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apud Batavos Hiltamum, Clementem Martium, Hermannum Herberti et alios eadem
palam et tuto docuisse testantium : donee duo, quos dixi, Gomarus inde, liinc Arminius,
in ipsa Lugdunensi schola sua quisque firmare, aliena labefactare aggressi sunt. How
the synods began to demand subscription to the Confessio Belgica and the Heidelberg
Catechism is related by J. Borsius, in the Archief voor Kerk. Geschiedenis, ix. 285.

* Dirik Volckaerts zoon Koornhert (f 1590) is to be regarded as the forerunner of the
Remonstrants ; in a large number of books (Works, Amst., 1630, 3 fol.) he >vas a zeal-
ous advocate of freedom of conscience, and of the reduction of theology to a few essen-
tial points. He was involved in a controversy in LeA'den, 1578, for assailing Calvin's
and Beza's views on predestination, and on the execution of heretics (Uytenbogaert, p.
198). In 1583 he wrote against the Dutch Catechism ; reply by A. Saravia, professor
of theology in Leyden (Brand, Hist, de la Ref., i. 202). Casp. Coolhaas, preacher in
Leyden, defended the rights of the magistracy over the Church, denied Calvinistic pre-
destination, and would receive all those as brethren who would accept the fundamental
truths of Christianity. He was deposed by the Synod of Middelburg in 1581 (Brand, i.
282, 289. Ypey en Dermout, ii., Aant., p. 68).

^ Casp. Brantii (son of Gerhard, and also Remonstrant preacher in Amsterdam) Hist.
Vitae Jac. Arminii, Amstelod., 1724 (praef. notasque addidit J. L. Moshemius, Bruns-
vig., 1725).

^ The preachers in Delft, A. C van der Linden and Reinier Donteclock, wrote, 1589 :
Eesponsio ad Argumenta quaedam Bezae et Calvini ex tractatu de Praedestinatione in
cap. ix. ad Rom., in order as Sublapsarian to refute the Supralapsarians. Martin Ly-
dius, professor in Franecker, called out Arminius to defend Calvin and Beza ; and the
investigations to which he was thus led brought Arminius to entirely opposite convic-
tions. C. Brantii Hist. Vitae J. Arminii ed. Mosheim, p. 22.

508 FOURTH PERIOD— DIV. I.— A.D. 1517-1G48.

plicity in doctrines, and a peaceful spirit in the Church,"^ and also
for the subjection of the Church to the state.^ The Gomarists, on
the contrary, demanded the adoption of strict Calvinism, not only
in doctrine, but also as to the independence of the Church in rela-
tion to the state. In vain did the States favorable to the Armin-
ians, led by John van Oldenbarneveld and Hugo Grotius, use all
their efforts to maintain the peace of the Church ; the Gromarists
became more and more violent and stiff-necked.

After the death of Arminius (1609), his successor, Simon Epis-
copius,^ and John Uytenbogaert,^*^ preacher at the Hague, became
the leaders of the party. To refute false accusations, they set
forth their doctrinal views in a Remonstrance (Remonstrantie,
hence called Remonstrants),^^ addressed, in 1610, to the States

' Uytenbogaert, in 1610, "vn'ote an account of a remarkable conversation which he had
•with Is. Casaubon, in which the latter openly avowed his objections to Calvinism
(Praestantium ac erud. Virorum Epist. Eccl., p. 250) : Quaesivit (Casaubonus) de Ar-
minio, anne et ille haberet aliquid de quo conquereretur. Respondi, habere, sed praeci-
puum esse, quod ageret, ut posset uniri Christianismus : modum autem hunc esse, ut
discrimen fieret inter fundamentalia et non fundamentalia ; ut de illis certi esse posse-
mus, de his libere prophetare. Ad hoc ille : o sanctas cogitationes ! Arminius him-
self says in his Testament (Vita, p. 199) : coram Deo testor, me bona conscientia in mu-
nere meo et vocatione simpliciter et sincere ambulasse : sollicite admodum et curiose
hoc cavens, ne quid proponerem aut docerem, quod non adhibita ante diligentia ex s.
Scripturis disquirendis comperissem cum iisdem Scripturis ad amussim convenire : quae-
cunque ad propagationem amplificationemque veritatis, religionis christianae, veri Dei
cultus, communis pietatis, et sauctae inter homines conversationis, denique ad conveni-
entem christiano nomini tranquillitatem et pacem secundum verbum Dei possent con-
ferre, excludens Papatum, cum quo nulla unitas fidei, nullum pietatis aut christianae
pacis vinculum servari potest.

^ Cf. J. U^'tenbogaert tractaat van't Ampt en Auctoriteit eener hooger Christelijke
Overheit in kerkelijke saken., 1610. 4. Hugonis Grotii Oratio in Senatu Amstel., ix.
Cal. Maji, 1616, habita. 0pp. Theol., iii. 177.

^ Hist, vitae Sim. Episcopii scripta a Phil, a Limborch, Amstel,, 1701.

^° J. Uj'tenbogaert leven, kerckelijke Bedieninge ende zedige verandwoording, 1646.
4. (also at the end of an edition of his kerk. Historic).

^^ They agreed upon a declaration, January, 1610 (Uytenbogaert, kerk. Historie, p.
524), which, with the necessary' changes in the form of it, was afterward submitted to
the states as the Remonstrantia (in the Schriftelijke Conferentie gehouden in's Graven-
hage, 1611, tusschen sommige Kerkendienaren, 1612. 4., p. 1). The five articles in which
the Remonstrants declare their doctrine, Latin in Benthem's Holl. Kirch- u. Schulen-
staat, i. 635. Walch's Religionsstreit. ausser d. Luth. Kirche, iii. 540 : I. Deum aeterno
immutabili decreto in Jesu Christo filio suo ante jactum mundi fundamentum statuisse,
ex lapso — humano genere, illos in Christo, propter Christum, et per Christum servare,
qui Spiritus s. gratia in eundem ejus Filium credunt : — contra vero eos, qui non conver-
tuntur, — in peccato et irae subjectos relinquere et condemnare, as in Joh. iii. 36. II.
Proinde J. Chr. — pro omnibus et singulis mortuum esse, — ea tamen conditione, ut nemo
ilia remissione peccatorum re ipsa fruatur, praeter hominem fidelem, as in Joh. iii. 16;
1 Joh. ii, 2. III. Hominem vero salutarem Mem a se ipso non habere, — sed necessari-
um esse eum in Christo per Spiritum ejus sanctum regigni et renovari, — ut aliquid boni


of Holland and West Friesland ; but these States attempted in
vain to bring their opponents, the Contra-Remonstrants, to toler-
ate these doctrines.^^ The strife became more bitter by assum-
ing a political character. The States wished for peace, and in
1609 had carried through an agreement for a twelve years' truce
with Spain, under the influence of Oldenbarneveld and Grotius,
and in opposition to the wishes of the Stadtholder, Prince Mau-
rice of Orange. The accusation against these statesmen, that
they were bribed by Spain, was all the more readily welcomed
by -the Contra-Remonstrants, since the Arminians, who support-
ed the States, were implicated in the charge of treachery. ^^
The States of Seeland, Friesland, Grroningen, and Greldern, car-
ried away by this impulse, demanded a national synod to con-
demn the Remonstrants. The States of Holland, Utrecht, and
Upper Yssel were opposed to this ;^* but six of their cities, and

possit intelligere, cogitare, velle et perficere nach Job. xv. 5. IV. Hanc Dei gratiam
esse initium, progressum ac perfectionem omnis boui ; — adeo quidem, ut omnia bona
opera, quae excogitare possumus, Dei gratiae in Christo tribuenda sint. Quod vero mo-
dum operationis illius gratiae attinet, ilia non est irresistibilis. De multis enim dicitur,
eos Spiritui s, restitisse, Act. 7. et alibi multis locis. V. Qui Jesu Christo per veram
fidem sunt insiti, ac proinde Spiritus ejus vivificantis participes, eos abunde habere fa-
cultatum, quibus contra Satanam — et propriam suam carnem pugnent, et victoriam ob-
tineant, veruntamen per gratiae Spiritus s. subsidium ; Jesum Christum vero illis Spi-
ritu suo in omnibus tentationibus adesse, manum porrigere, et, modo sint ad certamen
promt], et ejus auxilium petant, neque officio suo desint, eos confirmare. — Sed an illi
ipsi negligentia sua initium sui esse in Christo deserere non possint, — conscientiae nau-
fragium facere, a gratia excidere, penitus ex s. Scriptura esset expendendum, antequam
illud cum plena animi tranquillitate et 'TrXripoipopLa docere possent.

'^ The states, upon receiving this Remonstrance, ordered (Ujtenbogaert, p. 529), dat
de Predicanten van 't gevoelen in dese Remonstrantie uj'tgedruckt, zijnde in actuelen
dienst, van de Censuren der andere Predicanten desen aengaende souden blijven be-
vrijdt, ende dat men d'aenkomende Kerckendienaren in het examineren vorder niet eu
sonde beswaren, als van oudts is gebru3'ckelijck geweest, ende sonderling in 't stuck
van de Praedestinatie, hooger noch swaerder niet als in de vijf Artijckelen -wordt ver-
klaert. The clergy took the ground that this order was an interference of the secular
power in spiritual matters, and hence invalid. The states endeavored, fruitlessly, to
bring about conferences between the two parties in the Hague, 1611 (Ypev en Dermout,
ii. 193), and in Delft, 1613 (1. c, p. 201). So, too, their decree of Januan-, 1614 (Grotii
0pp. Theol., iii. 141), by which the clerg}- were exhorted to peace, remained unsuccessful.

" Ypey en Dermout, ii. 215. The feeling of the Contra-Remonstrants comes out in
Bogermanni Ep. ad J. J. Breitingerum (preacher in Zurich), 23d June, 1618 (Miscella-
nea Tigurina, ii. 429) : Mysterium est iniquitatis, non tantum ecclesiasticae, sed et po-
liticae, quod quinquarticularia (quam vocant) controversia occultat. Turbatur Eccle-
sia, turbatur Politia. Orthodoxi quibusdam in locis persecutiones passi sunt acerbissi-
mas, et regimen politicum ejectis orthodoxis commissum est Papisticis, Libertinis, Neu-
tralistis, qui ad induciarum exspirationem idonea essent hostium mancipia.

^* Ep. Old. Holl. ad Jacob. R., 1618 (see Note 1), p. 500 : Sunt qui existimarint, hasce
controversias nationalis Synodi decisione terminandas. Nos vero Majestatem tuam —
expendere oramus, prius an utilis sit futura illarum controversiarum decisio, deinde an

510 FOURTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1517-1648.

among tliem the powerful Amsterdam, held with the opponents ;
so that the states of Holland at last remained alone, and were
themselves obliged to assent, after their chief men, Oldenbarne-
veld, Grotius,^^ and Hogerbeets, had been put in prison by order
of the Estates-General. Thus the National Synod of Dort was
convened (November, 1618, to May, 1619) ;^° and invitations to it
were sent to the other Reformed national churches.^' Its de-
cisions could be anticipated. Not only these statesmen, ^^ but
also the Remonstrants,^^ were condemned : the Calvinist doctrine

recte per nationalem Synodum id possit expedirl. Ad prlus quod attinet, rogatur Ma-
jestas tua examinare, an credibile sit, in iis controversiis, de quibus manifesta est vete-
rum Patrum dissensio, de quibus inter religionis instauratores convenire non potuit, ac
ne inter Pontificios quidem convenit, praestari posse a nostri saeculi ingeniis, quod hac-
tenus nulla saecula praestiterunt. — Alterum quod ad Majestatis tuae perspicax judicium
deferimus, hoc est, an tutum satis sit, et concordiae omnium Ecclesiartim conveniens,
controversias, quae omnes ferme Ecclesias sunt pervagatae, unius nostrae nationis Syno-
do determinari. — Habemus et recens in Germania exemplum, ubi cum Saxones Theologi
et Pastores librum confecissent, quern concordiae vocabant, — placuit Reginae Elisa-
bethae et piis Germaniae Principibus, Francofurti conventum instituere, in quo legati —
epistolam ad Germaniae Principes scripserunt, in qua ostendunt, recte ipsos facturos
fuisse, si consilia sua contulissent cum aliis gentibus, quae eundem, quern ipsi, Deum
invocant. — Tarn piis moderatisque consiliis cum non auscultarent doctores Saxonici, sed
paucarum provinciarum consensum subscriptionibus firmarent, secuta inde est ilia luc-
tuosa nobis, lucrosa hostibus, evangelicarum Ecclesiarum divulsio. Quod ipsum satis
grave nobis exemplum esse debet, ne tale quid iterum committamus. Eo autem magis
ad communem evangelicarum Ecclesiarum statum pertinebit quicquid de praedestina-
tione et adhaerentibus quaestionibus statuetur, quod Augustanae confessionis theologi
in his controversiis nunc maxime pedem figant (see § 42). — Et quanquam hoc anno pro-
vinciae quaedam iterum nationalem Sj'nodum urgere coeperunt, atque earn indicere
simt aggressae ; illae tamen provinciae, quae veteribus illis controversiis magis impli-
catae praecipites condemnationes perhorrescunt, assensum suum negant : neque arbi-
trantur id juris concessum esse aliis provinciis, ut vel una invita, nedum pluribus, com-
muni foederatorum nomine aliquid imperii circa ecclesiastica usurpent ; cum id imperi-
um minima ambigua stipulatione provi.. ^iugulae integrum illibatumque sibi ser-
vaverint, connexae quidem religionis vinculo cum vicinis provinciis itidem, ut cum Ma-
jestatis tuae regnis, aliisque per Europam eandem veritatem sequentibus, sed sine ulla
mutua subjectione.

^5 Hugo Grotius v. H. Luden, Berlin, 1806, s. 128. Ypey en Dermout, ii. 215.

^^ Decree of the Estates-General for convening the synod, 11th November, 1617, in
Benthem's Holl. Kirchen- u. Schulenstaat, i. 371.

^'' That addressed to the Swiss, see INIlscellanea Tigur., ii. 273. Brandenburg was in-
vited, but did not send any theologians ; see Hering's hist. Nachricht v. d. ersten An-
fang der Ref. Kirche in Brandenburg, s. 383. Anhalt alone was not invited. The
French Reformed were forbidden by Louis XIIJ. to send delegates. A list of all the
members is in Benthem, i. 379. The foreign churches represented were the English
Episcopal, the Scotch, the Palatinate, Hesse, Switzerland, Wetterau, Geneva, Bremen,
and Emden.

^^ Oldenbarneveld was executed 13th May, 1619 ; Eegenboog, i. 299.

" Acta Synodi Nationalis Dortrechti habitae, Dordrechti, 1620. 4. (the official collec-
tion). Acta et Scripta synodalia Dordracena Ministrorum Remonstrantium, Ilerder-
wijci, 1620. 4. (the Remonstrant collection). Jo. Halesii (preacher to the English em-


of predestination was formally confirmed ;^° and the Remonstrant
clergy banished, in case they did not renounce all exercise of

bassy, present as a spectator) Hist. Concilii Dordraceni (reports to the English embas-
sador at the Hague) ; J. L. Moshemius, lat. vertit, variis Observationibus et Vita Ha-
lesii auxit, Hamb., 1724. Many letters in the Praestantium ac Erud. Virorum Episto-
lae eccl., especially the reports to the English embassador at the Hague of the Scotch,
theologian, Gualth. Balcanquallus, p. 527, 540, etc. Favorable to the sj-nod were the
reports sent to Zurich by H. J. Breitinger (Miscellanea Tigur., ii. 377). Balcanquallus,
8. Cal. Apr., 1619 (1. c, p. 565), made three remarks upon the synod : 1. Praesidem
(Joh. Bogermann, preacher at Leeuwaarden) plus sibi, quam ullus ante eum Praeses,
arrogasse in conficiendis canonibus, quos a reliquis volebat approbari per nudum placet,
vel rejici per solum non placet. — 2. Videtur mihi multo minus turbarum in Synodo futu-
rum fuisse, si duo viri abfuissent, quibus praesentibus nunquam turbae Sj'nodo deerunt ;
Sibrandum (Sibr. Lubbertum, professor in Franeker) et Gomarum (professor in Gronin-
gen) intelligo, qui alternas habent vices furendi ac tumultuandi. Proxima ante hodier-
nam procella a parte Gomari detonuit : hodie Sibrandus invectus est in nostrum Colle-
gium (the foreign divines) tanta cum iracundia et impotentia, tantaque cum acerbitate
verborum, ut nulla re magis de ipso ultio sumatur, quam nuda relatione verborura, quae
protulit. (How these two at first calumniated the Bremen divines ; and how Gomarus
blamed the Bishop of Landaff ; see p. 547 ss.) 3. Nisi Tu, Vir ill., magna diligentia
provideas, ut bonum consilium hue afferatur, prout comparatum esse video, Synodus
erit res omnibus saeculis deridenda. Praeses et Provinciales nullo modo consulunt dig-
nitati aut honori exterorum, neque flocci faciunt rationem, quam reversi tenebimur red-
dere omnibus eam petentibus. Volunt canones suos ita turgere speculationibus ex cate-
chismo petitis, ut prae iis crepare ac disrumpi videantur ; satisque video, nullum esse in
Synodo ministrum Contraremonstrantem, quin velit eam doctrinam, quam ipse propo-
suit, et contra quam Remonstrantes exceperunt, totara canonibus infarciri, ut ostentare
possit a se dicta.

^° Gomarus came out as a Supralapsarian (Acta Syn. Nationalis, p. 272 : Non tantum
hominem lapsum, sed etiam ante lapsura in praedestinatione a Deo consideratum ; cf.
Balcanquallus, Praest. Vir. Epist., p. 556). According to Breitinger (Misc. Tigur., ii.
419) he was the only Supralapsarian. The English wished to throw out some (Supralap-
sarian) duriores locutiones ; particularly this : Deum movere hominum linguas ad blas-
phemandum, and : hominem non posse plus boni facere quam facit. The divines of
Hesse and Bremen joined with them in this, but without success (Acta Syn. Nat., p.
277 : ne calumniari possent adversarii, rejectione phi'asium incommodarum etiam doc-
trinam orthodoxam, quam professi essent illi, qui in ejus explicatione ejusmodi phrasi-
bus durius aut imprudentius usi videntur, p. idamnari. Cf. Blancanquallus, Praest.
vir. epist., p. 569. Mosheim in edit. Halesii, p. 58). Yet still Professor John Macco-
vius, in Franeker, who was complained of for similar opinions (e. g. Deus destinat ali-
quos ad poenam et ad ea, propter quae juste infligi mereatur), after a private hearing,
was warned to avoid such positions as would give rise to scandal, and scholastic phrases
which might be misunderstood (see J. Heringa, twistzaak van Maccovius i. d. Archief
voor kerk. Geschiedenis, iii. 503). The Canones Synodi de V. Remonstr. Articulis, see
Acta Syn. Nation., p. 279 ; also a special, official edition : Judicium Syn. Nat. habitae
Dordrechti ann. 1618 et 1619 de quinque Doctrinae Capitibus in Ecclesiis Belgicis con-
troversis promulgatum, 6. Maj., 1619, 4. ; also in Niemeyer, Coll. Conf. Reform., p. 690.
They are divided into five chapters : 1. De divina praedestinatione ; 2. De morte Christi
et hominum per eam rederaptione ; 3 et 4. De hominis corruptione et conversione ad
Deum ejusque modo ; 5. De perseverantia Sanctorum. Every chapter ends with a Ee-
jectio errorum. Cf. i. 7 : Est autem electio immutabile Dei propositum, quo ante jacta
mundi fundamenta ex universo genere humano, ex primaeva integritate in peccatum et
exitium sua culpa prolapso, secundum liberrimum voluntatis suae beneplacitum, ex
mera gratia, certam quorundam hominum multitudinem, aliis nee meliorum nee digni-
orum, sed in communi miseria cum aliis jacentium, ad salutem elegit in Christo, quem


512 FOURTH PERIOD.— DIV. I.— A.D. 1517-1648.

their ecclesiastical functions.^ ^ In fact, the condemnation of the
Lutheran doctrine was involved ; and so the separation from the
Lutherans on the part of the Reformed was fully carried out.^^

§ 44.


[A. Sch-vreizer, Die Protestantischen Centraldogmen, 1856, Band ii. 31-201. W. Gass,
GescMchte d. Prot Dogmatik, Bd. ii. 1857.]

Many of the Remonstrants were welcomed, in 1621, by Fred-
erick IL, Duke of Holstein, where they founded Friedrichstadt, in
Sleswick.^ Those left behind in the Netherlands, being deprived
of their clergy, formed, in consequence, the sect of Rhynsburgers
tM,y^ or CoUegiants, led by three brothers of the name of Van der

etiam ab aetemo mediatorem et omnium electorum caput, salutisque fundamentum con-
stituit, atque ita eos ipsi salvandos dare et ad ejus communionem per verbum et Spiri-
tum suum efficaciter vocare ac trahere, seu vera in ipsum fide donare, justificare, sancti-
ficare, et potenter in Filii sui communione custoditos tandem glorificare decrevit, ad de-
monstrationem suae misericordiae, et laudem divitiarum gloriosae suae gratiae nach
Eph., i. 4-6. Rom., viii. 30. In the Rejectio errorum, which follows every chapter, the
Lutherans are manifestly included, where those errorists are condemned, — Cap. i. 4 : Qui
docent, in electione ad fidem banc conditionem praerequiri, ut homo lumine naturae
recte utatur, sit probus, parvus, humilis, et ad vitam aetemam dispositus, quasi ab istis
electio aliquatenus pendeat ; and Cap. 3 et 4, 8 : Qui docent, Deum in hominis regenera-
tione eas suae omnipotentiae vires non adhibere, quibus voluntatem ejus ad fidem et
conversionem potenter et infallibiliter flectat ; sed positis omnibus gratiae operationibus,
quibus Deus ad hominem convertendum utitur, hominem tamen Deo et Spiritui regene-
rationem ejus intendenti — ita posse resistere, — ut sui regenerationem prorsus impediat.
Comp. § 42, Note 4.

*^ See the Sententia S^'nodi de Remonstrantibus hinter den Canones. The leaders of
the part}' are deposed from their offices in the church, reliquos autem, quorum cognitio
ad Synodum banc nationalem non devenlt, Synodis provincialibus, Classibus et Presby-
teriis, ex ordine recepto, committit : quae omni studio procurent, ne quid Ecclesia detri-
menti vel in praesens capere, vel in posterum metuere possit. The heads of the partj'
were then called upon by the Estates-General to subscribe the Akte van Stilstand (the
pledge to refrain from ecclesiastical acts ; see this in Ypey en Dermout, ii., Aant, p.
175) ; those that refused were banished. The provincial synods took measures against
the rest of the Remonstrant clergy ; they first demanded subscription to the decrees of
Dort ; if this was refused, then a subscription to the Acte van Stilstand; and if this were
not complied with, they caused the recusants to be banished ; Ypey en Dermout, ii. 245.
See the Acts of the Sjmod of South Holland on this matter, complete in the Archief voor
kerkel. Geschiedenis, vii. On the violent persecution of the Remonstrants, see Regen-
boog, ii. 164 ff. Prince Maurice was not at all in favor of such severe measures ; Ypej'
en Dermout, ii. 228, 268.

22 See Moshemius, De Auctoritate Cone. Dordraceni Concordiae sacrae noxia, prefixed
to his edition of J. Halesii Hist. Cone. Dordr.

^ Brandt, Hist, de la Reform, jies Pais-bas, ii. 330. Pontoppidan's Annales Ecclesiae
Danicae, iii. 713.


Kodde, who from principle rejected all clergy .^ After the death
of Prince Maurice, 1625, under the Stadtholder, Henry Frederick,
the banished clergy returned to then* fatherland. At first they
were only silently permitted to exercise the right. of w^orship ; un-
til, in 1630, Amsterdam permitted them to build a church. Am-
sterdam and Rotterdam were their chief seats ; in Amsterdam
they established a gymnasium for the education of teachers.^

The Remonstrants now came out with a more open avowal of
their doctrinal peculiarities. In proportion to their conviction,
that speculation had led the Calvinistic dogmas to erroneous con-
clusions, was the decision with which they set aside all human
confessions of faith,* and took the Holy Scripture alone as their
guiding star in doctrine, ascribing special value to those parts of
it which are of practical importance.^ They denied not only the

2 Brandt, ii. 218. Ypey en Dermout, ii. 284. In the 18th centur}- thej- were absorbed
among the Mennonites ; Ypey en Dermout kerk. geschiedenis der 18 eeuw, ix. 239-271.

2 Brandt, ii. 311. Ypey en Dermout Geschiedenis van de herv. christ. Kerk in Neder-
land, ii. 824.

* Though Episcopius wrote the Confessio s. Declaratio Sententiae Pastorum, qui in
foederato Belgioe Remonstrantes vocantur, Herderwijci, 1622. 4. (0pp., ii., ii. G9), yet
in it he expressly guarded against the opinion that it -was to have a binding authority.
In respect to confessions of faith, he demanded in the Preface (0pp., ii., ii. 71) : 1. Nemo
ad formulas illas confugiet, ut ex iis certa fide, veluti ex fontibus hauriat ac depromat
ea, quae credenda sunt. — 2. Nemo ad earum sensus adstringetur, aut adstringi se patie-
tur alia lege, quam quatenus et quamdiu ipse certo deprehendit atque in conscientia sua
convincitur, eas cum Scripturarum sensibus convenire. 3. In disputationibus, collationi-
bus, examinibus ad illas nunquam provocabitur, neque ad illarum incudem revocabun-
tur fidei controversiae ; sed ad solum verbum divinum, tanquam ad regulam unicam —
omnes — exigentur aut expendentur. — Hoc itaque fundament© semel rite jacto — semper
in Ecclesia J. Chr. sarta tecta manebit libertas, qua sine periculo in formulas istas in-
quirere, iisque sine scrupulo contradicere (salvis semper modestiae, caritatis et pruden-
tiae Christianas legibus) licebit. Cf. Ch. J. W. Mosche, Hist. Sententiarum Remonstran-
tium de rebus ad religionem et conscientiam pertinentibus Spec. 1., Jenae, 1790, p. 35.

^ Episcopius, 1. c, p. 73: Ad praxim autem christianae pietatis omnia direximus.

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