some schools.— Co/ton'j
Greek Reader is considerably used.— Likewise the following,
C. C. Feilmi, Greek Reader, containing selections in Prose and
Poetry, with English Notes and a Lexicon: adapted particularly
to the Grammar of E. A. Sophocles. Camb. 1810. 12.

m/ttenbach, "EK\oyai 'la-ropixai, ; or Selecta Principum
Hittoricorum. 21 ed. Amst. ISOS. It has been pronounced an
admirable selection.

A. Dalzel, AvaXeKra'EWrjVtKa Mti^ova, sive Collectanea
Graeca Majora, ad usum Academicae JuveDtutis,&c. 1st edit.
£dinb. 1789. 97. 2 vols. 8. Many editions have been pub-
lished; as e. g. Ihe 8th edit, of 1st vol. and 4th edit, of 2d vol.
under the care of G. Dunbar, Edinb. 1816-17 ; and the 1st
Lond. edit, under the care of C. /. Bloomfidd, Lond. 1821 ; and
the 3d edit, in IS30; and several American editions; particu-
larly under the care of /. S. Pophin, Camb. 1824 ; the notes of
Prof. Popkin, ve.-y briefly and modestly expressed, are very
valuable, and this edition is consiiiered as altogether the best ex-
tant.— A third volume was added by Prof. Dunbar, Edinb. IS19,
comprising a greater quantity of Greek than Ihe first or second ; it
has not been republished in this cnuntry.— The 1st volume was
published, with English notes by C.S. Wheeler, Best. 1840.— The
Grseca ilajoi'a has been until recently, for many years, the prin-
cipal text-book M our Colleges. Cf. §6. 5.— A few editions of par-
ticular authors have been published in our country, designed for
the use of schools and Colleges ; e. g. Robinson^s Portion of Ho
mer ; Fellon's Iliad uf Komtr ; IVoolsey's Alctstis of Euripides,
and other tragedies; Stuart's CEdipus Tyranniis of Sopho
Cleveland's Anabisis uf Xeuophon ; Packard's Memorabilia of
XenophoD, &c. — Among the publicalions of this class in Eng
land, may be rr.enliuneJ the ^alpy Greek Classics, and the ed
tions of i'/o/. Long. — Highly commended is Ihe following co
lection, published in Germany : Fr. Jacobs & K. C. F. Rost.
Bibliotlieca Grseca, viror. doct. recognita ef commenta
riis in usum Scholarum instructa. Gothas, (commenced) 1S26. 8
It was to comprise IS vols, for prose writers and 20 vols, for
poets.

2. Grammars. It would be almost endless to name all the
meritorious. The follo"icg are among Ihe noted.

Jacobi Welltri Grammatica Grsca (edit. Fischer). Lips.
1781. 8.

J. F. Fisdieri Animadversiones, quibus J. Welleri Gram.
GrEca emendatur, &c. (ed. Kuinoel) Lips. 1798 — ISOI. 3 vols. 8,
Trcjidelenburg's AnfangsgrUnde der Griech. Sprache. Leipz.
1805. 8.

iuffmaim'* Griech. Srhul-Graramatik. Berl. 1824.1831.—
fiame, transl. by Edward Everett. Bost. 1822. Abridged (G.
Bancroft).

Buttmann's AusfUhrliche Griech. Sprachlehre. Berl. 1819.
1827. 2 vols. 8. The want of the syntax in thrs work is sup-
plied by G. Eemhardy's large volume on Greek Syntax, pub-
lished 1829 (8vo. with the title, Wissenschaftliche Syntax der
Griechischen Sprache), and much commended by Tholuck.

,i. Matthise, AusfJhrliche gr. Grammalik. Leipz. 1807. 8.
2d edit. \iZl.—Same, transl. by Ed. F. Bloomfield (ed. J. Ken-
rick). Lond. 1832. A 3d edit, was nearly prepared before the
death of Matthiae; since published, Lpz. 1835. 3 vols. 8.

Fr. Thiersch. Grammatik des gemeinen und Homeriscben Dia-
lekts. Lpz. 1819. 8. 3d ed. 1833.

r. Ch Fr. Rost, Griech. Grammatik. 3d edit. Getting. 1826.
Rost's Greek Grammar, translated from the German. Lond.
1827. S. A 5th edit, of the original, 1836.

R. Killiner, AusfUhrliche Grammatik der Griech. Sprache.
Hannov. 1S34. 2 vols. 8.— By the tame, Schulgrammatik d. Gr.
Sprache. Bolh are highly commended. — A translation of the



latter by B. B. Edwards and S. B. Taylor (is announced).
Andov. 1843. 8.

IV. E. Jelf, Grammar of the Gk. Language (chiefly from the
German of R. KUhner). Oxf. 1842. 8.

Jones's Philosophical Grammar. Cf. Class. Journ. xii. 23.—
The Port Royal Greek Grammar ; A new method, &c. Transl.
from the French of the Messrs. de Port Rmjal by T. Nugent.
(latest ed) Lond. 1817.— Smi(A'» Greek Grammar. Bost. 1809.—
/. S. Pophin, Gramm. of the Gk. Lang. Canibr. 182S. 12.

E. Jl. Sophocles, Gk. Grammar for the use of Learners. 3d ed.

1841. 12. Cf. A^. Am. Rev. Apr. 1839, Jul. 1840.

A. Crosby, Grammar of the Gk. Language. Part First. A
practical Grammar of the Attic and common Dialects. Bost.

1842. 12. pp. 239. Cf. N. Am. Rev. No. C.W. p. 491.
Hitherto the following Grammars have been more commonly

used in our schools : the Gloucester ; Moore's ; Falpy's ; Hack-
enberg's, or rather Goodrich's; Buttmann's by Everett ; Fish's,
and Anthon's.—H may be remarked that one chief difference
among the.-e Grammars respects the plan of classing the nouns
and verbs; some reducing the declensions to three, and Ihe con-
jugations to three or two; others retaining the larger numbers
of the old systems. Some excellent thoughts on this Sijbject are
found in a pamphlet styled Remarks on Greek Gramrruirs,
(printed, not published. Bost. 1823.)— A brief history of Greek
grammars may be found also in /. C. BloomfieWs Preface to the
Translation of Matthiae above cited.

To the more advanced student, Buttmann's Larger Greek
Grammar, translated by Edward Robinson CAndover, 1833),
and KUhner's Grammar translated by Edwards and Taylor (as
above mentioned), will be most satisfactory.— For the theological
student we mention in addition, G. B. IVmer's Grammar of the
New Testament, transl. by Stuart and Robinson. Andover
1825. A 3d ed. of Winer, Lpz. 1830. 8. much improved and
highly valued ; a 4th edit.- Lpz. 1836.— A Grammar of the N.
Testament by Prof Stuart. Ando. 1834. 2d ed. Andov. 1S41. 8.
— In speaking of grammatical helps, it is proper to refer to the
treatises of the Greek refugees, as those learned men have some-
times been termed, who on the capture of Constantinople by the
Turks fled into Italy. These treatises were published by .ildus.
(See Hodius 3.oiB:iTierus, as cited P. IV. § 85. 1.)— Con.erning
the Aldme Collection of their grammatical treatises, cf. § 133. —
The ancient grammariam may also be mentioned ; as the
writers just named doubtless drew from these sources. See no-
tice of Ihe Grammariaas,§ 129 ss. — The Scholiasts likewise may
be named, or those v.'ho wrote Greek commentaries on ancient
authors. These, whatever there may be in their comments
that is puerile, dull, or false, nevertheless furnish some valuable
as-sistance. Among the most important works of the kind, are
the commentaries of Ulpian on Demosthenes, and Eustath-.us on
Homer.— On the value of the scholiasts, see Chladenizts, as cited
§ 133.

3. Lexicons. A number are now oflFered to the choice of the
student.

Henrici Stephani Thesaurus Grsec Ling. Genev. 1572.
4 vols. fol. This is the most extensive. A Supplement was
published by Daniel Scott : Appendix ad Stephani Thesaurum.
Lond. 1745. 2 vols. fol. An improved edition of the Thesauri.*
was commenced, Lond. 1815; completed, 1825. (FaJ/iy ed.) Cf.



Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 92 of 153)