Johannes Janssen.

History of the German people at the close of the middle ages (Volume 16) online

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mean : When Margaret, after fiendish torture which she
was no longer able to endure, at last " confessed," the
executioner addressed her as follows : " You have now
made your confession ; will you again deny it ? Tell
me now while I am still at hand, and if so I '11 give you
another dose. If you recant to-morrow, or the day
after to-morrow, or before the court, you will come back
again into my hands, and then you will learn that up
till now I have only been playing with you ; I '11 plague
and torture you in such a way that even a stone would
cry out in pity." On the appointed day of the assizes
Margaret is taken in a cart to the court, with her hands
bound so tightly that the blood oozes out, and with
chains on her body. Round her are the jailers and the
executioners, behind her follow armed men ; after her
statement has been read out the executioner himself
asks Margaret whether she abides by it or not, so that
he may know how to proceed. Thereupon Margaret
ratifies her "confession." Is that a voluntary confession ?
Coerced by such inhuman, such more than brutish
torture, watched and guarded by such brutal fellows,
bound with such hard ropes, is that freedom ? ' &c., &c.~

It is only by means of torture also that the tormented
victims are made to denounce innocent persons ' who

' Meyfart, 465, 483. '-' Ibid. 423-424.



520 HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE

are then in their turn driven by agony to accuse them-
selves of crimes which they have never committed/
I nwself liave heard and seen how the day after, or the
third day, the judge will bring the person denounced
face to face with the person who has made the charge
under torture, and then the accuser will frequently
recant and declare that he or she knows nothing but
good of the accused. At a well-knowTi place it happened
once that a bloodthirsty official brought a thoroughly
blameless burgher woman face to face with an old woman
who had been tortured three days before, and the burgher
woman defended herself fearlessly against the charge.
The old woman who had been tortured then said :
* Ah Kunigunde, I never in all my Ufe saw you at a
witches' dance ; on the contrary, I have always known
you for a respectable and Christian woman ; but I was
obhged to say something against you in order to get
taken of! the rack. You remember that as I was being
led along you met me and you said to me : "I should
never have expected this of you," and so you came into
my head while I was being tortured. I beg your for-
giveness, but if I were put on the rack again I should be
compelled to denounce you again ; w^hat, w^hat am I to
do ? ' Then the old woman was once more put on the
rack, once more she made the charge, and the innocent
burgher woman was afterwards executed. i

' Cases innumerable are known and scream through-
out Germany of innocent. Christian, well-brought-up
people, full of zeal against injustice and benevolence
towards poverty, being denounced by victims of a torture
they could no longer endure, arrested, then tortured
themselves and driven by agony to " confess " to what

» Meyfart, 466 ff., 512.



WITCH-PERSECUTION IN PROTESTANT DISTRICTS 521

they had never been guilty of. There are stories extant
so horrible and revolting that no true man can hear of
them without a shudder/ ^

A learned papal scribe, * who came forward to advo-
cate the abolition of the rack/ insisted that at least
* all that made torture so dangerous should be done
away with.' ~

* The torturers, however, wax fierce in spirit at the
idea that their means of finance, the torture system,
is going to be meddled with, and cast under suspicion ' ;
they raise, for instance, the cry : ' if the statements on
the rack were false then all criminal courts would come
under suspicion.' * But,' says Meyfart, * do not the
Canonists who have T\Titten on the subject of papal
rights show that false statements are wrung out by
torture ? WTiy do they dispute about the question
whether, when anyone in the extremity of pain falsely
accuses other innocent people of a gruesome misdeed,
this is a capital crime ? What the Canonists knew long
ago our inquisitors will not beheve.' ^

* It would be well indeed if in the halls of justice
such rhymes as the following were written up :

When judges only profit seek,
When hangmen thirst for blood,
When witnesses would vengeance wreak,
Then innocence " woe, woe," must shriek.' ^

Cruelty, sensuahty, wantonness, drmikenness,
cupidity and revenge, combined with the prevalent
superstition, are the ghastly causes which go to the mak-
ing of witches. ' If the judges,' says Meyfart, among
other things, ' did not peruse their Acts, minutes, books

' Meyfart, 471-472. - Ibid. 492.

=» Ibid. 495-496. •• Ibid. 478.



522 HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE

and registers in a state of intoxication, in desperate haste,
and Avitli foregone conclusions, and if they dealt consider-
ately with the poor prisoners, they would seldom go on
as they do, from one bit of liangman's work to another,
from one bout of torturing to another, and grub about
for reasons and evidence to justify fresh infliction of
torture. ye rulers, do not give wine to the judges to
drink and strong drinks to the sheriffs/ ^

Misguided preachers also deserve blame for the perse-
cution and cruel treatment of the witches. * Recklessly,
unscrupulously,' says Meyfart, ' they clamour for chains
and ropes, for towers and dungeons, for wood and straw,
for stake and stocks, for powder and brimstone.'
' They call this putting in practice the saying of the
Lord : Learn of me, for I am meek and lowly of heart !
Where was it ever heard in the Levitical and Christian
Church, in the prophetical and apostohc Church, that
priests and preachers, in matters so dark, so doubtful,
and indeed scarcely comprehensible to human ken,
have called and sighed and prayed for the shedding of
blood ? I cannot believe, nor is it ever to be believed,
that that teacher yearns to save the souls who thirsts to
burn the bodies." ^

But let only ' some unrighteous zealot utter his
speech ' and at once from the populace and the block-
heads thousands of voices are uphfted, out-roaring the
wind and the thunder, calhng out through all the streets,
through all the lanes, through all societies : ' Crucify,
crucify ! ' ' And you, you rulers, you let the chains clang,
the screws tighten, the witnesses talk, the torturers
torture, the judges condemn, the rods scourge, the ropes
strangle, the swords hack, the flames burn, the wheels

1 Meyfart, 567-568, ^ Ibid. 397-398.



WITCH-PERSECUTION IN PROTESTANT DISTRICTS 523

crush ! Nobody troubles himself about the innocent
Joseph, nobody defends him, nobody visits him, nobody
comforts him/

' Yea verily, when the rulers themselves catch this
fever of unrighteous zeal, the very works of justice
and mercy, which God in His Word says He prefers to
burnt sacrifices, declaring that in them He takes delight,
will be forbidden, and those people threatened, intimi-
dated, persecuted who in the least degree inchne to
them/ ' But why do we go on talking ? This un-
righteous zeal is the cause that the nearest relations and
acquaintances mutually accuse each other and wherever
they can occasion sorrow and misery/ ^

' \Vhole villages, towns and countries are flooded with
calumniations, and an honourable man could live far
more securely and happily, and in far greater peace of
mind as to his good repute, among the Turks and Tartars
than among the Christian Germans/ -

With unparalleled courage Meyfart addressed him-
self especially to the rulers and magistrates, and held
up before them a mirror in which they might see how
large a share of blame, if not indeed the largest, they
themselves bore in the frightful horrors of the witch-
persecutions. ' Nowadays,' he said, ' many rulers count
it among deeds of glory, when they have an opportunity
of hounding these poor people, and hope that, whereas
they have so far failed to accomplish anything heroic
they will obtain the balsam of valour from the stench of
brutahty. The subjects, forsooth, must lend their feet
for errand-running, their backs to beating and belabour-
ing, their heads to be clouted, their cheeks to be smacked,
their hands to carry parcels, their eyes to see their

' Meyfart, 390. -' Ibid. 663-564.



524 HI8T0KY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE

master's merry pranks, their ears to hear insult and
reproach. Wlien the husbands have devoured their
substance in banqueting, the wives, forced into whore-
dom and adultery, have to loan their bodies to good-
for-nothing young scamps. Finally the unjust rulers
migrate to tlie land of Sodom and the country of
Oomorrha, hunting for blood wherewith to quench the
fires they have lighted. They seek out new executioners
who have learnt new tricks of torture that new evidence
may be extorted and new crowds of people sent to be
slaughtered.

' Is it fitting that Christian rulers should rack their
brains to devise means for torturing their victims more
cruelly and inhumanly than ever before ? If it befits
Christian rulers to employ villains who know how to act
more fiendishly day by day, then it also befits Christian
rulers when these wretches have come to their wits' end
and can invent nothing further, to employ the devils
themselves, for evil spirits are well practised in cruelty.' ^
' In addition to the executioners these Christian rulers
appoint special witch- judges, such as the grand inquisitors
formerly were. That name ringing strange to them
(though there is nothing bad in it), they change it into
other higher sounding titles, likely to be revered and
feared, caUing them witch-councillors, fiscal officers
and commissioners. These men, when their appoint-
ments have been confirmed and their oaths taken down,
puff themselves up, boast of their plenary power, brag
and bluster at dinner-parties of how they can domineer
over the torturer, and how they are at liberty if necessary
to conduct the proceedings against the prisoners without
the orders or knowledge of the higher officials ; how, in

> Meyfart, 405-406.



WITCH-PERSECUTION IN PROTESTANT DISTRICTS 525

fact, they had never been reported to the chancellor
and the chancery assessors. Christian rulers often pay
these officials according to the number of the prisoners,
twelve thalers, more or less, per head, in order to sharpen
the judges' appetites. When this is done, the Christian
rulers are quite happy and secure in their peaceful
consciences and are content that the executioner with
his cruelty and gruesome apparatus should torture his
victims from morning till night, from the JMonday till
the Tuesday and so on till the Wednesday, till at last he
has extracted the confession.

* The rulers exonerate themselves on the plea that they
had left the matter in the hands of the officials ; if the
procedure was unjust those men must answer for it ; it
is not for them (the rulers) to worry about it. The
pretext is hke a house built on the sand. The rulers can
trouble themselves about trifling things, about the rents,
the rates, the chase and so forth ; they take care that
their horses, mules, oxen, hounds, monkeys and cats are
well looked after. Will God keep silence and accept
the rulers' excuse as just, that they trouble themselves
about small, contemptible things, but in what concerns
the hfe and property, the honour and good name of their
poor subjects, they put the business out of their heads
and relegate it to others.' ' It would be right and just
for the rulers to witness the torturing, to hear the raging
and ranting of the executioners, the confused, ridiculous,
incredible, impossible statements of the tortured. It
would be just and right for them to sit by and hear in
person the wrangling, disputing, and contradicting that
goes on among the judges.' ' But what really happens ?
Numbers of rulers only skim through the statements,
count up the accomplices denounced, laugh at the jokers,



526 HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE

send 01- giNi^ tlio letters to the officials, commissioners
and fiscal officers, ride or drive off to the hunt, and spend
their time in 1)usiness to which they are not in any way
called.' '

The ine\ital)le nemesis had abeady overtaken princes
and people : the ' Thirty Years' War ' had begun.

' Meyfart, 405-417.



INDEX OF PLACES



Abensberg, 416, 485

Adelhofen, 125

Admoiit (nunnery), 69

Ahlen, 451

Aichig, 124

Aix-la-Chapelle, 466 (/i. 1)

Albeck, 41, 43

Alfeld, 126

Alkmar, 184

Allendorf (parish), 143

Alsace, 72, 425, 429, 456

Alsen, 307 («. 1)

Altenburg (duchy). See Saxe-
Allenburg (town), 148 {n. 2),
273

Altenstadt, 41 f.

Altorf (university), 126 (n. 1),
486

Amanweiler, 429

Amberg, 381

America, 358 (n. 1), 441 (n. 1)

Ammendorf, 36

Amoneburg, 120 {n. 1)

Amsterdam, 193

Ancyra (synod, canon episcopi),
218

Andechs (convent), 64

Angermund (district), 449

Angermund (town), 266

Anhalt (principality), 24 {n. 1)

Ansbach (town), 101, 485

Ansbach-Bayreuth. See Branden-
burg

Antwerp, 158

Antwerp (Index), 387 (n. 2)

Apponweier, 426

Arfcld, 274 (n. 1)



Arnum, 501

Aschaffenburg, 43 1 , 433

Aufku'chen, 414

Augsburg (bishopric), 57, 78, 413

{11. 1)
Augsburg (Confession, 1530), 173,

320 (u. 2), 444 (n. 1), 452
Augsburg (Imperial Diet, 1530),

178; (1547-1548) 168; (1582)

495
Augsburg (town), 28, 44, 55, 127,

138, 141 {n. 1), 285, 298, 456,

463 (?i. 1), 464, 484(71. 5)
Austria (hereditary lands), 38, 62,

65-69, 72, 79, 84, 148 {n. 2),

161, 410, 464, 472 {n. 3)
Austria (ducal ordinance), 175



Babylon, 20

Baden (margraviate), 425

Baden-Baden (law-code), 295

Baden-Rodenmachern ( margravi-
ate), 425

Baden in Switzerland, 302

Bamberg (prince-bishopric), 81, 177,
396, 419, 423

Bamberg (town), 182

Bamberg (criminal ordinance),
177

Barrelt, 145

Basle (Ijishopric). 264 {n. 2)

Basle (town). 147 (n. 2), 264 {n. 2).
305, 311, 320 («. 2), 322, 372
(n. 1), 381 (?;. 2). 456

Basle (council). 239. .387 {n. 2)

Bauerbach, 119



528



HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE



Bavftriii (duchv), 59, 62, 04, 75,
77. 83. 85, 148 (h. 3), 161, 190,
217 (H. 1), 222 (H. 3), 227 (h. 1),
229 (II. 3). 264 (n. 2), 418 [ii. 1),
436, 463 (h. 1). 467

Bayoimo, 364 [ii. 1)

Bayrmith (principality). See Bran-
di-nburg-Ansbacli and so forth

Bavrouth (town), 125, 485

Beilin. 508

Bcnediktbeurcn (monastery). 64

Bergen near Magdeburg (Formula
of Concord), 86

Bcrgzabern, 46

Berlin, 133, 298, 507

Bermaringen, 43

Bern (canton), 239 f., 478

Bern (town), 239, 302

Bernstadt, 41

Biberach, 28, 266

Bilfinger, 426

Bischleben, 149

Bitterfeld, 171

Blaubeuren, 265, 488 (/i. 1)

Blocksberg, the, 231, 279, 288
(n. 1), 344, 498, 503

Blois, 373

Bohemia, 62, 162, 264 (n. 2), 309
[n. 1), 336

Bohemian Forest, 101

Bohringen, 42

Bonn, 467 (n. 3)

Boppard, 267

Bormio, 263 (n. 1)

Brabant, 401 [n. 6)

Brandenburg (margraviate). See
Kiirbrandenburg

Brandenburg - Ansbach - Bayreuth,
13, 36, 124, 160, 177 (n. 3), 485

Braunau, 309 [n. 1)

Braunsberg, 445 [n. 1)

Bredenrode, 184

Bregenz (county), 84

Breisgau, 409, 425

Bremen (archbishopric). 242

Bremen (town), 95, 320 (n. 2), 323

Breslau (town), 99, 165

Breslau (university), 99

Breslau (Elbmg), 165 (n. 2)

Brieg, 165

Brixen (bishopric), 61, 71, 84, 250



Brixcn (to\ni), 249

Bruck, 70

Brunswick, Brunswickian lands, 48,

144
Brunswick (town), HI, 181, 210,

267, 500 (n. 3)
Brunswick-Kalenberg (duchy), 452
Brunswick - Wolfenbiittel (duchy),

110, 144, 146,499
Brussels, 401 (n. 6)
Buchen, 432
Buchheim, 36
Buchsweiler, 428
Bixhren, 142
Burg, 449
Burgundy, 401
Biisum, 145
Buxtehude, 499



Calbe, 118

Chemnitz, 171

Christenberg, 277

Cleves (duchy), 266, 301, 323. {Cf.

Jiilich-Cleves-Berg.)
Coblentz, 435 (?i. 2), 466 [n. 1)
Coburg (district), 515
Coburg (tomi), 404, 471, 516
Colmar, 396, 429
Cologne (archbishopric), 56, 81,

242, 450
Cologne (Provincial Sjoiod, 1536),

434 [n. 3)
Cologne (toA;\-n), 73, 81, 264 (n. 2),

320 (n. 2), 358 (n. 1), 368, 385

[n. 1), 393 [71. 1), 397, 438 («. 1),

447, 467 {n. 3)
Cologne (law-code), 175
Cologne (university), 251 (n. 3),

253
Colpin, 31
Como, 247 (n. 1)

Constance (bishopric), 81, 255 {n. 1)
Constance (town), 7, 61
Cornell (university). See Ithaca
Cronstadt, 429 [yi. 2)



Dahme, 160
Damascus, 54
Danube, 92



IXDEX OF PLACES



529



Danzig, 148 {n. 3)

Darmstadt, 497

Decliantskirchen, 69

Denmark, 227, 271 {n. 1), 282, 307

(71. 1)

Diepholz (comity), 113

Dillenburg, 494 '

Dillingen, 57, 79, 393 («. 1), 425
[n. 1), 457, 467

Dinslaken, 266

Dithmarschen, 49, 145
Dordrecht (Sjniod, 1618), 192
Dornstadt, 486
Dornthal, 514 (?^. 3)
Douay, 401 (n. 6)
Dresden, 115, 285, 514
Duisbiirg, 323
Diiren, 318



ECTERNACH, 311

Ehingen, 305

Eichstatt (bishopric), 55, 61, 64, 397

(«. l),413(n. 1)
Eichstatt (S^aiod, 1447 and 1465),

233 {n. 1)
Eisenach, 503
Eisleben, 172 {n. 1)
Elbe ftlie), 23
Elbingerode. 505
ElUngen, 424, 486
Ellwangen, 424, 445 [n. I)
Eltmann, 423
Emmerich, 192
Endor, 216(n. 1)
England, 53, 208, 517
Erfurt (town), 299, 409, 503 (?). 3)
Erfurt (university), 498
Ermland, 445 (n. 1)
Ersingen, 43, 426
Eschersheim, 322 (n. 3)
Esslingen, 306

Europe, 217 (n. 1), 228, 287 (n. 1)
Exaeten, 440 (?i. 1)
Eybach, 41



Faulbruck, 142
Fell, 435

Flanders, 438 («. 1)
Fleirasertal, 268 (n. 2)
VOL. XVI.



Florsheim, 434

Forrenbach, 126

France, 5 («. 2), 53, 101, 137 (n. 1),

235 (n. 2), 322 (ri. 3), 381, 383,

387 (n. 2), 398, 517
Franconia, 92. 419 (h. 2), 421
Frankenberg (town), 119, 497
Frankenstein, 163

Frankfort-on-the-Maine (fair), 389
in. 1)

Frankfort - on - the - Maine ( tovn\),
139, 148 (n. 2), 158, 171 (?i. 4).
182,207, 264 («. 2), 267, 282 (n.l),
301, 322 (n. 3), 335 (n. 2), 341,

361, 381, 385 f., 397, 408, 433,

440 («. 1), 457, 488 (n. 1), 509
Frankfort-on-Oder (town), 133, 507
Frankfort-on-Oder (university), 96

509(ji. 1)
Freiberg, 29
Freiburg in the Breisgau (Imperial

Diet), 176
Freiburg i. Br. (town), 345 (?i. 3),

425
Freiburg i. Br. (university), 83, 426

(n. 1), 516
Freiburg in Switzerland, 242
Freising (Diocesan Synod, 1440),

233 ; (1480) 233 («. 1)
Freising (town), 417 (n. 2)
Freudenberg, 490
Friedberg (Styria), 69
Friedeberg, 508
Fulda, 79
Fiirstenau (district), 113

Gardelegen, 299

Gauspach, 40

Geisberg, 301

Geislingcn, 41

Gelnhausen, 491

Geneva, 274 (n. 1)

Germanic peoples, 217 (n. 1), 235

227 {n. 1), 234 (n. 1), 235 («. 1),

236
Germanicum, College at Rome 79

388 (n. 1)
Gerolzhofen, 419. 423
Giebichenstoin, 207
Gingen, 40, 42

M M



530



HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE



Glad bach, 266

Glaucha, 158

Globig. 32

Gomorrlia. 35. 100, 108, 524

tairlitz. 170 (H. 3), 171 («. 2)

Gciss (nunnery), 69

Gossnitz, 113

Got ha, 453

Gottmgen, 111, 505

C;(3ttweih (abbey), 68

Grafendorf (.Styria), 69

Graz, 70, 401 {n. 6)

Greece (ancient), 20, 220, 222,

315
Greece (modern), 247 («. 1), 517
Groitzsch, 157
Grossenstem, 113
Grosszschocher, 513
Giistrow, 109



Hague ('s Gravenhage), 192
Hainburg below the Enns, 411
Halberstadt (town), 504
Halle, 117, 157,207
Halle (Moritzpforte), 158
Hallstadt (in the Bamberg district),

423
Hamburg, 25, 122 (n. 2), 181, 193,

208, 300, 506
Hanover, 111, 377, 498, 505
Hansa to^vns, 48
Happnrg, 126
Harz, the, 502 (n. 3)
Haselbach, 113
HajTi, 449

Heidelberg (town), 326, 334 {n. 2)
Heidelberg (university), 295, 327,

345, 364 {71. 2)
Heilsberg (SjTiod, 1449), 233 {n. 1)
Heilsbronn, 486 {n. 1)
Heldburg (district), 516
Helfenstein (county), 306
Helmstadt (university), 379, 505
Heltorf , 449
Henfenfeld, 126
Henneberg (county), 369, 514
Herborn (university), 120
Hersbruck, 125
Hervelfingen, 41
Herzberg, 502



Hesse (landgraviate), Hessian lands,
35, 118, 137, 143, 341, 407
(n. 1)

Hesse-Cassel (landgraviate), 118,
119, 496

Hesse - Darmstadt (landgraviate),
118, 151

Hesse-Marburg (landgraviate), 26,
119

Hesse-Rheinfels (landgraviate), 118

Heteren, 192

Hetstadt, 142

Hetzerather Heath, 440

Heuchelberg, the, 487

Heusden, 192

Hildesheim (bishopric), 74, 267

Hildesheim (town), 48, 74, 172, 429
[n. 2), 454 {n. 1)

Hirschberg (in the Bayreuth dis-
trict), 124

Hirschelberg, 503

Hitzacker, 502

Hochdorf (Switzerland), 412

Hochheim, 434

Hohenberg (county), 84

Hohenburg, 415

Hohenems, 84

Holland, or Netherlands inter-
changeably, 192, 357, 436. (Cf.
Netherlands)

Holzhcim, Holzen, 42

Holzschwang, 43

Hoorn, 184, 187

Horb, 409, 490 («. 1)

Hoj-a (county), 113

Hiilchrath (district), 449

Hungary, 20, 79, 429 [n. 2)



Ibueg, 498

Ingolstadt (town), 80, 84, 173, 413

(n. l),429(n. 2)
Ingolstadt (university), 173 {n. 2),

413 (n. 1). 467, 516
Innsbruck Ferdinandeum, 71, 249,

268 {n. 2), 412
Innsbruck (towni), 71, 249, 269

(«. 2), 412
Ips, 84
Italy, 53, 71, 104, 235 {n. 2), 444

{n. 1), 517



INDEX OF PLACES



531



Ithaca (New York, Cornell univer-
sity), 401, -441 [71. 1)

Jena (town), 191, 406, 513

Jerusalem, 20, 332

Jordan, the, 54

Judaea, 4, 49, 89, 137, 207, 282

(«. 1), 331, 333, 337 (n. 2), 393,

460
Julich (duchy), 73 («. 3). (C/. the

follo^^ing)
Jiilich-Cleves-Borg (duchv), 192,

311, 392, 398
Jutland, 307 {n. 1)

Kampen, 192

Kelbra, 142

Kelheim, 418 {n. 2)

Kenn, 435

Kirchberg (nunnerj'), 73

Kitzbuhel, 411 (ji. 4)

Kjoge, 307 (n. 1)

Klagenfurt, 144

Klein-Mullingen, 155 (?«. 3)

Klosterneuburg (abbey), 68

Knittelfeld, 70

Kohlweese, 162

Koldin, 308

Kolditz (town), 159

Komotau, 308

Konigsberg (town), 132, 504

Konigshoven, 266

Konigslutter, 111

Korbach, 267

Krames, 440

Kronach, 424

Kuchen, 42

Kurbrandenburg (margraviate and

electorate), 3, 90, 109, 130, 136,

147, 169, 298, 381 f., 506-509
Kurhessen. See Hesse-Cassel
Kurpfalz (electorate), 45 f., 121,

320 (?i. 2), 381
Kurpfalz (law-code), 295
Kurpfalz (criminal code), 403
Kursachsen (electorate), Saxon

lands, 24, 31, 114, 160, 171, 199,

202,205,366,452,511
Kursachsen (criminal ordinance),
' 295, 382, 403, 512
Kustrin, 299, 508



Lahn, 165

Laibach (bishopric), 62

Langenau, 42

Lauf, 126

Lausamie (bishopric), 241

Lausitz, 171

Lautrach, 41

Lechelnliolz, 500

Leinburg, 484 {n. 5)

Leipzig (town), 20, 115, 159, 171
{n. 1), 172 (n. 3), 205, 499, 513

Lemgo, 378

Leoben, 70

Leonberg, 488

Liege (Index), 387 {n. 2)

Liege (tomi), 401 (n. 6)

Liegnitz, or Liegnitz-Brieg inter-
changeably (duchy), 5

Linda, 113

Linz-on-the-Rhine, 318

Lisbon (Index), 387 («. 1)

Livonia, 383

Lolinberg Forest, 120

Lohr (district), 433

Lonsee, 42

Lorraine, 382 {n. 1), 397, 429

Louvain (town), 401

Louvain (university), 401 (n. 6)

Lowenberg, 486

Lciwenstein-Wertheim (count}'), 81
(n. 1), 490

Lower Austria, 68

Lower Hesse, 496. {Cf. Hesse-
Cassel)

Lower Rhine, 251 (n. 3), 266. 281
{71. 2), 449, 450 {71. 2)

Lower Silesia, 165

Liibeck (bailiwick), 506

Liibeck (town), 25, 208, 231, 506

Lucerne, 268, 412

Lucka,31,112

Lunden, 145

Liineburg (town). 181, 501

Lyons (archbisho)H-ic), 226

Lyons (town), 397



Magdeburg (territory), 118
Magdeburg (town), 170 {>t. 1), 501
Maine, the, 456
Malchin, 48, 156

M M 2



532



HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE



Mrtlino, 307 («. 1)

Maniilieim, 182

Munsfold (county). 33. 171. 172

(". 1)
Mansfolil (Unvn), 116
Marburg on the Lahn (court of

justice), 386, 497
Marburg on the Lalui (town), 26,

130 (n. 3)
Marburg on the Lalin (university).

376
Marburg in Styria, -111 {». 2)
Marchburg, 70
Marienbauni (convent), 266
Marienfliess (convent), 511
Mark. See Kurbrandenburg
Mayence (archbishopric), 50, 56,

59, 161, 168, 242, 401 (n. 6), 431
Mayence (convent of St. Clara),

433
Mayence (chronicle), 431
Mayence (university), 357 [n. 2)
Mayence (Provincial Synod, 1549),

433
Mecklenburg, Mecklenburg lands,

48, 107 (n. 3), 108, 181
Mecklenburg-Giistrow (duchy), 155,

506 (n. 2)
Mecklenburg-Schwerin (duchy), 108
Meiningen, 515
Meissen (margraviate), 162
Meissen (to\™), 30, 102
Meldorp, 145
Melk, 64 (71. 3)
Merklingen, 41
Merssen (Meerssen), 73 (w. 1)
Metten (Benedictum foundation), 75
Metz. 264

Miltenberg. 433, 480
Minden (bishopric), 56
MoLsheim, 458
Montabaur, 494
Moselle, the, 440
Munich, (town) 80, 389, 414, 429

(n. 2), 456, 464 {n. 1), 467, 471
Munich (MS.), 232 (n. 1)
Munich (privy council), 413 («. 1)
Munich (Index). 387 (n. 2)
Munich (university), 471
Miinster in Westphalia (prince-
bishopric), 56, 451



Naples, 383

Nassau, Nassau lands, 120, 301



Online LibraryJohannes JanssenHistory of the German people at the close of the middle ages (Volume 16) → online text (page 43 of 45)