Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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relate to the Greek poets, or classes of them, collectively.

I. History and character.— Z,tZ. Greg. Giraldi Historiae Poetar. lam Grsec. quam Latin. Dialo'i X. Baa. 1548. 8.— G. J. Vossitu,
de veterum poelarum Gracorum et Lalinorum temporibus. Amst. 1654. 4 —Hartmann, Versuch einer allg. Geschichle der Poesie
der Griechtn und Ronaer. Berl. 1788. 8.— ie Ft-vre, Vies des Poetes Grecs; T. Faber, Vitas Poetarum Graecorum, in Grmovius,
vol. X. cited P. in. § 13. 2.— Lor. Crasso, Istorii d'Poeli Greci. Nap. 1678. fol.— B. Kennttt, Lives and Characters of the ancient
Grecian Poets. Lond. 1697. 8. 2d ed. Lond. 1735. n.—Charaktere der vornehmsten Dichler oiler Naliomn, fyc. von einer Gesdi-
ichaft von GeUhrten. Lpz. 1792, ss. 8.— C. A. Elian, Specimens of the Classic Poets, from Homer to Tryphiodorus. Lond. 1814.
8 vols. 12. Of. Lond. Quart. Rev. xiii. 151.— G. H. Bode, Geschichte der Hellenischen Dicbikunst. Commenced I>eipz. 1S38.
2 vols. 8. Cf. A'. Amer. Rev. Apr. 1 840.— t'frtci, Gesh. d. Hellen. Dichtk. Berl. i-i.-. .t.

2. Collections.— /£. F. Ph. Brunch, 'HSucfi noCTja-i;, sive Gnomici poetas Graeci. Arg. 1784. S—Same, with additions by O
SchUfer. Leips. 1S17. 8— Claude Chapelet, Poelae grasci christian!. Par. 1669. S.—JEm. Porti Novem Lyrici Graecorum. (pr.
Commeline) Heidclb. 1598. 8. Repr. Anjou. 1611. 4.—Slephaniis, 'Oi rrjs ■f)gutXKv? TToiija-tui; irpuirsiovTts TroiTjral icai
6'AAoi Ttt/Ej. Poetse gneci princ heroic, carni. Par. 1566, fol.— By same, Uoiija-is 4)i.X6(To(^os. Poesia philosophica, &c. Par.
1573. 8 — /. Lectius, Poets graeci veteres, carmini heroici Scriptores, &c. Aurel. Ailobro?. 1606. fol.— Same, Poelae grsci veteres
trastici, comici, &c. Colon. Allobrog. 1614. 2 vols, (oh— Mich. Maltaire, Miscellanea Graecorum aliquot scriptorum carmina
Lond. 1722. i.— Morel, E comicis grascis xlii deperditis sententiae cnllectae (gr. et lat). Par. 1553. 8— G. Dindorf, Poetae Scenici
Grasci. Lips. 1830. — A. Schneider, tilowruiv avSrj, sive poetriarum Graecarum carminum fragmenta. Giessae, 1702. 8.; contain'
ingthe fragments of Sappho, Erinne, Myro, Corinna, &c — J. C. Wolf, Poetriae Octo, cited 5 26.— Hertel, Stephanus, &c. cited § 43.
—R. fVinterton, Poetae minores grasci, gr. et lat. Cantab. 1635, et aj. Lond. 1739. S.—Thom. Gaisford, Poetae minores Graeci.
Oxf. 1814-20. 4 vols. 8. containing Hesiod, Theognis, Archilocus, Solon, Simonides, Mimnermus, Callinus, Tyrtaeus, Phocylides,
Naumachius, Linus, Panyasis, Rhianus, Evenus, Pythagoras, Theocritus, Bion, Moschus, with the scholia to Hesiod and Theocritus,
—An improved ed. of Gaisford's Coll. was published, Lpz. 1823. 5 vols. 8. containing Sappho, Alcaeus, and Stesichorus, in addition.
—J. F. Boissonade, Poetarum Grscorum Sylloge. Par. IS23-32. in 24 vols. 32 ; containing, vol. i. Anacreon, with fragments of
others ; vol. ii. Theocritus, Bion, Moschus ; iii. Theognis, Tyrtaeus, Phocylides, Callinus, Mimnermus, Solon, Simonides, Nauma-
chus, Pythagoras, Linus, Panyasis, Rhianus, Evenus, Eratosthenes, and small fragments ; iv.-vii. Homer; viii. Callimachus, Cleia-
thes, Proclus ; ix. x. Sophocles ; xi. Hesiod ; xii. xiii. ^Ischylus ; xiv. Pindar (after B'dckh) ; xv. Lyrici, Synesius, Gregorius ; xvi.-xx.
Euripides (text of Matthiae) ; xxi.-xxiv. Aristophanes.- rRejei's Bibliotheca CTlassica. Lpz. 1828, ss. 12.— reufrner's Auctores
Classic!. Lpz. 1824, ss. 12. with "correct text, and beautiful type."— rajtcArniz, Corpus Poet. Graic. Lpz. 1832.— f. Melhoni,
Anthologia Lyrica. Lpz. 1827. 12. TV. E. Wther, Die elegischen Dichter. Grasc. & Germ. Frankf. 1S25. 8.—/. F. Boissonade
Anecdota Graeca, e codicibus Regiis. Par. (begun) 1S29. 8. 1st vol. a Gnomic coll.— Griechische Dichler'm neu. metrischen Ueber
■etzungen ; herausgegeben von Tafel, Osiander und Schwab. Lpz. 1830-7. 1 1 vols. 12. of various n.erit : chiefly very good.

3. In noticing editions of tlie Greek authors, the translator encounters a peculiar difficulty
To many persons every thing except merely naming a good edition of each author will anpp:ir
superfluous. Others will scarcely be satisfied without such specification and description ;is pro-
perly belong to works expressly bibliographical. The following plan is adopted under the Ini
pression that it will be, on the whole, the most useful. The editions which are judged to be
b e s t, on account of a generally good text and d. good critical apparatus of readings, comments, &.C
will be first mentioned, after the letter B.— Next after the letter F, will be nanfed in chronologi-
cal order such other editions as have been celebrated, from the Prinrep.^, or earliest, to the year
1800. — Last will be given, after the letter R, the editions since 1800, which are Ivnown lO be
worthy of notice, and are not named in the first list, or among the translations. In this third
class, the mark $ is employed to designate good school editions. Other marks are also employed,
with a uniforiTi signification wherever applied ; viz. the f to designate Un edition distinguis'hed
for a pure or improved text ; the sign J to designate one having notes, excursuses, or other ac-
companiments of special value. The star * is used to discrimrnale an edition, a translation, or
any other work named, which is considered superior to others of the same class.

§ 48. Orpheus, a Thracian, pupil of Linus, and companion of the Argonauts,
lived about B. C. 1250. The tradition, that by his lyre he tamed wild beasts
and moved inanimate thingrs to action, is mere allegory, and refers only to the
moral improvement effected perhaps by means of his song.

] u. The works ascribed to him are Hymns, TeXcrol, twenty-eight in number: an


historical poem on the expedition of the Argonauts, 'ApyovavriKa; a metrical treatise on
the secret powers of Sto7ies, Uspi Ai6u)y ; a piece o?t earthquakes, Ucpi 'Leiufi'M' ; and other
fragments. These poems are now considered as the production of later times, com-
posed at different periods.

2. Editions.— B. — G. Hermann, Orphica cum notis H. Stephani, A. C. Eschenbachii, J. M. Gessneri, Th. Tyrwhitti, &c. Lipj.
1805. 2 vols. 8. A stereotype ed. of this text. Lpz. 1S23. 12mo.— Of the Orphic Fragments, the most perfect collection is in Ch. A.

Lohech, Aglaophamus, cited P. II. § 12. 2 (a). F.—Princeps, Orphei Argonaut. Hymni et Procli Lycii Hym. Grsc Florent

1500. 4. (imp. Junta). — Aldina. Ven. 1517. 8. — Slephani, in Poet. Gr. princ. her. carm. cited § 47.— J Gessneri, (ed. Ham-

berger). Lips. 1764. S.—Th. Tyrwhitt, Treatise on Stones. Lond. 1781. 8. R.— /. G. Schneider, Argonautics. Jena.

1S03. 8.-G. H. Schiifer, Orphica. Lpz. 1818. S.—K. P. Dietsch, Hymni. (Gr. & Germ.) Erl. 1822. 4.

3. Translations —English.— rA. Taylor, Hymns ; with preliminarj' dissert. Lond. 17!s7 ; 1824. 8 —Dodd, Hymns; in his CalK-

machus. Lond. 1755. German.— A ff. P^oJS, Argonautics. Heidelb. IS06. i.—Dietsch,3s above cited. Italian.- .4nt. /ero-

eadcs, Innidi Orfeo, esposti in versi volgari. Neap. 1788. 8. Latin, by J. Scali^er. Ludg. Bat. 1516. 12.

4. Illustrative.— Huc(, in his Demonst. Evang. Prop. iv. c. H.—Ruhnhen, in Epist. Crit. 1782 —Fried. Snedorf, de Hymn. Vet,
Gtxc. Lips. 1786.— Car. G. iefiz, de Orphic. Frag. Gott. 1789.— GtrJocft, de Hymn. Orph. Comment. Gott. 1 797.— i/i«c/iAe,
Comment, de Orphei Argonauticis. Rostoc. 1806. 4. — G. Hermann, De argument, pro Antiq. Orph. Argon. Lips. 1811. 4. —
*£ode, Orpheus Poet. Grjec. Antiquiss Gctt. 1S24. i.—SchoU, Hist. Litt. Gr. vol. i. p. 3?.— North. Amer. Rev. vol. xxi.— On the
fables respecting the music of Orpheus, cf. Fraguier, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. v. p. 117.

§ 49. Musseus, according' to tradition a contemporary of Orpheus, born at
Athens, a poet and philosopher. The poem of Hero and Leander, Ta %a9' 'Hpw
xal Af'ai'Spov, which has been ascribed to him, was certainly the work of a later
age, probably the fifth century after Christ. It contains many passages of epic
beauty, but far too little of the simplicity belonging to its pretended age.

1. There was a Musaeus who flourished not far from A. D. 500. A letter from
Procopius to him imphes that he was a grammarian, which title is given to the author
of the poem, in all the Manuscripts. Hence it is conjectured, that the real author was
this person.

We have the titles of many works ascribed to the ancient Museeus ; the following,
besides others; 'Kpritrpiol, oracles; T^Xetoi, initiafio7is, a species of poem referring to reli-
gious rites of an initiatory and expiatory kind, called also KaSapnol, jmrifications, and
Ttapa\v(TEtg, ahsolutio7is; ^ AiccaEig voacov ; 'YTroBfjKai, precepts; Ilspt 6£cr:rpcorwj', describing the
remarkable things of Thesprotia ; "EfaTpa, an astronomical poem, &c. — The few frag-
ments of the ancient Musaeus remainmg are gathered in the collection of philosophic
poetry by Stephanus (cf. § 47. 2).

2. Editions.- B— /. Schroder. Leuward. 1742. 1793. 8.— * G. H. Schafcr, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1825. S.—C. A. Mobiiis. Hslle,

1814. 12 T.—Princeps, Aldina, Gr. et Lat. 1494 ; supposed the first worli from the Aldine press; extremely rare.— /unltna

(Phil. Giunfa), Graec. el La'in. Florcnt. 1519. 8.— With other works, Gr. et Lat. ap. J. Frohenium. Eas. 1518. S.—H. Slephani
(in Poet. Gnec. princ &c. cited § 47).—'/. H. Kronmayer. Halle, 1721. i.—K. F. Heinrichs. Han. 1793. 8.— tM. R'over. Leyd,
1737. 8. With the Scholia, and from collation of 7 MSS. and 17 editions ^ed. being 17 years of age).— i>!f Theil, Gr. and Fr. Par.
1834. 12.

3. Translations.- English— G. Chapman. Lond. 1606. i.—R. Stapylton. Oxford, 1645. i.— Stirling. Lond. 1728. 12.— »fr.
Fcnvltes, with Anacreon, Sappho, and olh»rs. Lond. 1760. 13.—/. Grame, in Anderson''s British Poets. Lond. 1795-1807. 8. Ilth

vol. French —C. L. MoUerauU (metrical). Par. 1805 —Cti Theil, as above cited.—/. B. Gail (Gr. Lat. & Fr.). Par. 1796. 4.

German.— fr. Passow. (Gr. & Ger.) Lpz. 1810. 8.—F. C. Fulda (metrical). Lpz. 1795. S. Italian.— fr. Maz. Turao. Neap.

1787. ^.—G. Pompei. Parm. 1793. 4.— Cf. Sulzer^s Theorie, vol. ii. p. 508.

4. Illustrative.- Prefaces of Schroder, Heinricli, and /"assaio.- Diss, in Kronmayer.— C F. HindeiiUirg.— Specimen Animadv.
in Musasum. Lips. 1763. 4.—/. Ogilvie, in his Essay on the Lyric Poetry of the Ancients, &c. Lond. .1762. 4.—De la Nauze,
Rem. sur I'Hist. d'Hero, &c and Nic Mahudel, Refl. Crit. &c. in Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. iv. and vii. p. 240.— Cf Class. Jour.
xvi. 126; xi. 88.

§ 50. Homtr lived about 1000 B. C, or perhaps later. The place of his birth
is uncertain; seven Grecian cities claimed the honor; it probably belonged to
Chios (Scio) or Smyrna. Most of the circumstances related of his life are de-
rived from two biocrraphies, which have been ascribed, on insufficient grounds,
to Herodotus and Plutarch. The story of his blindness seems to have been a
mere tradition.

1. There is a diversity of opinion respecting the period in which Homer Hved. While
some place him as above, B. C. 1000, others place him only about B. C. 600. The
Arundelian Marble places him B. C. 907. The date ascribed by Wood' and adopted
by Mitford^ is B. C. 850. A writer in the Philosophical Transactions (vol. xlyiii.)
brings Homer down to the sixth century before Christ, by astronomical calculations,

not to be rehed on. Different traditions are related respecting his parentage and

birth, to explain the terms Maeonides, son of Mceon, and Melesigenes, lorn hy the river
Meles. Conflicting etymologies of his name, "O^iripog, have been devised, some of them
sufficiently absurd. — Respecting the manner of his life, all the accounts, whether ge
ouine or spurious, generally agree in representing him as a Rhapsodist wandering on
the Asiatic coast and through the islands of Greece, and earning fame and a rnaintenance
by the recitation of his verses. — His death is variously told. One story brings him to
ills end by fallmg over a stone. Another allows him a gentler death. Another tells

p. V. POETS. HOMER. 46^

that he broke his heart out of pure vexation^, because he could not solve a riddle pro-
posed to him by some waggish young fishermen.

Numerous treatises have been written on the life of this poet. Besides the two
above mentioned, ascribed to Herodotus and Plutarch, there are three short hves in
Greek, one of them written by Proclus^. Wood, in his EssayS defends the authen-
ticity of the piece ascribed to Herodotus. That ascribed to Plutarch is by some judged
to be of an earlier date than the supposed author. — Of modern biographies, those of
Pope and Madame Dacier are very convenient^.

1 R. IVood. Essiy on the origiDal genius of Homer. Lond 1770. 8. 2 History of Greece, ch. iii. Append. 3 CoItHdge, p. 4i,

60, 63, as cited § 21. * Contained in Mlatiics, De Palria Hotneri. Ludg. Bat. 1640. s Connected w ilh their trans aliens of Ho-
mer.— See also Thomas £lackwell. Enquiry into the Life and Writings of Homer. 2d ed. Loud. 1736. S. Tr. Germ, by Fom.
Leipz. 1776. S — K ppen, in the ErklUr Anrntrkungcn, below cited (j).—K'itzsch, cited below (4).—^. E. Schularth, Idceii zum
Homer und seineni Zeitalter. Brest. 1821. S. The author maintains that Homer was a Trojan ; a bold, speculative work, which
attracted attention without producing conviction. — The pretended tomb of Homer, drawn by D. Ftorilio, with notes by C. G. Heyne,
Lond. 1795. 4.

2 u. His two epic poems, the Iliad (iXta?) and Odyssey (Oi^aada), originally consisted
of various Rhapsodies, which were first reduced to their present form under the direc-
tion of Pisistratus and his son Hipparchus. On being committed to writing, which
could hardly have been done by Homer hims^elf, it is not improbable that they received
some additions and interpolations. Both of them are a series of songs, probably from
several authors. Homer and the Homeridae, composed at different times and succes-
sively enlarged. The subject of the Iliad is the "wrath of Achilies," his separation
from the Grecian army in consequence of it, and the events of the Trojan war during
his absence and immediately after his return. The theme of the Odyssey is the wan-
dering of Ulysses, the dangers and sufferings of his return from Troy to Ithaca, and
the events following his arrival. — Besides these two heroic poems, the most celebrated
of epic productions, there is ascribed to Homer a comic piece, the BaTpa\oi.ioixaxla
{Battle of the Frogs and Mice), a mock-heroic poem, belonging unquestionably to a
later period. There are also ascribed to him thirty-three Hyvins, besides various small
pieces and epigrams. Some of the Hymns were probably composed by the Homeridae
or Homeric Rhapsodists (cf. § 21).

3. Besides the works above named, many others were formerly ascribed to Homer,
of which the titles only are preserved. The MnpyiV?;? has already been mentioned
C^ 45), " a satyre upon some strenuous blockhead," often alluded to by the ancient
writers. At least twenty other titles* are recorded ; among which are the following :

'Afia^oi'ia, 'Apavonaxia, Tepai'oiJiaxia, 'Eriyoj'oi, K£<cpw?rff, Nooroj, Hatyvia, &c. The BaTpa-

Xon'opiaxia has been ascribed^ to Pigres, who lived in the time of the Persian invasion ;
but some allusions and names in it are supposed to indicate an Alexandrine age and
source. This mock-heroic has been repeatedly imitated. Theodore Prodromus, in
the 12th century, wrote an imitation in Iambic trimeters, called the Galeomachia.

There are also Latin imitations ; one by Addison in the Musce Etonenses. The

greater part of the Homeric Hymns belong to the class of addresses and invocations^
to the gods [llpooipua), which the Rhapsodists were accustomed to make in commencing
their recitals. But several of the larger ones, especially, may with propriety be
termed epic.

^FahricixLS, Eibl. Gr. i. 374.— R. P. Knight, Prolegomena in Homerum. Cf. Class. Joum. vii. 321. '^Fuhrmnn, kleineres

Handbuch. p. Ai.—J. F. D. Gues, Diss, de Balrachomyomachia, etc. etc. Erlang 1798. 8.— C. D. Ilgen. Hymn. Homeriei, etc
(containing a modem Greeli version of the Balrachom. by Demetr. Zenus, and the Galeomachia of Prodromus). Hal. 1796. 8. —
Coleridge, p. 182 ^ Hermann's Epistle, prefixed to his edition cited below {o).—Cvkridge, p. 190.

4. The controversy amonsr the learned respecting the oricin of the Iliad and Odyssey, has
awakened much interest, and deserves some notice here. — The tirst doubts whether Hnnier was
the sole author, seem to have been expressed by Perrault in his Parallele des .^nciens et des Mo-
derns (Par. 1688), in which it is sucsrested, that they are but a collection of many little poems, of
different authors. This snsjgestinn was noticed by Boileau, in his Reflerions Critiques sur Lov^n
(Par. 1694), and by Kennett, in his Lives nftlie Greciav Poets (Lond. 1697), and opposed by them.
The notion, however, was enforced by F. Hedelin, who went so far as to deny the personal ex
istence of Homer, in a treatise bearine the title Conjectures acadetniques, ou Dissertation sur
V Iliad, 1715. Dr. Benttev (in reply to Co/Zins'^ discourse of Free-Thinking; Letter to JV". JV. hy
Phileutlierus Lipsien.sis $ 7 ) expressed an opinion, that these poems originally consisted of seve-
ral distinct songs and rhapsodies composed by Homer, but not united in an epic form until 500
years afterwards. The same idea was more fully developed by an Italian author, O. B. Vico,m
a work called Principi di scienza viiova d^intorno alia commune natnra dellenazioni. Naples, 1744,
8th edit. A bolder position was taken by Robert IVood, in his Essay above cited ; he affirmed,
that Homer could not have committed his poems to writing, because the art of writing was of
subsequent invention ; which he argued, (first) from the absence of all allusion to the art in the
Iliad (cf P. IV. $ 59) and Odyssey ;" (secondly) from the fact asserted by him that prose compo-
sition, always coeval with the art, did not then exist; and (thirdly) from the loss of other lite-
rary productions of the age. The perfurmance of Wood was translated into German, and
attracted much attention, and gave a new impulse to the study of Homer. In 1795, IVvlf pub-
lished his Prolen-omena ad Homerum, in which he maintained that "thf Iliad and Odyssey are
not the production of Homer, or of any other single author, but a collection of rhapsodies, com-
posed at different limes and by different person^, and subsequently and gradually wrought up
into the form in which they now exist." This doctrine was not eagerly embraced by the public.
At the close of the year lt95, Heyne, who then had the reputation of the first Hellenist in Ger-



many while Wolf was acquiring that of a rival to him, published in the Oottin^en Jovrval a re-
view of Wolfs Prolegomena. In this review, Heyne staled or insinuated, that he had himself
always taught the same general doctrine respecting the Homeric poems. This was resented by
Wolf, and occasioned a controversy between these champions ; not, as has often been supposed,
concerning the genuineness of these poems, but concerning the merit of priority in starling the
new theory of their gradual formation. This contest for the honor of originating the doctrine,
had great influence in deciding general opinion in favor of it in Germany. It was defended with
ingenuity by Ilgen, in the introduction to his edition of the Homeric hymns, cited above (3). One
of the principat attempts to controvert it was made by Hug, in his work on the Invention of Al-
phabetic Writing (cited P. IV. J 32), published in 1801. In 1S02, Heijne fully avowed and sup-
ported the theory in the e.'scursuses in his edition of the Iliad. The theory was attacked in
France by St. Croix, in a pamphlet styled Refutation d'nn paradox litteraire. Par. 179S. In Eng-
land also'a powerful opposer of it has appeared in Granville Penn, whose arguments are given
in the work styled Jin Examination of the primary Argument of the Iliad, &c. published in 1821.
This work was severely reviewed in the London Quarterly (.vol. x.wii), and to the review Ptnn
replied in the Classical Journal (vol. xxvii). Scholl gives a glance at the history of this qiies-
tions and plainly intimates that he does not embrace the Woliian doctrines. " Posterity," says
hp, "will judge of their snliditv; and we will only add, that while in Germany the views of
Wolf are generally received, they are almost as generally rejected in England, Holland, France,
and Italy. It is known that they were lirmly resisted by Ruhnken, one of the greatest critics of
the last century, and by the celebrated Villoison." Coleridge remarks'^, " however startling this
theorv may appear at first sight, there are some arguments in its favor, that with all calm and

serious inquirers will ever save it from indifference and contempt." The work of Jfitzsch,

below cited', controverts the doctrine of Wolf with much ability and success, and is said to be
producing at least a partial revolution of opinion in Germany. But IV. Milller, in his work cited

below*, sirongly defends the Woltian theory. For the special arguments employed in this

controversy, vve must refer the reader to the works of the ditTerent writerss; observing, how-
ever, that the grand argument of Wolf and Heyne is an assumption of that as a fact, which has
never been proved; namely, that writing, or at least any common writing material, was un-
known in Greece, in the Homeric age ; while the apparent familiarity of Homer with Sidonian
artists, the close alliance between the Sidonians and the Jews, and the indisputable use of the
art of writing among the Jews long before the Trojan war, render the opposite highly probable.

Whether the Iliad and Odyssey were the productions of the same author and age, is a differ-
ent question. A doubt was expressed even in ancient timess. A modern writer (Constant)'' has
urged the diversity of style, manners, and mythology in the two works, as evidence of diversity
of authorship. Another'moderns has attempted to show that Ulysses was the author of both the
Iliad and the Odvssey.

It is not impertinent to remark here, that there is an early and very remarkable German or
Teutonic poem^, which some of the German writers have compared to the Iliad; called the
JiTibeluiiffen Lied, and fondly termed by partial antiquaries the "Northern Iliad."

t Schcll, Hst. Litt. Gr. bS. ii. ch. 4. "^ Cultrid^e, In'roduction, &c., p. 37, ss. as cited § 21. 3 G. IV, Nitzsch, De ^tate Ho-

meri, &c., n.Lletemata. Hanu. 1S30-37. 2 vols. 4. * fV. Midler, Homerische Vorscliule. Lpz. 1S24. S. 5 Besides those

already cilei, H. C. Koes, Conimentatio de discrepaatiis Id Odyss. occurrealibus. Havni:e, lS06.—Bessetdt, ErklirenJe Einlei-
tur.gzurOiyssee Koniisb. \S\6.—Bern Thicr.ich, Vr^esUU der Odyssee, &c. Kflnigsb. 1S21. S.— C. F. Fraiicescn, Essai sur la

Question, si Homere a connu l'u3i;e de I'ecriture, &c. Berl. 1S18. 12.— Other references in Harles, Supplem. i. p. 95. Par-

ti-ularly as opposing the VVolfian theory : Kiught, in his Prolegomtna, as cited above (3).— De.'wie de Sales, Histoire d'Homere.—
/. Kreuser, Vorfrage Qber Honneros, &c. Frankf. 1?23. S.— G. Lange, Versuch die poet. Einheit der Iliad zu bestininien. Darmst.
1826. said to contain " pithy arguments from a fine scholar " — See also E. L. Buluxr, Athens, bk. i. ch. 8. as cited P. III. § 9.—

Land. Qtiart. Rev. \a\. xliv — £di'(ii. Rev. Ixii.— A^. .4m. Rev. xxxvii.— .4m. Qi/arf. Rev. vol. ii. p. 367. 6 Cf. Smcca, De

Brevit Vit. c. 13. 1 Constant, De la Religion, vol. 3d. bk. 8. as cited P. II. § 12. 2. (a).— Cf. Knight, Thiersch, Eulwer, Celt-

ridge, and the Reviews, &c., as just cited. ^ Koliades (Prof, dans I'universile lonienne), Ulysse-Honiere, ou du veritable auteur

de I'lliade et de I'Odyssee. Par. 1829. fol. 9 Cf. T. Carlyle, Essays, &c., vol. ii. p. 319, as cited § 331.— Encydop. Americ vol.

ix. p. 276.

5. Editions.— B.— ILIAD. C. G. Heyne, Gr. & Lat. Leipz. & Lond. 18(fi. 9 toIs. 8; it Lond. 1819. a 9th vol. appeared
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