Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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i. 66.— /'Aotii Bib. ed. Schott. p. 980.— fleinnc/uen, De Carminibus Cypriis. Havnise (Copenhagen). 1828.— PT. Muller, De Cycle
Grsecorum Epico. Lpz. 1!?29.— <3. Lange, Ueberdie Kyklischen Dichter, &c. Mainz, 1837. 8.— /a/m'f Jahrblcher, for 1830, vol.

ii. p. 240.— Osann, in the Hermes, vol. xixi. p. 1S5. 3 Montfaucon gives an engraving of this Table, with a description, in hit

Antiq. Expl. vol. iv. p. 297 ss.

^ 22. {d) Lyric Poetry. It has already been remarked, that in the earliest poetry
of Greece, music and song were united. The hymns and other mythic pieces of the
sacred poetry were adapted to some instrumental accompaniment. The rehearsals of
the Rhapsodists and epic minstrels were not without the music of the harp or lyre,
employed at least in proems and interludes.

But the poetry distinctively called lyric originated later. It commenced probably in
odes sung in praise of particular gods ; partly addressed to them like hymns, and
partly recounting their deeds. Of these there were many varieties ; as the Tlauw, an
ode to Apollo originally, afterwards to any god ; 'Y-6pxrina, a song accompanied with
dancing as well as music ; AifK>pafj.i3o; , an ode in honor of Bacchus. There was also a
class of songs called Ilpoo-oc^ia, used on festivals and in processions ; as the AaipvT]<popiKa,
sung by virgins bearing laurel branches in honor of Apollo; Tpizo^riipopiKa, sung when
the sacred tripods were carried in procession ; 'Op-xo^opiKci, sung by youth carrying
branches and clusters of the vine in honor of Minerva. There were odes giving thanks
for deliverances, especially from epidemics, 'ETzi'Xoinia ; and others supplicating help
and relief, EtxTtvu. Diana was celebrated in the songs called OiVtyyot ; Ceres, in the
To'.iXoj ; Bacchus, in the 'Uo'idKXoi; Apollo, in the ^i\ri\i'i6ai.

"^23. But lyric song was not confined to the praises of the gods and to religious
festivals. The enthusiasm awakened by the revolutions in favor of liberty burst forth
in effusions of lyric poetry. The tumult and excitement of republican contests and
hazards seem to have been congenial to its spirit. It admitted a free license and va-
riety of meters, and was suited to every imaginable topic that could awaken hvely
interest. It was shortly extended to almost every concern of hfe, and the weaver at
the loom, the drawer of water at the well, the sailor at liis oars, and even the beggar
in his wandering, had each his appropriate song, and, so generally was music culti-
vated, they could usually accompany it with the lyre.

Accordingly we find numerous species of songs spoken of in the classics. Odes to
heroes were of three varieties; the 'EyKcomoi/, proclaiming the deeds of the person cele-
brated ; 'Eratvog, his virtues; and 'Etiviklov, his victories. There were different forms
of nuptial odes; the vfievaioi and yannkia, sung at the wedding; npnama, in conducting
the bride home ; tTTidaXapua, at the door of the bed-chamber. The la^Sog was a sort of
bantering satirical song ; the TraCyvin were of a similar but more sportive and loose cast.
The Traioi/cu and TrapOevia were sung by choirs or companies of boys and virgins. The
EipojiMvai, xeXioovia, and Kopwvianara were songs of mendicants. Finally, without enu-
merating any more, it may be remarked, that Ilgen has pointed out about thirty diffe
rent kinds, in a treatise on the convivial songs of the Greeks. (Cf. § 27.)

C. D. Ilgen, ZkoXui, h. e. Carmina conviv. Graec. Jen. 1798. i.— Burette, Sur la Musique ADcienne, in the Mem. de TAcad. <Ja


biter, as cited P. IV. § 63.— Souctay, Sur I'epithalame, Man. Acad. Inscr. ix. 303.— Cf. Fuhrmann, Klein. Handbnch, p. 113, as
cited $ 7. 9.

§ 24. It has been observed that lyric poetry allowed a great variety of meters.
Many of these were afterwards distinguished by the names of the lyric poets supposed
to have invented them. A great license was also indulged in the torm of the stanzas
or strophes in which the lyric pieces were composed, both as to the number of verses
or lines included in them, and the order or succession of lines of different meters. The
earliest and siinplest form of strophe consisted of two lines or verses of different meter.
The second form seems to have included four verses, consisting of at least two meters,
used by Alcaeus, Sappho, and Anacreon. But strophes of a more artificial composition
were employed by Alcman and Stesichorus. Those of Pindar, and such as are used
in the choral parts of tragedy, exhibit the greatest art in their construction.

On the meters and strophes consult Hermann, and Seagcr, as cited § 7. 4. (ft) »

^ 25. Lyric poetry began to flourish at the close of the second period we have pointed
out, from the Trojan war to Solon, and after epic had reached its height. The most
ancient of the lyric poets (as distinguished from the mythic, epic, and cyclic poets),
whose name is recorded, was Thaletas of Crete, induced by Lycurgus to remove to
Sparta. (Cf. Plutarch on Lycurgus.) Archilochus, Alcman, Alcaeus, and Sappho,
flourished just before Solon, or about the same time, and were all celebrated among
the ancients, particularly the first and last of them ; but we have nothing of their
writings except a few fragments.

In the next period, between Solon and Alexander, lyric poetry was cultivated with
increased ardor and splendid success. Simonides, Stesichorus, and Bacchylides, are
mentioned with praise. Many other names of less note are also preserved ; as Lasus,
Hipponax, Ibycus, Pratinas, Asclepiades, Glycon and Phalajcus, Melanippides, Ti-
motheus, Telestes, and Philoxenes. Several poetesses also adorned the circle of lyric
authors in this age; as Erinna, Myrtis, Corinna, Telesille, and Praxilla. But it is not
from any of the writers we have named, that the lyric poetry of the Greeks derives its
high reputation among modern scholars ; for of all their works almost every thing has
perished; a loss which some of the mutilated portions remaining cause us much to

Time has been more sparing in reference to the performances of two other poets, to
whom the judgment of all has ascribed the palm of pre-eminent excellence in lyric
verse, Anacreon and Pindar. Each of these excels, yet their characteristics are totally
opposite. Anacreon sings of women and roses and wine ; Pindar of heroes, of public
contests, of victories and laurels. The one melts away in amatory softness ; the other
is ever like the foaming steed of the race, vaulting in the pride of conscious strength,
or the furious war-horse, dashing fearlessly on, over every obstacle. Under these
masters, Grecian lyrics were advanced to their greatest perfection.

§ 26. The ancients speak of nine as the principal lyric poets, viz. Alcman, Alcaeus,
Sappho, Stesichorus, Ibycus, Anacreon, Simonides, Pindar, and Bacchylides. It will
be observed that all these have been already mentioned. The age of Pindar com-
pletes essentially the history of lyric poetry in Greece, as that of Homer does the
history of epic. No eminent genius appears after him.

In the next period after the time of Alexander, we hear of several poetesses, as-
Anyta, Nossis, and Mcero; and some of the poets at Alexandria wrote lyrical pieces,
as Philetas, Lycophron, and Calhmachus. But after the Roman supremacy we shall
scarcely find a strictly lyrical production noticed in the fullest detail of Grecian poetry.

On the subjects and varieties of Lyric Poetry, see Eschenbw^'s Entwurf einer Theorie, &c. as before cited. — Encyc. Amer. under
Lyric, — On the general character and history of Greek Lyric Poetry, see Preface to Dacier's Transl. r,f Horace. — M. de la Nauze
Sur les chansons de I'ancienne Grece, in Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscr. ix. 320. — Euriter/s Gen. Hist. Music Lond. 1776. i.—Meiu-
titer de Querlon, Mem. Hislor. sur la chanson en ?en. et en part. Francoise. Par. 1765. 3 vols. S.—Biitmcal Essay on the Orig. and

Prog, of National Song. pref. to Select Coll. Eng. Son^s. Lond. 1783. 3 vols. %.—Sidzer's Allg. Theorie, artic. Ode, Lied, &c.

For several names of Lyric poets which are not mentioned above, and of which we have no remains, see N. Amer. Rex. Jan. 1842.

p. 188. On the poete-sses, /. C. Wolf, Poetriae Octo ; Erinna, Myrtis, Corinna, Telesilla, Praxilla, Nossis, Anyla, Myro ; Gr. et

Lat. Hamb. 1734. 4. with the Dissertation of Olearius on the Gk. Poetesses. — It may not be improper to cite here J. C. Wolf.
Mulierum Fragmenta Prosaica, Gr. & Lat. cum not. variorum; accedit Catalogus Fceminarum olim illustrium. Lond. 1739. 4.

^ 27. (e) The Scolion {(jkoXiov a^iia). This was a species of poetry, which appeared
before the time of Solon, and flourished especially in the period between him and
Alexander. It was nearly allied to lyric poetry ; or, more properly speaking, was
only a peculiar form of it, consisting of little songs, designed for social purposes, and
particularly used at banquets and festive entertainments.

The word aKo\i6v, employed to designate the kind of song here described, has tronbled the
grammarians. It properly signifies something crooked or distorted (detourne), and evidently
indicates something irregular in the poetry to which it is applied. The question has arisen,
wherein consisted the irregularity ? According to Suidas, the Greeks had three modes of sing-
ing at the table. First, all the guests forming a joint chorus, chanted a peean accompanied by the
harp, in honor of some god. Then, the harp was passed from euest to guest, beginning with the
one occupying the chief place, and each was requested to sing some morceau or sonnet from
Simonides, Stesichorus, Anacreon, or other favorite author. If any one declined playing, he
might eing without the harp, holding in his hand a branch of myrtle. There was a iAird manner.


which required absolutely the accompaniment of the harp, and something of the skill of an artist.
Hence the harp did not pass in order from guest to guest, but when one perfnrnier had finished
some couplets, he presented the myrtle-branch to another qualified to continue the song and
music. This one, having completed his part in turn, gave the branch to a third, and so on.
Along with the myrtle was presented also to the singer the cup or vase, which from this prac-
tice gained the name of wJrij. From this mode of passing the harp, in an irregular manner, the
poem thus recited was termed (tkoXiop. — Plutarch, on the other hand, states that the scolia were
accompanied with the sound of the lyre; that this instrument was presented to each guest, and
those who were unable to sing and play could refuse to lake it ; he adds that the aKoXiov was so
called because it was neither common nor easy. Hut he gives also another e.xplanaiion, accord-
ing to which the myrtle branch is represetited as passing trom couch to coucii in the f 'llovving
way : the first guest on the first couch passed it to the first on the second couch, and he to the
first on the third; it was then returned to the first couch, and the guest occupying the second
place there, having sung and played, passed it to the second on the second couch, and tiius it
went through the whole company. From this crooked manojuvring the songs of the table were

called cKoXia. These explanations are too subtle to bf perfectly satisfactory. It seems much

more simple to suppose the name to have referred originally to the irregularity of meter, in
which respect the scolion seems to have had unlimited license. The subjects of these songs
were not always the pleasures of the table and the cup. They often treated of more serious
matters, including sometimes the praise of the gods. Songs for popular use, and those designed
to enliven manual labor and domestic care, as those of shepherds, reapers, weavers, nurses, &c.
went under the common name of aKoXia. The earliest known author of scolia, or according to
Plutarch the inventor of music adapted to them, is Terpander, of Antissa in Lesbos, w ho lived
about 670 B. C. Other authors of such pieces are recorded; as Clitagorus the Lacediemonian,
Hybrias of Crete, Timocreon of Rhodes. Archilochus, and other lyric poets, composed pieces
which belong to the class here described.

See M. de la Nauze, cited § 26 ; Burette, and Ilgen, cited § 23, especially the latter.—^. H. Cludiui, von dem .Skolion der GriecheD,
in the BM. d. alt. Liter, u. Kunst. No. 1.— &A6H, Hist. Litt. Gr. bit. ii. ch. 5.

^ 28. if) Elegiac Poetry. The origin of elegiac poetry was an ancient theme of dis-
pute if we may credit Horace : Quis tamen exiguos clegos aniserit auctor, Grammatici
certant, et adhuc subjudice lis est. " It appears," says SchoU, " that the grammarians
of Alexandria (for to these Horace doubtless alludes) raised this question from their
confounding times and terms. The matter becomes clear when we give to terms their
proper meaning. It is necessary to distinguish between the ancient eXeyda of Callinus,
and the later I'Asyos, the invention of which has been attributed to Simonides. The
first was merely a lyric piece, particularly a war-song, composed of distichs with hexa-
meter and pentameter alternating, the original form of Ionian lyrics. The word I'Aeyoj
(from £, alas ! and Ajycj) signifies a lamentation ; and any lyric poem oji a mournful
subject was so termed. I'he Attic poets, when they sung on a mournful theme, em-
ployed the distich of alternate hexameter and pentameter, which had been previously
used in the war-song. It was now that this distich received the name iXeyzia, from the
new class of subjects to which it was applied ; for it wa§ not originally so called, but
went by the general name of eVo? , afterwards restricted to heroic verse. The term was
therefore the "name of a hind of meter or strophe, rather than a kind of poetry. The
grammarians, overlooking this, called the two kinds by the name of elegy, because
the meter was the same in both."

Calhnus of Ephesus is regarded as the author of the first poem composed in elegiac
meter. He is commonly supposed to have lived about 684 B. C. Others place him
much earlier. The fragment ascribed to him is part of a song stimulating his compa-
triots to fight valiantly against their enemies the Magnesians. TyrtiEus is next in time,
immortalized by his songs composed for the purpose of rousing and encouraging the
Spartans in a war with Messenia.

§ 29. The first example of the new application of the elegiac meter (i. e. to mourn-
ful themes) is said to have been given by Mimnermus of Colophon in Ionia, about
590 B.C. The few verses remaining of him breathe a sweet melancholy, deploring
the rapid flight of youthful days, and the brevity and ills of human life.

But Simonides is considered as the inventor of the proper elegy, although he neither
devised the meter, nor first applied it to topics of a saddening cast ; but it was after Si-
monides that the name cXfyoj was given to a poem of considerable size in distichs of
hexameter and pentameter. Most of his pieces which are preserved are, however,
epigrams rather than elegies. Antimachus a lyric poet, Euripides the tragic writer,
and Hermesianax, are mentioned among the authots of elegies in the period now be-
fore us, between Solon and Alexander.

In the next period, the only elegiac writer of any importance was Callimachus ;
although Alexander the .^Etolian and Philetas of Cos are named. Callimachus was
much admired and imitated by the Romans. After him elegiac verse does not appear
to have been cultivated at all among the Greeks.

In conclusion, very little of the Greek elegiac poetry remains to us, but some of the
fragments we have are in strains pecuharly soft and sweet.

On the orisrin of Greek Elejiac Poetry, see /. V. Francke, Callinus sive Quaestiones de orlg. cann. ele?iaci. Alton. IS16. b.—C
A. iJoKifer, Abh. Uber die Fabel vom Mar?) as, in W i e 1 a n d's Jttisch. Mutevm. B. i. St. Z.—HchnU Hist. Gr. Litt. bk. ii. ch
5.— On Greek elegiac poeir>' general'y, Fraguier, Sur Telegie Gr. & Laf. in fie Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. (tome viii. ed. d'Amst.)
Par. cd. vol. vi. p. 2'n.—Souchay, Discours sur les Elegiaques grecs, in the Mem. de I'Aead. det hucr. vol. vii. 333, 352.— £jcA«i.
burg't Entwu-' '.cited J 14) p. 165.— C. Cxsar, DeCarniinis Gracorum Elegiaci Origineet Notione. Marb. 1S41. 8.

454 HISTORY OF greek literature.

§ 30. (g) Bucolic or Pastoral Poetry. This species of poetry is supposed to have
taken its rise from the rustic songs of Sicihan shepherds. Its invention is ascribed to
a certain Daphnis, who hved in the early fabulous ages, and enjoyed the reputation of
a divine descent, while he pastured his flocks at the foot of mount ^tna.

But Theocritus, belonging to the Alexandrine age of Grecian literature, may be con-
sidered as the father of bucolic song. The Idyl had not been cultivated by any writer
before him. This term, from eiivWiov, signifies a little picture, a representation in
miniature, a delicate piece of poetical drawing. The Greek Idyl does not seem to
have been confined to any one topic exclusively, yet was chiefly employed in repre-
senting the scenes of pastoral life. Its external form was marked by the use of the
Hexameter verse and the Doric dialect. Theocritus carried it to a high degree of per-
fection; and in pastoral poetry, no poet, ancient or modern, has surpassed him.

In fact, Greek bucohc poetry begins and ends with Theocritus. Two other poets
belonging to the same age, viz. Bion and Moschus, are commonly ranked in the class of
bucolic or pastoral writers. But neither of them is considered as equal to Theocritus ;
and the subjects and scenes of their poetry have more of the lyrical or mythological
than of the pastoral character.

On Pastoral Poetry in general ; Eem. de Fmtenelle, Disc, sur la nat. de I'eclogue. P. 1688. S.—Ch. CI. Genest, Diss, sur la Poej.
pastor. &c. Par. 1707. \2—Florian, Ess. sur la Pastorale, in Pref. to his Estelle. Par. 178S. 12.— F'aguier, Sur I'eclogue, in Mem.
de VJlcad. des Inscr. ii. 121.— Pope, Disc on Pastoral Poetry, in Tomson's Miscell. Ix)nd. 1707. 8.— The Guardian, No. 28, 30, 32.
—Newberry, P 'etry on a new Plan. Lord. 1762. S.—Blair^s Lectures.

On Greek Pastoral Poetry ; M. Ooully de Bois Robert, Disc, sur les anc. Poet, bucol. de Sicile, in Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. vol.
V. p. ^b.—Jacq. Hardion, Hist, du Berger Daphnis, in the same Mem. &c. vol. vi. p. ib^.—lVarton, de poesi bucolica Graec. pre-
face to his edit, of Theocritus. O.'son. 1770.— Arethusa.oder die bukolisch. Dichter des Alterthums. Berl. 1806—10. 2 Bde. 4.—
SchUl, Hist. Gr. Litt. bk. iv. ch. 33.— MiZHer's Dorians, bk. iv. ch. 6. § W.— Class. Joum. xs. 124. xvii. 74.

§ 31. (h) Didactic Poetry, In this form of poetry, the literature of the Greeks was
not peculiarly rich. The objects which didactic poetry has in view, may be included
under two heads; it aims to give instruction, either in what pertains to morals, or in
what pertains to science or art. In the earliest specimen of didactic poetry among the
Greeks — the Works and Days of Hesiod — there is a combination of both ; the first
book chiefly consisting of moral precepts, and the second of rules of husbandry, con-
cluding however with a repetition of precepts on the conduct of hfe. This production
belongs to the period before Solon.

The next productions, which we meet in the account of Grecian didactic poetry,
consist wholly of moral precepts or sentences (yv^ai). From this circumstance, the
writers have "been called Gnomic poets. The poetry consists of pithy maxims, ex-
pressed with brevity and force. The metrical form may have been chosen principally
for the sake of memory. Pythagoras, Solon, Theognis, Phocylides and Xenophanes,
are the chief among the Gnomic poets. Fragments remain ascribed to each of these;
not all, however, considered genuine, especially the Golden Verses of Pythagoras, and
the Exhortation of Phocylides.

There was a pecuhar species of composhion, to which it may be proper here to
allude, as another form of didactic poetry ; viz. the fable or apologue ((irdXoyoj and \^yo:).
The most ancient Greek fables are two or three ascribed to Arcliilochus and Stesi-
chorus, and one found in Hesiod. The most celebrated fables are those of ^sop, who
lived in the age of Solon. They were probably composed in prose. Socrates trans -
lated some of them into verse. They were collected in a body by Demetrius Phale-
reus. and a translation of them is said to have been made about the same time into
elegiac verse. In the age of Augustus they were translated into the verse called Cho-
liambics, by Babrius. This metrical version is supposed to have been the basis of the
modern copies, which are in prose, and belong perhaps more properly to the subject
of philosophy.

On the Greek Gnomic Poetry; Meiner's Gesch. d. Wissenschaften in Griechenland u. Rom. Lemgo, 1781. 8.— ffcyne'j Pref. to
Sentent. vefusliss. Gnom. poelarum Op. Lips. 1776. 2 vols.— 7. Frobenim, Scriptores Gnomici, &c. Bas. 1521. 8. containin;
fragments of about seventy poets.— iruncft, Gnomici Poet. Graci, cited below, § M t.—U. H. Rohde, De vetsr. poetar. sapien'ia
gnomica, &c. Havn. 1800. 8.

On the Apologue or Fable generally ; Eschenburg, Entwurf, p. 94.—Gellert, Diss, de Poesi Apolog. eorumque scriptoribus. Lips.
1744. i.—Sulzer's Allg. Theor. art. Fabel.—Ltssing's Abhandlungen, in his Fier BUchem .msapisch. Fabeln. Berl. 1777. 8.—
On the Greek Fable ; /. M. Heusinger, Dissert, de ri. Mi. Fabulis. Ger. 1741. 8.— Eschenburg, Entwurf, &c. p. \02.—Schbl',
Hist. Litt. Gr. bk. iii. ch. 9.

"^ 32. The Alexandrine age presents several didactic poets. The first in chrono-
logical order were two Sicilians, Dicsearchus and Archestratus. The former wrote, in
iambic verse, a geographical description of Greece. He was a disciple of Aristotle,
and left a+so some philosophical pieces. The latter traversed many lands examining
the subject of human food and nourishment, and gave the result of his experience and
research in a poem entitled Gastrologi/. At the very close of the period was Nican-
der, of Colophon, or of ^tolia according to others. His two poems (called BripiaKa,
relating to venomous bites; and 'AXslupapixaxa, relating to other poisons) have more of
Doetic elegance than of scientific merit. His Georgics and Metamorphoses (Erepoioi'
urva), both lost, are said to have furnished hints to Virgil and Ovid.



But the first pjace in point of excellence belongs to Aratus, who flourished at the
Macedonian court, about 270 B.C. His astronomical poem is highly commended by
the ancients. Cicero translated it into Latin verse. Aratus is the poet quoted by Paul
before the Areopagus. (Acts xvii. 28.)

In the next period, after the capture of Corinth, B. C. 146, there were also several
writers belonging to the class now under notice ; but none of them of much celebrity.
Among the principal were Babrius or Babrias and Oppian. The former has been
already mentioned as author of a metrical version of the apologues of .^sop. I'he latter
wrote on fishing and hunting; a third poem, not extant, on fovAing, is also ascribed to
him. The following are likewise mentioned: ApoUodorus of Athens, who wrote a
poetical chronology (Xf/OM^u) and a description of the earth (r^fj Trrpiot'o,) ; Scymnus of
Chios, and Dionysius of Charax, authors each of a Voyage of the World {Ikpniyriats
oiV9"//f 'r/,-) ; Heliodorus, author of a poem entitled 'A-oAi>ri*ru ; and Marcellus of Sida, in
the time of the Antonines, who wrote a poem of forty-two books on medicine (j3ii3\ia


After the seat of the Roman government was changed, there were, as has been
mentioned, numerous inferior poets. Several of them would fall into the class of di-
dactic poets, but they scarcely deserve to be named. Among them were Naumachius,
author of a poem on astrology ; Dorotheus, author of a poetical treatise on triangles,
and another on the places ot the stars; and Manuel Philes, who wrote on the pecu-
Uarities of animals (Ilrpl ^ubtv iStorriros).

On Didictic Poetry in general ; Eschenlntrg, Entwurf, &c. v.—Marmovtel, Poelique T. ii. cli. 22.— Racine, Reflex, sur la poesie,
ch. 1.—ll'arton's Diss, on Did. Poetry (pref. to Trans, of Firgil).~Essay pref. to Di-ydeii'i Trans, of yirg. Georg.—Sutzer'a Allg.

Theor. art. LehrgedicM. On the Greek Didactic Poets, Manso's Abh. in the Nachtr. zu Sulzer, B. iii. 49. and vi. 359.— ScASZJ,

Hist. Lilt. Gr. bk. iii. ch. 8, 9. bk. iv. 32, 52. bk. vi. ch. 74.

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