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THE GERMAN PEOPLE

VOL. XVI.



SOUTHEf^N -BRANCH,

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,

LIBRARY,



HISTORY OF THE
G E R M AN PEOPLE
AFTER THE CLOSE
OF THE AHDDLE AGES

By Johannes Janssen

VOL. XVI.

GENERAL MORAL AND RELIGIOUS
CORRUPTION— IMPERIAL LEGISLA-
TION AGAINST WITCHCRAFT— WITCH
PERSECUTION FROM THE TIME OF
THE CHURCH SCHISM TO THE LAST
THIRD OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY

TRANSLATED BY A. M. CHRISTIE




1910

LONDON

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO. LTD.

DRYDEN HOUSE, GERRARD STREET, W.

n, IIERDEK
17 SOUTH BROADWAY, ST. LOUIS, MO.



G 4 >5 H Z






CONTENTS



OF



THE SIXTEENTH VOLUME



PART III

PAOS
CHAPTER 1

I. General Moral and Religious Chaos i

Evil Conditions at the Close of the Middle Ages.

The situation aggravated by Luther's religious innovation, 1-3.

The founders of the new Church system bewail the general growth
of depravity and demorahsation, and allow that it Avas only with
the introduction of the new doctrine that this unhaUowed state
of things set in, 3-4.

Spread of moral and reUgiouS anarchy in aU classes and over all
parts of the Empu-e— The good swaUowed up by the evil, 5-7.

The Council of Constance on the conditions of Germany, 7.

Luther on the fruits of the new Gospel— The dechne and downfaU
of all discipline and honour, the bad bringing-up of childi-en
by parents and teachers, the supremacy of all vice, the con-
tempt of the Evangel, 7-17. Luther predicts the end of the
world in consequence of the general corruption, and beUeves in
the nearness of the Day of Judgment, 17-20.

Luther's complaints on the growth of immorahty and contempt of

the Evangel confirmed by Melanchthon, 21.
The four classes in the Protestant party after Melanchthon, 22.
Melanchthon complains that the condition of things is growing
worse, 23-24.
Complaints of the Saxon and Hamburg preachers on the moral
conditions that have set in since the pohtico-rchgious revolution,
24-26.
' No more faith and love on earth,' says Erasmus Alber, 26.
Complaints from the Hessian preachers— Complaints from the
Wiirteraberg and other South- German preachers, 26-28.



Vi HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE

CHAPTER PA.aa

Opiiiion of the Freiberg Rector Rivius and the Meisaen Rector

George Fabricius on theu* own times, 28-30.
No Protestant territory free from moral and religious anarchy,

31.
Conditions in the Saxon Electorate according to inspectoral

reports, 31-32.
Moral conditions in Naumbiu'g and in the county of Mansfeld —

Evidence of the Lutheran theologian Sarcerius, 32-34.
Demorahsation in Hesse and Aixsbach, 34-36.
DemoraUsation in Nuremberg, in the Austrian hereditary lands,

in Wiirtemberg and in the imperial city of Ulm, 36-43.
Gro\v'ing corruption among the adherents of the new Evangel in

Strasburg and in Alsace generally, 44-45.
Demorahsation in the Palatine Electorate and in Zweibriicken,

45-46.
Anarchy and demoralisation among the people in the North-
German towns, 46-48 ; of the people in Mecklenburg, Pomer-

ania and Dithmarschen, 49-50.
2. Pernicious effects of the new doctrine on the moral conditions

of the Cathohc territories of the Empire — Evidence of con-
temporaries, 50-51.
Attitude of the German Episcopate in the first period of the

German Church-schism — Opinions of Carl von Bodmann,

Duke George of Saxony, WUhelm Hammer, and John Eck, on

the worldliness of the German bishops and clergy, 52-55.
Reports of papal legates on the German Episcopate in the first

period of the Church-scliism, 55-56.
The papal legate Morone on the grave evils of the Church-schism,

56-59.
Bishop Faber on the evil consequences of the exemptions, 59-60.
The extraordinary dearth of priests in the Cathohc parts of

Germany the cause of the demorahsation of the people —

Evidence from contemporaries and statistics on the decline of

priests and reUgions, 60-65.
Anarchy and demorahsation in Cathohc Germany — Results of the

inspections in Austria, 65-71.
Rehgious and moral anarchy in the Tyrol, in the Austrian

' Vorlande ' and in S.W. Germany, 71-74.
ReUgious and moral anarchy in the ecclesiastical territories —

Complaint of the HUdesheim chronicler, John Oldecop, in the

year 1549, 74.
R eligious c onditions jn_^Bayariar—Mixed rehgion and latent

Protestantism, 75-77.
The Cathohc Church in Germany in the greatest danger — Her

salvation through the Cathohc Restoration, 77-79.
The Cathohc Restoration and the Jesuits, 79.



CONTENTS OF THE SIXTEENTH VOLUME VU

CHAPTER PAGE

The Catholic Restoration opposes a dam to the moral and

religious anarchy, 79-80.
The improvement not thorough-going on the Cathohc side —

Evils in the Cathohc parts of the Empire — Memorandum of the

Nuncio Minutio Minucci on the condition of the Cathohc Church

in Germany in 1588 — Opinions of the Freiburg theologian,

Jodokus Lorichius, and the Tyrolese physician, Guarinoni,

81-85.
3. Growth of moral and reUgious anarchy in Protestant Germany

since the middle of the sixteenth century — The ' -svitness-

preachers,' 86.
Utterances of preachers on the condition of things in 1556, 86-87.
Christopher Lasius, the ' hp-beheving sinners by grace,' 87-88.
Pictures of customs by the Protestant preacher, Andreas Musculus,

in his ' Unterrichtung vom Himmel und der Hell,' 88-90.
Paul Eber, town pastor of Wittenberg (since 1559), on the con-
dition of the Protestant Church, 90-91.
Protestant preachers on the * carnal hberty ' of the new rehgion-

ists, 91-93.
Contemporaries on the results of the Lutheran doctrine of penance,

93-95.
Belzius, Mihchius, Mening and Musseus on the rehgious and moral

anarchy among the Protestants, 95-96.
The Frankfort Professor, Caspar Hofmann, on the invasion of

barbarism, 96-98.
Preachers in the Mark and in SUesia on the increase of sin and

wickedness, 98-99.
John Schuwardt in 1586 on the increase of vice of all kinds,

100-101.
The Meissen Superintendent Strigenicius on the abominable lives

of the new-religionists as the effect of the new doctrine of

justification, 102-103.
Preachers on the moral conditions among the new-rehgionists,
• 103-104.

John Sommer's * Ethnographia Mundi,' 104-105.
The accounts of ' witness-preachers ' confirmed from other sources,

106.
Demorahsing influence of the new teaching in Pomerania, 106-107.
Unbridled hcence in Mecklenburg, 108-109.
Moral conditions in Brandenburg, Brunswick and Saxe- Weimar,

109-114.
Anarchy and demoralisation in Saxony, 114-115.
ImmoraUty and ignorance of numbers of preachers in Saxony, in

the Magdeburg district and in Hesse, 116-118.
Rehgious and moral anarchy in Hesse, Nassau and the Palatinate,

118-121.



VUl HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE

CHAPTER PAOB

Increase of crime and drunkenness among the preachers in
Strasburg. 121-122.

Godlossness and recklessness in VViirtemberg, and in the Bayreuth
and Nuremberg districts, 123-126. Moral conditions in
Augsburg, 126-128.

Drunkenness, immorality, cursing and blaspheming, the charac-
teristic vices of the age since the triumph of the poUtico-reUgious
revolution — Utterances of Protestant preachers on the subject,
129-130.

Reasons of the prevalence of blasphemy among the Protestants,
131-132.

Utterances of contemporaries on infidehty and blaspheming
among the Protestants, 132-135.

II. Inceease of Crime — Criminal Justice . . . .136

1. Increase of crime, especially of sins of immorality — * Un-

chastity the greatest of German vices,' 136.
The new teachings of Luther on chastity and marriage, 137.
New-reUgionist defenders of polygamy, 138.
Contemporaries on the moral results of the new doctrines regarding

marriage, 138-139.
Luther and Spangenberg on contempt of the married state, 139.
Complaints of the immoral manner of dancing among the new-

rehgionists, 139-141.
Polygamy among the new-reHgionists, 142.
Reasons why immoraHty gained ground, 143-144.
Porta and Neocorus on the growth of immorality among young

womankind, 144-145.
Government penalties against immorality and adultery prove

ineffectual, 145-147.
The aboUtion of houses of ill-fame has no good result, 148.
Moral conditions grow continuously worse — Alardus and

Griininger on adultery as the common vice of the time, 149-150.
Increase of criminal cases and of youthful criminals, 151-152.
Diabohcal character of aU the crime and wickedness of that period,

152.
Contrast with the Catholics as sho'wn by criminal statistics, 152-

153.
A whole race of criminals and blood-shedders in Stralsumd,

153-154.
Criminal cases in Pomerania and Mecklenburg, 155.
Criminal statistics of the towns of Zeitz and Naumburg, 155-157.
Bloodshed and wickedness in HaUe — Punishment of the Halle,

Gartendiebe, 157-158.
Grimes in Leipzig, 159 ; in Saxony and in the principaUty of

Ansbach-Bayreuth, 160-161.



CONTENTS OF THE SIXTEENTH VOLUME IX

CHAPTER PAQB

Verbrecher-wesen — Ci-iminality in the Catholic domains, 161-162.

Robber associations, 162-163.

Gangs of poison-mixers in Silesia in 1606, 163-164.

Silesian criminal statistics, 165.

Great increase of crime in Strasburg and Nuremberg since the

religious innovations, 166.
From the diary of the Nuremberg executioner, Franz Schmidt,

166-168.
Mania for suicide, especially among the new-religionists, 169-174.
2. Abuses and iniquities in the department of criminal law

towards the end of the Middle Ages, 174-176.
Judiciary use of tortm-e, 176-177.
The Bamberg criminal ordinance of John, Baron zu Schwarzen-

berg, as also the penal code of Charles V. and of the Holy Roman

Empire (Carolina), and then* regulations concerning torture,

177-179.
The courts of law go beyond the CaroUna in the appUcation of

torture — The different kinds of torture, 179-180.
Innocent persons confess to guilt only to escape torture — Levity

in the use of torture, 181.
Instruments of torture of German origin, 181-182.
Damhouder and John Grevius on the different methods of torture,

182-183.
The horror and abomination of torture in 1576, according to the

documentary report of Petrus Borrius, 183-187.
Torture in Saxony — Criminals practise torture on each other in

order to become hardened against it, 187.
The humour of torture, 188.
The ' iron maiden,' 188-189.
The defenders of torture (Luis Vives and John Meyfart) do not

gain the day, 189-194.
The ' Tribunal Reformation ' of John Grevius on national law and

torture, 194-195.
John Grevius on the abuses in the department of criminal justice,

195-199.
John Grevius opposes torture in vain, 199.
The new Saxon ' Kriminalpraktik ' of Benedict Carpzov,

199-200.
Nature of the prisons in the Middle Ages and in tlie sixteenth and

seventeenth oentiu-ies — Descriptions by John Grevius and

Anton Praetorius, 201-204.
Length of prison term — The Nuremberg ' Lochgcfiingniss, 205.
Cruelty of the methods of execution — The Enghshman, John

Taylor, on * German ways of torturing and kiUing,' 205-210.
Growing depravity and hatred of justice the results of this terrible

criminal practice, 210.



X HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE

CHAPTER PAQB

Brutality of the judges — Tortui-ing of the ' dcvil'a associate,'

Henuing Brabant, at Brunswick, 210-212.
Luther's utterances about the devil, and his influence on criminal

justice, 212-213.
Luther's doctrine of the non-freedom of the will and the spread

of witch-trials, 214-215.

HI. Witchcraft and Persecution of Witches down to the

Religious Revolution . . . . . . .216

Church teacliing on witchcraft as criminal intercourse with evil

spirits for the accompHshment of superhiunan deeds, 216.
The ' Canon Episcopi ' as evidence that the ancient heathen

belief in magic had not died out, 217-222.
Connexion of the witch beUef with the old Germanic mythology,

222-225.
The ' Beichtspiegel ' of Burchard of Worms on witchcraft,

225-226.
Church and witchcraft in the Middle Ages — Influence of the

gnostic-Manichsean sects, 226-229.
Late mediaeval reUgious instructional books (especially manuals

of confession) on witchcraft, 229-231.
BeUef in witchcraft fostered by reports of witch-stories, 232-234.
Witch-executions in the later IMiddle Ages, 235-236.
Causes of the origin and spread of behef in witches — The witch-
craze a ' mental epidemic,' 236-239.
The Dominican, John Nider, on witchcraft, 239-242.
The witch-bull of Innocent VIII. of the year 1485, and its

significance, 242-250.
The Innsbruck witch-trial of 1485, 250-251.
The ' Witches' Hammer ' of 1486, 252-254.
Ubich MoUtoris on witchcraft in 1489, 255-256.
Murner on witchcraft, 256.
Remarkable contradictions as regards witchcraft and witch-arts

in Geiler von Kaisersberg, 256-260.
John Trithemius shares in the belief of his time in magic arid

witches, 260-262.
The so-called ' abrasura,' 263.

The ' Witches' Hammer ' on ' repetition of torture,' 263-264.
The management of witch-trials in the hands of secular judges,

265.
Witch-trials at the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the

sixteenth century, 265-268.

IV. Spread of the Belief in Witches after the Outbreak of

THE Schism 269

Luther on the devil and on witchcraft, 269-273.



CONTENTS OF THE SIXTEENTH VOLIBIE xi



Luther's disciples on the devil and liis activity — Opinions of
Melanchthon, Zanclii, Brenz, Biicer, Capito, Hedio, ^Mathesius,
Althamer and others, 274-277.

The preachers Jodokus Hocker, Hermann Hamelmann and
Hermann Straccus on the devil of pestilence, 277-278.

Devil's Uteratm-e and AVTitings on magic, 278-280.

Necromancers, miracle-healers, &c., 280-281,—

Tales of devils and marvels, 281-283

Torture and executions treated as entertaining spectacles, 283-284.

Blaspheming a sort of initiation into ^\itchcraft, 285.

Immorality and witchcraft — Witch-drinks and salves, 285-288.

All sorts of ^\itch-triaIs, 288-289.

Gmlt or innocence of tlie \\dtches, 289-291.

V. Imperiai. Penal Legislation against Witchcraft and its

Violation in Judicial Procedure — Witch-persecution
FROM THE Time of the Church Split to the Last Third
OF the Sixteenth Century ...... 292

Regulations of the ' Carohna ' on procedui-e against sorcerers —

Rules for the protection of the accused — The latter fallen out of

use in most of the law-coiu'ts, 292-296.
Significance of the displacement of the ancient indigenous mode

of trial by the inquisitional process which handed over the

accused to the caprice of the judges, 296-297.
General remarks on the number of witch-trials, 297.
Witchcraft since the introduction of the new doctrine, 298.
Witch-trials in the Mark, Brandenburg and other N. German

territories, 298-299.
Woodcut of a witch-execution at Wittenberg in 1540, 299-300.
Witch-trials in Hamburg, Osnabruck, &c., 300-301.
Procedure of Frankfort and Hamburg in the witch question —

Opinion of Hans Sachs, 301-303.
Witchcraft in Switzerland, 303-304.
Wholesale execution of sorcei'ers in Geneva under Calvin,

304-305.
A Basle witch-trial, 305.
Witch-trials at Esshngen and Wiesensteig in 1562 and 1563,

305-306.
Witch-persecution in Transylvania — Religious observances of the

Catholics punished as sorcery, 307.
Witch-persecution in Bohemia, 307-310.

VI. JOHANN WeYER's StAND AGAINST WiTCH-PERSEOUTION — HiS

Co-fighters and his Opponents . . . . .311

1. Johann Weyer'a work, ' t)bcr dio Blendwerko dcr Diimonen,
Zauboreien und Giftmischereien,' 311-312.



xii HISTORY OF THE CU^RMAN PEOPLE

CH.UTKIl TAQE

\Voyer's 0})iiiion-i about tho dovil and his might, 313.

Wovor'a ' Conception of a witch,' 314-315.

^Ycyo^ on tho sonsolossness of witch-confessions, 316-317.

Wever on tho management of witch-trials, 318-319.

Woyor on witches and heretics, 319-320.

Wever's attitude towards the Catholic Cliurch, 321-322.

Wide circulation of Wever's work, 322-323.

John Ewich on the punishment of witches and the causes of tho

increase of ' devilish witchcraft,' 323-326.
Professor Hermann Wilcken, styled Witekind (Lerclilicimer),

on the punishment of witches and the application of the Mosaic

precepts to persons accused of witchcraft, 326-334.
Causes of the increase of witchcraft according to Witekind,

334.
Witekind a manly champion of the ' poor wTctched women,'

334-336.
Witekind's attitude towards Catholic doctrines, 336.
Witekind on vitch- confessions and the punishment of witches,

337-341.
John George Godelmann advocates mild treatment of witches —

His opinions on witchcraft, 341-345.
Lawyers enjoin on the rulers chcumspection in dealing with

witches (Caspar Agricola — John Scultetiis), 346.
Importance of Anton Praetorius's pamphlet ' On sorcery and

sorcerers,' 346.
Anton Praetorius on the condition of prisons, the inadmissibility ^

of torture, and the nuisance of soothsayers, jugglers and planet-;^

readers, 347-353.
Der Gesetz-Hammer, ' The Law Hammer of the merciless witch

judges,' 353-354.
A Catholic pamplilet against the torture of witches, 354-356.
Cornelius Callidius Loos and his pamplilet ' On true and false

magic,' 357-360.
2. The sorcery-devil of the preacher Ludwig Milichius, 361-363.
The Calvinist theologians, Lambert Danaeus and Petrus Martyr

Vermigli, declare their unquaUfied belief in witches and advocate

their extermination, 363-364.
The ZwingUan theologian, Henry BuUinger, recommends the

kUhng of witches, 364.
Magic and witchcraft in the pulpit, 365-366.
The witchcraft preachers Jacob Graeter, David INIeder, Zehner

and Ellinger, 366-370.
Popular wTitings on magic and witchcraft in disagreement with

the views of Weyer, 370.
Dr. Wecker's ' Hexenbiichlein,' 370-371.
Siegfried Thomas and his copperplate, 372-376.



CONTENTS OF THE SIXTEENTH VOLUME XIU

CHAPTER PAQB

The Marburg physician. Adolf Scribonius, as Weyer's opponent,

defends trial by water, 376-379.
The Helmstadt professor, Hermann Neuwaldt, against trial by

water, 379-380.
Thomas Erastus and other physicians as defenders of the belief^,^

in witches, 381-382. -^

German lawyers as opponents of Weyer — Jean Bodin and

John Fischart — Abraham SaAvr's ' Historien von Hexen und

Unholden ' (Theatrum de veneficis), 382-387.
3. Weyer placed on the Index, 387-388. The Treves Bishop-
Auxiliary, Peter Binsfeld, on the confessions of sorcerers and

mtches, 388-391.
The Sittard pastor, Franz Agricola, and his pamphlet ' On

sorcerers and witches,' 392-396.
No witch-sermons on the Cathohc side before the Thirty Years'

War, 396-397.
Opinions of Nicholas Remigius on the treatment of witches,

397-401.
Demonographs on the punishment of witch-cliildren, 401.
Martin Delrio on the treatment of witches and tlie rack, 401-405.
John Matthew Meyfart and Delrio on the torture of witches,

405-408.
Transition to the last third of the sixteenth century, 408-409.

VII. Witch-persecution in Catholic and Mixed Districts after
THE Last Third of the Sixteenth Century — Attitude
OF the German Jesuits to Witchcraft prior to
Frederick von Spee . . . . . . .410

The Habsburgers, Ferdinand I. and Maximihan II., as opponents

of witch-persecution, 410.
In Austria and the Tyrol only isolated witch-trials occur during

the sixteenth century, 410-412.
Witch-trials in Switzerland, 412-413.
Witch-persecution in Bavaria, 413-419.
Witch-burning in the diocese of Wiirzburg, 419-423.
Witch-persecution in the diocese of Bamberg, 423-424.
Witch-persecution in Baden and Alsace (children burnt as witches),

424-429.
Witch-persecution in the Abbey-lands of Fulda and the arch-
diocese of Maycnce, 429-433.
Synods of Cologne, Treves and Mayence on the punishment of

soothsaying and sorcery, 433^34.
Witch-hunt in the archdiocese of Treves — ' Statements of the

witches and sorcerers there,' 435-440.
Trial for sorcery of Doctor Dietrich Flade, councillor at Treves, ___^

440-441.



Xl\- HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE

CUAPIKK PAGE

Injurious results of witch-perspcution for the religious life in the

nrehdioceso of Treves, 442-443.
A Jesuit in Treves as comforter of the condemned witches, 444.
The Treves Elector John VII. von Schonbcrg, in 1591, on the

barbarous abuses in judicial procedure, the methods for — ^^:::.

extorting confession, and the intolerable costs of witch-trials,

445-446?
Hermaiui Weinsberg on the treatment of witches in the arch-
diocese of Cologne, 446-447.
Witch-persecution in the Lower Rliine districts, Angermund and

Hiilclu-ath, 448-450.
Witch-persecution in Westphalia, 450-452.

Witch-trial against the Duchess Sidonia of Brunswick, 452-454.
Witch-trials in Ei'meland and in Hildcsheim, 454-455.
Witch-persecution on the Protestant side sometimes laid to the

charge of the Jesuits, 455.
Protestants declare the Jesuits to be ' closely connected with

devilish art and witchcraft ' — The ' Erschrockliche Zeitung '

of the Jesuit, George Ziegler, 455^56.
The preachers Seibert and Bernliardt Waldschmidt on magic and

witchciaft in the Jesuit schools, 457-458.
Protestant theologians against the Jew physicians as ' tools o f ^

Satan,' 459-460.
Attitude of the German Jesuits to the witch question — Utterances

of Canisius, George Scherer and the Father General Aquaviva,

460-465.
Jesuits as comforters and intercessors for persons accused of

A\itchcraft, 466-467.
The Jesuits Lajonann and Tanner as precursors of Frederick von

Spec, 467-477.
Frederick von Spec on ' justice so-called ' being responsible for all

the horrors of the Thirty Years' War, 477.

Vni. Persecution of Witches in the Protestant Districts

SINCE THE Last Third of the Sixteenth Century . 478

Execution of witches in Switzerland, 478.

Inlmman persecution in the imperial town of Nordlingen since

1500, 478-480.
Witch-trial of Maria HoUin, landlady of the ' Crown ' Inn at

NordUngen, 480-484.
Witch- burning in Nuremberg, Ratisbon, and in the Bayreuth

district, 484-485. I

The hereditary marshalless, CseciUa von Pappenheim, accused as

a witch, 485.
Witch-persecution in Wiirtemberg — Trial of Kepler's mother,

486-488.



CONTENTS OF THE SIXTEENTH VOLUME XV

CHAPTER PAGE

Witch-trials in Rottenburg and in the county of Lowenstein-

Wertheim, 489-491.
Trial of the ' \sitch ' Clara Geisslerin at Gelnhausen in 1597,

491-493.
Injunction of Count John VI. of Nassau concerning witch-ti-ials,

493.
Witch-trial of Entgen Hentchen, 494-495.
Witch-persecution in Hesse-Darmstadt under Landgrave George,

495-496.
The Marburg advocate, Abraham Sawr, in favour of the punish-
ment of witches, 497.
W'itch-bm-ning in Osnabriick, 498-499.
Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel (1589-1613) a

zealous witch-burner, 499-501.
The Liinebui'g lawyer, Hart^vig von Dassel, recommends the most

drastic procedure against witches, 501-502.
Witch-persecution in the Harz — Arts of the witches and

magicians, 503-505.
Opinion given by the faculty of law at Helmstadt on a case of

witchcraft, 505.
Witch-burning at Gottingen, Quediinburg, Rostock and Hamburg,

505-506.
Jews in the Brandenburg Mark bm-nt for witchcraft, 506-507.
Witch-persecution in the Brandenburg Mark, 507-510.
Witch-trial against the eiglity-year-old Sidonia von Bork,

510-511.
Elector Augustus ' thoroughly grounded in occult arts ' — His

new criminal ordinance, 511-513.
Frightfiil witch-burning in the Electorate of Saxony and in the

Saxon princi^ahties, 513-515.
The Coburg lawyers on witch-persecution, 515.
The Protestant theologian, Meyfart, on torture and the ' volun-
tary confessions of witches,' 515-520.
Meyfart on the hatching of witches and the blame attaching to

numbers of ' over-zealous advocates ' of witch-persecution,

521-522.
Meyfart declares that ' an honourable man is safer among Turks

and Tartars than among German Christians,' 523.
Meyfart's daring utterances on the great blame attaching to the

rulers in the terrible horrors of witch-persecution, 523-525.
The Judgment of God in the Thirty Years' War, 526.

Index of Places ........ 527

Index of Persons ........ 536



HISTOEY

OF

THE GEEMAN PEOPLE

AT THE CLOSE OP THE MIDDLE AGES

PAET III



CHAPTER I

GENERAL MORAL AND RELIGIOUS CHAOS ^

The olden-time simplicity of habits and customs, the
orderly balance of classes, sense of justice and primitive
piety had already greatly decreased in Germany at the
close of the Middle Ages. Growing luxury had spread
through all ranks of society and sapped their stabihty ;
rehgion and moraUty were in many places at a low



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