Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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Clarke's recension ; readings and notes of Ernesti.— HYMNS (and Batrachomyomachia). Mallhix. Lpz. 1805. 8.— EPIGRAMS

(and Hymns I,- Balr.) * G. Hermann. Lpz. 1806. S. F.—Princeps {Demetrius Ctiakondylas & Demetrius Cretensis). Flor.

1488. fol. 2 voh.— Aldus. Venet 1504. also 1517. 1524. 2 vols. ».— Junta. Flor. 1519. 2 vols. S.—Hervagius. Basil, 1535. fol.
eum Schol.—Francini. Ven. 1537. 2 vols. 8. — With the Commentaries of Eustalhius. Rom. 1342-50. 4 vols, fol.— fl. Stephamit.
Par. 1566. (in Poet. Gr. Frinc cited § 47.) 15S8. 2 vols. 8. Gr. & Lal—tBames. Camb. 1711. 2 vols. 4.—Fvulvi, Glasg. 1756. 8.

4 vols. fol. very splendid. Flaiman's illustrations were executed for it. — J ViUiAson, Iliad. Ven. 1788. fol. R.— The Greiiville

Hvmer. Oxf. 1800. 4 vols. i.—Bodoni, Iliad. Parm. 1808. 3 vols, fol— fl. P. Knight. Lond. 1820. fol. (see Class. Jonrn. vol.
vii. and viii. Lond. Quart. Rev. vol. xxvii.)—/. A. MuUer, Uliad, with extracts from Eustathius, &c Mei.sseo, 1813. 2 vols. 8.
— G. H. Sch'dffer, Illiad and Odyssey. Lpz, 1810-11. 5 vols. 12; prepared for the collection of Tauchnilz, and considered by
Scholl as preferable to the stereotype impression of Tauchnitz, in 4 vols. — ) C. C. Felton, Iliad, from the text of Wolf, with Eng-
lish notes and Flaxman's illustrations. Bost 1833. a beauliful edWion— Clarke's Iliad, 2d Am. ed. N.York. 1826. 8. Cura G.
Ironside.— G. Hermann. Lpz. 1825. 2 vols. S.—T. H. Bothe Han. 1834. 5 vols. 8 — § SpUzner, Iliad, in RosCs Biblio heca,
cited § 7. 1.— The Odyssey, with the Scholia of Didymus, the Hymns, &c. Oxf 1827. 2 vols. 8.— G. C. Cntsius, ddyssey (with
notes in German). Hann. 1838. 8. Also, Iliad. Hann. 1841. 8. his Odyssey is described as " very good for those not much ad-
vanced in Greek "'- F. Duiot (printer), Homeri Carmina et Cycli Epici Reliquiae cum Indice Nominum et Rerum. Par. 1840. 8.

6. Translations.— English.— G. Chapman. Lond. 1616. fol.—/. Ogilby Lond. 1669. 2 vols. fol. with engravings.— .4. Pope.
Lond. 1715-20. fol. very often reprinted.— «^ Cou-per. Lond. 1791. 4. 1S02. 4 vols. S.—Sotliciy. Iliad. Lond. 1831. 2 vols. 8.
cf. Blackicood's Magazine, vol. xxix.— By a member of the University, Iliad, (pr.) Oxf. 1821. 2 vols 8. Odyssey, (pr.) Lond.

1S23. 2 vols. 8.— Of the Hymns, Blackwood's Magazine, vol. xxi.— xxxii. French— Mad. Dacier. Par. 1711 16. 1741.

8 vols. 12 — />. Bruru Par. 1809-19. 4 vols. 12. German.—/ H. Voss. Alton 1793. 4 vols. S. imitating the ancient hexame-
ter. 5th ed. IS2I, improved.— 5cAu!eTici, Hymns. Frankf. 1S23. 8 Italian— Af. Ctsarotti. Ven. 1786-90. 10 vols. 8.

7. Illustrative. — It has been justly remarked, that it would be an endless task merely to name all the authors who have ^vritten
£>oat Homer. We select a few of the best works illustrative of tliis poet— G. Ch. Crusius, Worterbuch aber die Gedichte de»

p. ▼. POETS. HESIOD. 467

, tx. Han. 1886. S.—Terassori't Cril. Dissertations on the Iliad, transl. into English, by Brtreuxmd. Lend. 1745. 2 vols. 8.
— i. Coulon, Lexicon Homericum. Par. 1653. 8.—Dupcrl, Homer! GDomologia, Gr. k Lat. Cant. 1660. 4.— £. Feti/i, Anliqui-
tates Homericjc Amst. 1726; Argent. 17 J3. S.—Ria:ii Disputaliones Homericas. Lips. 17&4. 8 — H. l.tCCppen, Erklirende An-
merkunsen zum Honker, 1st. ed. Han. I7S7, ss. 3d ed. by iJuAAop/and Spitznar. Han. 1820. 6 toIs. 8. " a very pood conimentary
on the Iliad."— G. tV. Kitzsch, Erklirende Annierkungen zu Homer's aiyssee. Kiel. IS26-40. 3 vols 8. "a thorough work."—
P. Buttntann, Lexilogus, &c., bauptsichiich Mr Homer und Hesiod. Berlin, 1828. 2 vols. 8. Trans. English, by T. R fuhlake.
Lond 1836. 8. " very valuable."— Ckim Bomerica, or Lexicon of all the words in the Iliad. Transl. by /. ITaiktr. Lond.

1SS9. 8. C. F. XiieiUUtch, Anmerkungen zur liias, nebst Excurst-n Ober Gegenslinde der Homerischen Gnrnmatik. NQmb.

1S34. S.—C. F. Stadeimann, Grammatisch-kritische Anmerkungen rur Ilias. Lpz, 1S40, ss. 2 vols S. "a copious collection of
Eotss without plan, yet containing much that is good." Cf. Jahii't Jahrbacher, 1^41.—/. B. Kilter, ErliuteruDgen der Heiligen
.Schrifl, Alten unJ Neuen Test, aus d. Klassik. besonders aus Homer. Kiel. 1833. S.—C. F. NO^dsbach, Die Homerische Theolo-

gie in ihrem Zusamnienhange. Narnb. 1840. 8. "of great merit." On the Geography and Topography of Homer's poems, we

Diention the following. — /. Bryant, Dissertation concerning Troy, &c, as cited P. II. § 132. — /. B. S. Morrit, in Reply to Bryant.
—fV. FrancUin. Remarks on the Plain of Troy, &c Lond. 1800. S.—R. ChandleT. His'orj- of Troy and adjacent country, &c.
Loud. IS02, 8 —i* CA«-(Uter, Voyage de la Troade. Par. 1802. 3 vols. Transl. English, ty, Dalztl.—W. Gtii, Topography of
Troy. Lond. IS04. 4. with plates.— ij£n?tei/. Observations on the Topography of Troy. Lond. 1514. i—K. H. V.lcher, Ceber

Homerische Geographie und Wehkunde. Han. 1830. 8. There are illustrative Drawings —/'iaxma?»"» Compositions. London,

1805. 2 vols. fol. — Titchbein's Illustrations, in drawings from the antique, with descriptions (Germ.) by Heyne. Gott 1801. fol. —

C F. Inghirami, Galleria Omerica (or antique monuments to aid the study of Homer). Ftrenze, 1830. 2 vols. 8. For others on

various points, cf. Mots, Manual, vol. i. as cited § 7. 10.— Sui^w'j Allg. Theorie, Homer. — An extensive survey of recent works
pertaining to Homer is given by Baumsarien-Crusius, in Jahii't JahrbQcher, vols. i. and ii. for 1827.

§51. Hesiod lived probably B. C. 950, according to some before Homer.

He was born at Cuma in .^olia, and was called the Ascreean, because educated
at Ascra in Bceotia. As a poet, Hesiod is inferior to Homer. But his poems
are highly valuable, as they make known to us so much respecting- the concep-
tions and modes of thinking which prevailed in a high antiquity, upon domestic,
mythological, and physical subjects.

1. We may collect from the poems of Hesiod, that his father was a native of Cuma, and re-
moved to Astra at the foot of Mt. Helicon, where he devoted himself to pastoral and agricultural
life. Of the estate, which his father left at death, the creater part was obtained by Perses, his
elder brother, who had bribed the judges to make an unequal division. Yet Hesiod by the pru-
dent man<igemeiil of his portion acquired a compelenc*^, while Perses was reduced by improvi-
dence to want. — It lias been supposed by some, that he tended his own flocks on Mount Helicon,
while others maintain that he was the priest to a temple of the Muses on that mount. — He men-
tions a pnetiial contest at Chalcis, which formed a part of the games at the funeral of Amphida-
mas, kingof Euhosa, and in which he gained the prize of a tripod, afterwards bv him consecrated
to the Muses of Helicon. (Cf P. IV. $ 65. 1.) This incident was the foundation of the fable of
his victory over Homer, which Plutarch, in his Banquet of the seven vise men, puts into the mouth
of Periander; and which forms the subject of a work styled '^nfipov koI 'Hciocov dyuv, written
after the time of the emperor Adrian.— Plutarch likewise introduces in the Banquet, from the
lips of Solon, a marvelous story respecting the death of Hesiod, which also is probably a fabri-

On the life and age of Hesiod ; see the Lives by Fbiirtu, Ktnnett, Stc, cited 5 47.— Also Prelim. Diss, in RoLimon's Hesiod, and
Discourse prefixed to Cooke't Hesiod, both cited below (5).

2 u. We have from him a didactic poem, on rural economy, T^pya koX 'Huepai. WorJis
end Days; and another of a mj'thological character, efoyoiia, a theogony, on the hneage
of the gods arid origin of the world. The piece styled 'Ao-rij 'HpojcXtouj, Shield of Her-
cules, is probably a fragment from a later author.

3. The WorJis and Days of Hesiod consists of 828 hexameter verses. The poem is
of unequal merit, some parts of it bordering on the puerile, others disj^overing great
elevation of thought and feeling. It is an object of the poet in the Works and Days
to rebuke his brother and judges for their injustice, and teach the duties of industry,
frugality, and prudence. — Pausanias says, that this was the only work allowed by the
Boeotians to be the genuine production of Hesiod. He states that he saw, near the
fount of Helicon, a copy of this poem in lead, almost destroyed by age. The Theo-
gony contains about 1000 lines. There are passages in it of great force and sublimity.
The contest of the Giants and Tuans and of Jupiter whh Typhceus are often specified
as such.

The Shield of Herndes, in 480 lines, is supposed by some modern critics to have
belonged to a lost work of Hesiod, enthled "HpoyoyoiU, the Heroogoriy, a genealogy of the
demigods, including, as they think, two pieces cited by the ancients; viz. KariXoyo^
yvvaiKuv, catalogue of women, a history of such as were mothers of demigods ; and
'Hoiai ncyaSai, an account of heroines. The Yiara\oyoi is sometimes mentioned as con-
sisting o{ five cantos, of which the 'Hoiot formed the fourth. The thle "Hoiai was sup-
posed by'Bentley to have arisen from the phrase i^ 6ir\ {qualis, such as), with which the
transition was made from one heroine to another. Of this last piece the Shield is
commonly thought to have been a part ; it begins with the phrase just meniioned. in a
description of the person and adventures of Alcmene, which occupies the first 56 hnes.
Others consider the part of it relating to Alcmene as all that belonged to the piece
styled 'Koiai or Ecfcp, and view the rest, describing the armor of Hercules. &:c., as a
separate poem. This portion of the 'AtttIj or Scutum, is an amplification of Homer's


description of the shield of Achilles. Thirteen or fourteen other works, not extant,

were ascribed to Hesiod.

CookCy Discourse pref. to his Transl.— JErfi'ni. Rev. vol. xv. p. 101.— Manso, on Hesiod, in the Charaktere der vomehmsten Dich-
ter, vol. iii. p. 49, as cited § 47. 1.

4. The same theory which some have so strenuously maintained in relation to the Homeric
poems, has also been applied to the poems of Hesiod. They have been said to be pieces com-
piled by AtaaKEiiaoTai in the ag'es of Solon and Pisisiratus, from the recitations of the Rhap-
sodists, or at least from imperfect written copies; it being supposed, that there were many
poems from ditferent authors imitating: the manner of Hesiod, and in after times ascribed to him.
Thus Hesiod has been considered as the head of an ancient Bwotian school of poetry, as Homer of
an Ionian.

See Heinrichh Prolegomena and Wolf's Notes in the editions below cited (5). — Aug. Twestcn's Conimentatio critica de Hesiod)
carmine, quod inscribitur. Opera et Dies, Kiliae, 1S05. 8. — G. Ha-rnanri's Letter to Ilgen, in Hgen's Hymn. Homerici, ci'ed § 50. 3.

5. Editions.— B.— WHOLE WORKS. Chr. Fr. Losner, Lat. Lips. 1778. S.— Thorn Roliuson, Gr. ei Lat. Oxon. 1737.
4; Lond. 1756.— * C. Gottling. Erfurt. 1S31. 8.— WORKS and DAYS. L. IVachler. Lem?o. 1792. 8.— SHIELD. Car. Frid.

Heinrich. Vratisl. (Breslaw), 1802. 8.— THEOGONY. Fr. Aug. Wolf. Halle, 17S3. 8. f.—lhtPrinaps contains only the

Works and Days. Milan, 1493. fol.— The Princeps (or earliest) edition of the who'e works of Hesiod, is that of Aldm, Veuet. 1495.
ftil., connected iviih an edition of Theocritus.— /unfa. Florent. 1515. 8 ; this is the first edition of Hesiod separately. — Trincavelli.
Ven. 1537. 4 ; the first with the Scholia.— fl. Heinsius. Lu?. Bat. 1603. 4. Gr. et Lat.— t Grzvius, Gr. & Lat. Amst. 1667. 8.—
Clericris (Le Clerc). Amst, 1701. 8. The two last are the foundation of Robinson's. —B. Zamagna (called also edition of Bodoni).

Gr. et Lat. Parmae, 1785. 4. R.—La7izi (Works and Days). Gr. Lat et Hal. Florent. 1803. 4.—Spohn (Works and Days).

Lips. 1819. 8. A more critical edition announced by same. — Gaisford, in his Poetae Minores Graeci, cited § 47 ; said by Dibdin (in
1827) to give the purest text of Hesiod.— F. S. Lehr's, Gr. & Lat. Par. 1840. 8.

6. Translations,— English.— G. Chapman. Lend 1618. i.—J. Cooke, (metr.) Lond. 1728. i.—Ch. Abr. Elton, (metr.) Lond.

1812. 8. also 1815. 8. Cf. Edirib. Rev. vol. xv French.— P. C. CI. Gin. Par. 1795. 8. German.-^. H. Vosi, whole works.

Heidelb. 1806. 8.-7. D. Hartmann, Shield. Lemgo. 1794. 8.

7. Illustrative.— S. F. Thiersch, Uber die Gedichte des Hesiodus, ihren Drsprung, kc. MQnchen, 1813. i.—Heyne, Abhandlunj
Ober die Theogonie, in the Comment. Soc. GUt. vol. ii.— F. Schlichtegroll, Uber den Schild des Hercules, &c. Gotha, 1788. 8.-
Creuzer & Hermann, Briefe, &c. cited P. II. § 12. 2. {a).—C. Lehmann, De Hesiodi carminibis perditis. Berl. 1823. 8.—/. Flax
man, Compositions from the Works of Hesiod; 37 beautiful outlines. Lond. 1817. fol.

§ 52*. Archiluchus flourished about B. C. 680. He was a native of the
island of Pares, and ranked among the greatest poets of Greece, and generally
supposed the inventor of Iambic verso. He vv'rote satires, elegies and triumphal
hymns, and lyrical pieces, of v^^hich only trifling fragments remain.

1. Little is known of his life. He went, while young, with his father in a Parian
colony to Thasos. He states of himself, that in a battle between the Thasians and
I'hracians, he threw away his shield, and saved himself by flight. On account of this,
it is said, when he afterwards visited Sparta, he was ordered by the magistrates to
quit the city.

2 The fragments of Archilochus are found vaBrun-Vs Analecta, and JacobsU Anthologia, cited § 35.— Also in Gaisford, vol. i, and
Boissonade, vol. xv. as cited ^ 47. 2. They were published separately, with comments, by Ign. Litbel, Lips. 1812. 8; enlarged
1819. 8. Cf. Sevin, La vie etles ouvrages d'Archiloque, Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. x. p. 36.

§ 53. Tyrtasus, about B. C. 647, of Athens, or more probably Miletus, leadei
of the Spartans against the Messenians. By his elegies, full of the praises of
military glory and patriotism, he roused the ardor of his warriors, and rendered
them victorious. Of his writings, only three elegies and eight fragments have
come dov^^n to us.

1. The common account is, that the Lacedaemonians, at the bidding of Delphian Apollo, sent to
the Athenians for a general to conduct their wars with the Messenians, hitherto unsuccessful ; and
that Tyrtseus, lame and deformed, was selected by the Athenians, out of hatred. Scholl remarks
that the whole story has the air of fable, and that the alleged deformity had no foundation in
truth, being a satirical allusion to his use of pentameter verse.

2. The effect ascribed to his poems is not improbable. The Lacedagmonians were
accustomed to enter the field under the inspiration of martial music and songs, as
illustrated in Plutarch's hfe of Lycurgus. The song thus used in rushing to battle
was termed /heXo? Eju/Sar/ypioi'. The instruments used by the Lacedaemonians were flutes.

Tyrtaeus is said to have invented and introduced among them the trumpet. The

elegies composed by Tyrtasus amounted to five books. It is commonly supposed that
they were chiefly war-songs of the kind just mentioned. AVe have but a single frag-
ment of these songs of Tyrtaeus, which were in the Doric dialect ; his now remaining

elegies, being in the Ionic dialect, are not to be confounded with them. A work by

Tyrtaeus is cited by Aristotle and Pausanias under the title of Evi'onia{'' bonne legis-
lation^^), which some have considered as a distinct poem, while others have supposed
it to be only a certain class of his elegies collected together and so named.

Lowth's Hfbrew Poetry, lect. \.— Scholl, vol. i. p. 189 —Fuhrmajin^s Kleineres Handb. p. 65.—/. V. Franle^s Callinus, cited
^ 29.— .'kfatf/ita! de Tyrlaei Carminibus. Alfenb. 1820. 4— PohoAde, below cited.

3. EMiotiS.—B.— Chr. Adolph. Klotz. n67. 8; with a Germau version by Weiss, and dissertation on Tyrtaeus and on warlike

long' Chr. Dald. Upsal, 1790. 4. Gr. et Lat. T.— Princeps, by S. Gelenius. Bas. 1532. 4. with remains of poetesses. Lond.

V;S1. 12. with English metrical version.— In Brunch's Gnom. Poet, and K'oppen's Griech. Blumenlese. R.— L. Larnberti, witb


tat and Hal. version. Par. 1801. 8.—Nic Bach, CaHini Epheaii, Tyrtsei Aphiduaei, et Asii Samii Carminum, quae supereunt
Lips. 1S30. 8.

4. Traoslalions.— English.— ij. Polwhek. (metr.) Lond. 1786. 1810. 2 vols, with Theocritus, &c. French.— /'oi>u. de Sivry.

par. 17S8. German.— C. Ch. Stock. Lpz. 1819. 8.

§ 54. Sappho flourished probably about B. C. 612. She was a native of Mi-
tylene, in the island of Lesbos. Of distinguished celebrity as a poetess, she is
also remembered from the story of her unhappy passion for Phaon, and her tra-
gical leap from Leucate into the sea, in a fit of despair. This story, however,
seems to belong- to another Sappho, of a later age. It is from the poetess that
the verse termed Sapphic takes its name. Of her productions there now remain
only two odes, full of warm and tender feeling, and some small fraoments.

1. There is a disagreement respecting the precise date' which should he assisned to Sappho.
Some make her a contemporary of Anacreon, considerably later than the time above named.
Little is known of her life, and her character is a subject of controversy. The imputations cast
upon her are of doubtful authority, and are supposed by some to have had their origin in the
license of the comic poets. They may have arisen from confounding her with the courtesan
Sappho, of Eresus, in the same island Lesbos. It is now made quite probable, that the whole
story of the passion for Phaon and its fatal issue belongs to the latter, who was a person of some
celebrity, as set-ms evident from the fact that her image was stamped ut)on some of the Lesbian
coins, a circumstance which Barthelemy^ applies to the poetess. A coin, brou£rht from Greece
in 1822, has upon il a female head with the name SAni^ii and the letters EPECI, supposed to
refer to Eresiis.

» /. Ch. Cramer, Diatribe de (Tvyxpovicriiiu Sappbus et Anacreontis. Jen. 1755. i.—H. F. M. Voider, Diatribe historico-crit. de

Sapphus Poetriae vita et scriptis. Gotti. 1809. 8. 2 5art/ic/emy'» Anacharsis, ch. \\\.—Fr. G. Wdchtr, Sappho von einem her-

schenden Vorurlheil befreyet. Gott. 1816. 8.— Oe Hauteroche, Notice sur la couriisane Sappho d'Eresus. Par. 1822.— F. fV. Rich-
ter, Sappho und Erinna, nach ihren Leben beschrieben. Quedl. 1833. 8.—Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr. bk. ii. ch. 5.

2. Sappho is said to have composed hymns, elegies, scolia, and epigrams, as well as
odes. The two odes now extant are preserved, the one in Longinus, and the other in
Dionysius Halicarnasseus (de Compoxiiione verhorum) as a specimen of soft and flowing
style. Two or three epigrams are among the fragments otherwise preserved.

3. Editions.— B.—C. F. Keue, Gr. & Lat. Berl. 1S27. 4. her lyric fragmeats promised by him. Cf. Jahn's JahrbQcher, for

1828. vol. i. p. 3S9— 433. F.—Prtnceps by H. SUphanus (with Anacreon). Lut. Par. 1554. 4.— J/. C. IVolf. Hamb. 1733. 4. as

1st vol. of his Fragments of nine Greek poetesses. R.—H. F. M. Folger. Lips. ISIO. S.—E. A. MSbius. Hannov. 1S15. 8.—

I Same, as given in the BiUiolhtca o( Jacobs Sf Rost, with Anacreon, as below cited (§ 59. 3), the best for students. — Blomfitld, in
the Mus. Crit. or Camb. Class. Researches, vol. i. Lond. 1813 j this text highly valued.— The odes are found iu most editions of
Anacreon. The epigrams are in the Anthology of Jacobs.

4. Translations— Eugiish.—/. .iddismi, in the Works of Anacreon. Lond. 1735. 8.— Cf. Addison's Spectator, Nos. 223, 229.

French.— Z)eSiu7-y, as cited \ 53. German.— iJarnier, and Ouerbeck, cited § 59. 4.

§ 55. So/on, the distinguished lawgiver of Athens, native of Salamis, and
descendant of Codrus, lived B. C. 594. He wrote several poems. By one
of them he aroused the Athenians to a war with the INIegareans, in which he,
as their general, subdued Salamis. Afterwards he was appointed arclion at
Athens, and this was the epoch of his legislation so much celebrated. We
have a series of moral maxims, in elegiac verse, ascribed to Solon.

_ 1. Solon is said to have engaged in early life in trade, and in this pursuit to have
visited Egypt and other foreign countries. On returning to Athens, he devoted him-
self to poetry and philosophy. After he was brought into public office, as above men-
tioned, and had established his laws, he again left Athens for ten years, for the sake
of rendering them permanent. He returned and spent the remainder of life in hterary
pursuits, and is said to have done much in collecting and publishing the poems of
Homer. Some accounts say that he died at Athens, others at Cyprus, at the age of
80. — His biography is given by two ancient writers, Plutarch and Diogenes Laertius.
2. Besides the poetical remains of Solon, there are some fragments of his laws ex-
tant, and a little piece on the pursuits of hfe. Diogenes Laertius also has recorded
certain letters, said to have been written by Solon.

3. Editions.— B.—forftag-c. Lips. 1776.8; the 2d vol. of a collection of Gnomic Poet3.—*iV. .Bac/iiuj (Bach). Eonnse, 1S25, 8.

T.—Princeps, by Gelenius, as cited § 53. 3.— The chief poetical fragments are in the collections of £n«icA, Winterton, and

others, cited § 47. 2. For the fragments of Solon's lavvs, Sam. Petit, Leges Atticae. Far. 1635. fol. improved ed. by P. Wuieling

Lugd. Bat. 1742. fol.

4. Translations.— English.— Of the Letters, in Savage's Collection, as cited § 152. 1. German.— Poet Fragments, in G. C.

Braun, Die Weisen von Hellas als Singer. Mainz. 1822. 8.

§ 56. Theognis, bom at Megara, lived in banishment at Thebes, about B. C.
550. There remain of his poetry 1233 verses, belonging to the class of yi/w^uat
{sententiae) or maxims.

1 u. They are simple verses or couplets, once probably forming parts of connected
poems; two poems, particularly, are said to have been composed by him. The por-
tions extant are valued for their mora! rather than their poetical character.

2. Theognis is said to have died B. C. 495. His verses are addressed, under the


name of-napaivectig, exhortations, chiefly to a young man to whom he gives counsel on
the conduct of hfe. He has been reproached for the hcentious nature of some of his
sentiments ; yet nothing of this character appears in the fragments extant. He incul-
cates religious and tihal duty, and recommends caution in the choice of friends. It

is not improbable that some of the verses ascribed to Theognis are of later origin,
although most of them are thought to be evidently of high antiquhy. In 1815, or near
that time, 159 verses, never printed, were discovered by Bekker, in a Modena manu-
script. These added make the whole number extant about 1400.

3. Editions— B —1mm. Bekker (with the transtation by Grotius). Lpz. 1815. S.—F. T. (Vclcker. Frankf. 1S26. 8. for the critic,
rather than the student. He gives a new arrarigemtnt of text, which is opposed by G. Graftnham, Theognis Theo?nideus, &c
Mulhusae (Mihlhausen), 1827. 4. — T.—Princeps, by .3ldus (with Hesiod), as cited § 51. 5.— The verses (except the 159) are found
in Brwick's Gnomic foets, Gaiiford's Minor Poets (cited § 47), and other collections. On Theognis, cf. Quart. Sev. No. xcv.

§ 57. Fhocylides, of Miletus, lived about B. C. 540. He belongs to the class
of Gnomic Poets. Of the genuine verses of Phocylides, only a few fragments
are extant, preserved by Stobaeus.

1 u. An ethical poem, called the Exhortation, or Admo7iition {-oirnxa vovdrjTiKov) in 217
verses, is ascribed to him (cf. § 31). It is allowed by the critics to be the work of a
later author, perhaps a Christian of the second or third century.

2. The genuine remains of Phocylides are in Brunck's Analecla (cited § 35) and other collections.— The Exhortation wag first
printed by Jldus (witli the golden verses of Pythagoras, in C. Lascar's Greek Grammar). Van. 1495. 4. It is found in the collec-
tions mentioned under § 47. It has been published separately several times; best probably by J. A. Schicr, Gr. & Lat. Leipz. 1751. 8.
— Cf. Harles, Brev. Not. Lit. Gr. p. 64.

§ 58. Pythagoras, of Samos, probably lived between 550 and 500 B. C. He
is celebrated as the founder of the Italian School of philosophy. The fragments
called Xpraoi, t7t>j. Golden Verses, which commonly pass under his name, are pro-

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