ticular,' and Proposals for publishing by subscription, in two volumes
quarto, ' The Celtic Retrieved, by the Analitic Method, or Reduction
to Radicals; illustrated by a Glossary of various, and especially
British Antiquities,' and in 1769 by ' Additional Articles to the Speci-
men,' etc. In these publications Mr. Cleland has displayed a great
fund of ingenuity and erudition, not unworthy the education he
received at Westminster. In the Proposals for continuing his Celtic
labours, he says, " As to the recourse to a subscription, I have no
apology to make for it, but one, which is, that it is necessary, as being
the only one. Not that I am insensible of there being many and just
objections to this method, but the candour of a liberal construction
will hardly rank among them its being liable to an abuse. This is no
more than what it has in common with the best of things. Whoever
considers the vast comprehensiveness of this plan, and the aids of all
kinds which it must, to have justice done to it, indispensably and
implicitly require, will easily allow the undertaking to be not only
impossible to a small private fortune but even where there might be
a large one, the work itself to imply so much of proposed utility to
the publick, as not to be without some right to solicit the assistance
of the publick. It was the failure of that assistance, that, probably
lost to it one of presumably the most useful and valuable works that
any language or any nation could have had to boast of, the second
part of ' The British Archaeology,' of one of our greatest and solidist
Antiquaries, Edward Llhuyd, who, or suppressed, or dropped, or, at
least, did not effectually carry it on, from his disgust or discourage-
ment, at his having been forced to publish the first part at his own
heavy expense a loss this to the British republic of letters hardly
reparable ! Need I mention the celebrated Dr. Hyde's boiling his
* " The writer's Celtic has swallowed up his Greek."ā T.F.
THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLELAND. 43
tea-kettle, with almost the whole impression left on his hands, of that
profoundly learned treatise of his, ' De Religione Veterum Persarum,'
admired by all literary Europe, and neglected at home; so low was
the taste tor literature in this country, already sunk ! For the re-
publication of this work, we have now, however, the obligation to the
public spirit of Dr. Sharpe, that patron and promoter of literature, of
which himself is at once an ornament, a judge, and a support, with
the greater merit of his not deserting it in its present state of disgrace.
With so cold, so unpromising a prospect before me, and very justly
conscious of not only an uncomparably less title to favourable
opinion, but of having much more to apologise for, than of any merit
to plead, I have only, in extenuation of my presumption to address
the publick under such disadvantages, one solemn and unaffected truth
to offer; and this it is. Finding this retrieval of the Celtic (that
language actually existing nowhere as a language, and everywhere as the
root of all or most of the languages in Europe, dead or living, modern or
antient, and entering into the composition of almost every word that
we now, at this instant, use in common conversation; finding, I say,
the retrieval of this elementary, or mother-tongue, at least included in
Proposals from more than one foreigner, I have thought it my duty
to form a wish, that it might not be my fault, if the British publick
was not, as early as other countries, in possession of the benefit of
such a retrieval, for the satisfactory elucidation of some of the most
interesting British antiquities. But how far I may find the publick
disposed to second that wish, or to enable me to fulfil it, must remain
entirely at the discretion of that publick. J.C." (" NicJtoTa Literary
Anecdotes of Bowyer," 1812, Vol. II., pp. b-56, 457.)
Nichols then proceeds to copy the account of John Cleland, which
appeared in the " Gentleman's Magazine," 1789, when he died, though
he gives no reference to it. " Cleland's excuse before the Privy Council
was poverty. The Bookseller gave him only Ā£20 for it, and is said to
have received Ā£20,000. I make little doubt of his correcting Lady
Mary Wortley Montague's letters, copying them from Lowden, and
publishing them. T. F." (Note to p. Ā£58 of Vol. II., of Niclwls'
" Lit. Anecdote-':.")
" In 1750 he published ' Fanny Hill,' .... a first part had
appeared previously in 1748, and a second in 1749. In 1751 Memoirs
of a Coxcomb, a work of greater merit. . . . No punishment was
inflicted on Cleland, but a bookseller (Drybutter), who is said to have
altered the language of the book for the worse after it had been favour-
ably noticed in the 'Monthly Review' (ii., 451-2), was made to stand
in the pillory in 1757. . . . ' The Way to Things by Words and
to Words by Things,' to which is added a succinct account of the
Sanscrit, or the learned language of the Brahmins; also two essays, the
one on the Origin of the Musical Waits at Christmas, the other on the
Real Secret of the Freemasons, London, 1766, 8vo. . . . ' Sur-
prises of Love,' London, 1765, 12mo, and ' The Man of Honour,' Lon-
don, 17 ā , 12mo., 3 vols." (Leslie Stephen's "Diet, of Nat. Biogr.")
44 THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLELAND.
" In support of my statement about Mr. Griffiths, see
Monthly Review II., 431, March, 1750 The book
to which I allude is that which was written by the son of a
Colonel Cleland, who is generally supposed to have been Pope's
Cleland, but is more likely to have been his brother or cousin.
Pope's friend is described always as Major Cleland. A letter
from his infamous descendant or kingsman is printed in the
Garrick Correspondence, I., 56-59." (John Forster's " Life of
Goldsmith;' 1854, Vol. I., xxx.J
Henry Cleland (55). ā Mentioned above in Welch's
" Alumni W estmonasteriensis ." Supposed to be a son of
Major William Cleland.
James Cleland (56), in Crossford. Married Anne
Smellie about 1734 or 1735. Born about 1710-1715.
His youngest son, Robert's, wife used to speak of the
gallant appearance he made on horseback with his family as
they rode into or out of Lanark, near which they lived,
apparently at Mouse Mill.
Mouse Mill. ā This is said to have been the last property
owned in the neighbourhood of the ancestral estates by the
Clelands of Cleland. Here probably John Cleland W.S., died
in 1777. The House of Mouse Mill still stands about two
miles from Lanark on the Mouse near Cartland Crags, and
just beside the old Roman Bridge. Its situation is very
picturesque, and just on the opposite side of the river Mouse
is the mill from which it receives its name.
This James Cleland's relationship to Major William
Cleland, Commissioner of Customs, is not exactly known.
By some he is said to have been a son, others consider him a
nephew. A very unreliable source states that he was the son
of James Cleland, elder brother of the Cameronian, William
Cleland ; he is much more likely to have been a grandson,
however ; we have already mentioned that Major William
Cleland himself may have been a son of James Cleland, the
Covenanter. Whatever the relationship is, and this James
Cleland's grand-daughter, Miss Annie Haldane writes, that
"one of the Clelands, she did not know whether her great-
grandfather or not, was Commissioner in the Customs," it
was something very close, for in 1800, sixty years after the
Commissioner's death, we find that Walter Cleland, grandson
of James Cleland, claims to be the head of the family. He
directed a John Brown, of 23, Carnaby St., Carnaby Sq.,
London, to investigate his claim to the honours of the family,
who writes to him thus on March 4th : ā " Sir, ā In compliance
to your request I have perused Nisbet's Heraldry and other
THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLELAND. 45
books respecting the ancient family of Cleland; and have
been enabled to send you the annexed account, which has
been faithfully transcribed. This being an age when justice
and equity are done to the claimants of titles and estates, I
see nothing, sir, to prevent you from applying for the honours
of that family in your person; of which you are so con-
spicuous a branch. Hoping, sir, my researches will meet with
your approbation, I am with the greatest esteem, Sir, Your
most obliged and most humble servant, John Brown."
This is sealed with the seal of the Clelands of Cleland
containing supporters indicating a head of the family. In
the abstract, Major William Cleland, Commissioner of Cus-
toms, is mentioned as being the Cleland of Cleland of his day :
Walter Cleland must have been his great-grandson : it never
seems to have entered Walter's mind to make out any genea-
logical tree, probably because the names and dates of death
of his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather were so
comparatively recent as to render this unnecessary. Surely,
had his grandfather, James Cleland, been other than the
eldest son leaving issue of the Major Cleland, Commissioner
of Customs, Walter Cleland would have left record of the
fact, and of the means by which he claimed the honours of
For more than a hundred years now there has been a
rumour that a latent baronetcy existed in the family, to which
Walter Cleland and his descendants were entitled. Walter's
letter above quoted seems to be connected with an investiga-
tion into this. It has been said that Walter or his son
William Lennox Cleland had proved their right to such a
title to their own satisfaction, and were on the point of having
the matter legally investigated when a bank crisis rendered
such efforts impossible. John Fullarton Cleland, in his life-
time, was said to be entitled to the baronetcy, but neither
through him, nor by any other means have I ever been able
to ascertain on what grounds the claim was based. It cannot
be connected with " Sir James Cleland of Monkland, Knt,"
of James VI.'s reign, since he is never styled a "banneret"
and was not a Cleland of that ilk. Strange to say, a Col.
J. H. Cleland, writing in 1831, and styling himself a
descendant of Major William Cleland through the Clelands of
Carnbee, refers to this dormant baronetcy also.
John Cleland (57), W.S., 19th Cleland of Cleland.ā
1735-1777. Died at Lanark, 8th April, 1777, aged 41 years.
46 THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLE LAND.
" John, son to James Cleland and Anne Smellie in Cross-
ford, bapt. March 6, 1735." (Reg. Le&mahago.) According
to one statement, " John Cleland and Mary Muter were mar-
ried at Edinboro' by the Rev. John Glen, 14th February,
1758. They had six children : Mary Muter died at Edin.
26th April, 1767, aged 27 years." In the City Parish Register
at Edinburgh appears this notice of the marriage : " John
Clelland, writer, and Miss Mary Mutter, daughter of the
deceased Robert Mutter, merchant in South Leith, now both
in the Tron Kirk. March 5th, 1758."
John Cleland, late writer in Lanark, has his testament
confirmed, 29th November, 1790. (Com miss, of Lanark.)
" My father's father, John Cleland, was unfortunately
most extravagant. He was a Writer to the Signet in Edin-
burgh. He had originally a good fortune, but for his amuse-
ment used to be in the habit of buying dilapidated country
places, putting them in beautiful order, and when his improve-
ments were finished, sold them immediately and bought others.
He was also wrapped up in music. I knew in Edinburgh an
old gentleman of the name of Stoddart who was well acquainted
with him, also a great musical genius. He told me he was
remarkably handsome and elegant and a very fine player on
the violin. He also kept many fine hunters, even when he was
so poor that he had scarcely anything to give them to eat. He
died at Lanark, 8th April, 1777, 41 years of age." (Extract
from letter of Mrs. Herring ā Catherine Cleland.)
Margaret Cleland (61). ā Sister. Born 1736. Married
Dr. Haldane of Edinburgh, and had four sons and a daughter,
viz., John, William, George, James, Annie. Mrs. Haldane
afterwards married Dr. Morris at Bristol, then Mr. Zeigler in
London. She left no issue by her two last marriages. Mrs.
Herring in a note refers to old Miss Annie Haldane as giving
her the information that one of the Clelands was Commis-
sion of Customs. (1866.)
James Cleland (59). ā Brother. Was a ship chandler
in London. Was married and had issue, but none survived.
William Cleland (58).ā Born 1742. Brother of John
Cleland W.S. Married Miss Johnstone, daughter of a Col.
Johnstone, and had issue, but none survived.
Mart Cleland (60).ā Born 1745.
Robert Cleland (62). ā Youngest brother of John
Cleland, W.S. Born 1748. Died about 1800. Married Janet
Agnes Wingate, daughter of Rev. J. Wingate by his wife Janet,
THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLELAND. 47
daughter and heiress of James Fenton of Millearn, Perthshire.
Left issue, four sons, James, Robert, John and William.
Anne Cleland (63). ā Born 1749, married Rev. J. Por-
CLELANDS OF CARNBEE, FIFESHIRE.
Colonel Robert " Cleiland " (64), of Carnhee, is said
to have been a grandson of Major Cleland, head of the family.
(Writer in " Notes and Queries") He died in 1760, in com-
mand of ELM. 63rd Foot, then stationed at Guadaloupe. He
left two sons.
(a) Robert Cleiland (65), elder son. Lieutenant R.N.
(3rd Lieut. H.M. " Fame," in Rodney's action, April 12th,
1782). Was twice married. By his first wife he had three
sons, who all died young. By his second wife, with two
daughters, he had an only son, William Douglas Cleiland.
(b) Molesworth Cleiland (66). ā Lieutenant R.A. Was
killed in America in 1777.
Lieut.-General William Douglas Cleland (67). ā Son
of Robert Cleland. Appointed to the Bengal Army, December
28th, 1798. He died February 26th, 1848; his wife, Mary,
April 2nd, 1839. He held the office of principal registrar
of the diocese of Sarum, in the gift of Bishop Douglas.
Col. J. H. Cleland (68).ā Probably a son of William
Douglas Cleland, since he claims Col. Robert Cleland as his
grandfather. Resided at 58, Welbeck Street, Cavendish
Square, London, in 1831.
On August 5th, 1752, Hans Cleland (69), late of Carnbee,
married Jacobina, only child of James Moir, of Earnshaw,
Esq. In 1747 he had been appointed ensign to a Scottish
regiment raised for the service of the States-General of
(Clelands of Carnbee. ā Writer in "Notes and Queries"
refers to Burke's *' Heraldic Illustrations," Dodwell and Miles'
" Indian Army," " Scot's Magazine," " Gentleman's Maga-
48 THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLELAND.
CLELANDS OF THE 20th GENERATION.
Descendants of John Clbland, W.S., 19th Cleland of
Robert Cleland (70).ā Born 14th November, 1758.
Apparently unmarried. Left no issue.
James Cleland (71).ā Born 5th February, 1760. No
John Cleland (72).ā Born 10th April, 1761. Died 1800.
Unmarried. A sailor. Died in India from lockjaw, brought
on by cutting his thumb. He was in his fortieth year. He
left part of his money to his uncle, Robert Cleland's family.
He and his brother Walter, their father dying when they were
children, were brought up in their uncle Robert Cleland's
Walter Cleland (73).ā Born 29th March, 1763, "Being
the day on which peace was proclaimed at Edinburgh between
Great Britain and France." Married a daughter of Sir Paul
Jodrell, 1st Bart.; and had issue, William (21st Cleland of
Cleland), Catherine, and a boy who died in infancy. He was
a banker, and amassed a moderate fortune.
Mary Cleland (74).ā Born 19th January, 1764. No
William Cleland (75). ā Born 6th September, 1766. No
William Lennox Cleland (76). ā 21st Cleland of that ilk.
Married Henrietta Fullarton (Foulerton). Graduated M.A.,
Edin., 1st April, 1819. (Cat. of Edin. Graduates.) He was
left an orphan while quite a young man, and became an inmate
of the Earl of Buchan's house, with whom was a family friend-
ship. At the age of 18 he was able to support himself by con-
tributions to the great Reviews (the Quarterly and Edin-
burgh) of the day, a feat which indicates considerable literary
ability on his part. He went out to India and became a bar-
rister and comfortably off. He was drowned crossing the
Hoogley. At or about the time of death his wife was sitting in
a garden when a white owl flew past her, and an uncomfortable
feeling of dread seized her, from which she augured that
something unfortunate had happened to her husband, which
was confirmed later by news from India. For this reason the
appearance of a white owl was supposed to be of evil omen to
members of the family ; whether this was its first appearance,
THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLELAND. 49
however, in that guise, or whether previous generations had
experienced its baneful presence, I cannot say.
His wife, Henrietta Fullarton, married later a Dr.
Glen, whose daughter by a previous marriage became the wife
of John Cleland, Henrietta's son. Henrietta lived to an old
age, dying in 1875, at Beaumont, near Adelaide. She was
descended from the old family of the Fullartons of Fullarton,
through George Fullarton, of Broughton Hall, and was first
cousin to the 12th Earl of Buchan and second cousin to Lord
Catherine Cleland (77) (Mrs. Herring). ā Sister of Wm.
Cleland. One daughter ā Anne Zoe Herring.
Infant. ā Died.
John Fullerton Cleland (78). ā 22nd Cleland of Cleland.
John Fullerton Cleland, only son of William Cleland and
Henrietta Fullerton, and great-grandson of John Cleland W.S.
(1736-1777), was born in 1821, and died at the age of eighty
years in Adelaide in 1901. He and his elder sister Margaret
were left orphans and comfortably off when quite young.
Their trustee, however, made them wards in Chancery, and by
this means most of their capital was swallowed up. While a
youth he went as a midshipman on a voyage of one of the East
India Company's ships, but not caring for such a life left
their service. He was afterwards for a short while at Oxford
and at the Nonconformist School at Cheshunt. After his
marriage in 1845, at Norham, England, with Miss Elizabeth
Glen, daughter of Dr. Glen, a London physician, he went out
to Hong Kong and Canton in 1846, as a missionary. William
Lennox Cleland, his eldest son, was born during their residence
here. While working at Canton, John Cleland received a
severe sun-stroke, the evil effects of which he never really over-
came. This necessitated his return to England, where he lived
for some while at Taunton, and while in this country George
Fullerton and an elder son and daughter, Walter and Mary,
who both died young, were born. John Cleland's sister and her
husband, Samuel Davenport, having at this time taken up a
grant of land in South Australia, John Cleland and his wife
and children were induced to join them. This they did in
1852, and dwelt first in Fernhill Cottage, then in a larger
wooden house, Gleville, at Beaumont, near Adelaide. He
obtained the Government post of Registrar of Births, Mar-
riages, and Deaths, and held this office for many years. His
50 THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLELAND.
four younger sons were born in this house, which stands (or
rather stood, being pulled down in 1903), surrounded by vine-
yards on the hillside at Beaumont overlooking the plains of
Adelaide. His wife died in 1895, he himself in 1901, six
He was a man always studiously inclined and a great
reader ; he collected around him a good library, but never gave
to the world as a writer any of the literary material he had
assimilated. He was buried beside his wife in the Walker-
ville Cemetery, near Adelaide.
Elizabeth Glen. ā Married John Fullerton Cleland. She
was a daughter of ā Glen, M.D., a physician of London. Her
brothers were Alec Glen and Tom Glen, who died unmarried
in Australia, and George Glen, who married Millicent Short,
daughter of Augustus Short, 1st Bishop of Adelaide (three
sons, five daughters). Her sister, Caroline Glen, became, first,
Mrs. Barnett (son and two daughters, all unmarried), and
later Mrs. Greenway (no issue).
Margaret Cleland (79). ā Married Mr., afterwards Sir
Samuel Davenport, K.C.M.G. Samuel Davenport, in the
forties, took up some land near Adelaide, S. Australia. He
and his wife journeyed thither by sailing vessel, via Tasmania.
At Hobart they had to charter a whaling schooner to convey
them to Adelaide, the captain of the vessel stipulating that
he was to be allowed to catch any whales seen. Sure enough,
they captured one, and reached Adelaide with the decks
covered with blubber. Samuel Davenport was one of South
Australia's most distinguished colonists and a personal friend
of most of her Governors, especially Sir George Grey ; Captain
Sturt, the explorer, was also a great friend. At one time he
was Minister for Crown Lands. He represented South Aus-
tralia as Commissioner at several international exhibitions,
and was knighted in 1887. Lady Davenport and her husband
were always the greatest companions and delightful conversa-
tionists. She died in 1900.
Anne Zoe Herring.
William Lennox Cleland, 23rd Cleland of Cleland.
William Lennox Cleland (80). ā Eldest son of John Ful-
lerton Cleland and his wife, Elizabeth Glen. Was born in
Hong Kong on January 18th, 1847. Shortly after his birth,
his parents returned to England, and after a year or so's resi-
dence there departed for Australia. William Lennox Cleland
THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLELAND. 51
as a boy was greatly in the company of his aunt, Mrs. (later
Lady) Davenport, who had no children of her own, and who
gave him most of his early education. As a lad he saw a
little of bush life, driving cattle overland from Port Augusta
(South Australia) to Adelaide, with an uncle, Alec Glen. Later
he spent a year on Dr. Kelly's vineyard at MacLaren Vale,
learning the manufacture of wine and studying the vine.
Previous to this he had spent a few months at school, in
1862, at Berne, Switzerland, when Mr. and Mrs. Davenport
were visiting Europe. In 1872 he left Adelaide for Edin-
burgh to study medicine, taking there his degrees of M.B.,
Ch.M., in 1876. He was appointed House Surgeon to Pro-
fessor Annandale in 1876. While there he married Mattie
Burton, daughter of John Hill Burton, LL.D., Historiographer
Royal for Scotland, on June 21st, 1877. They returned to
Australia immediately, and William Lennox spent a year or
so in private practice. On June 22nd, 1878, their elder son,
John Burton Cleland, was born; on July 19th, 1882, William
Lauder Cleland. In 1878 William Lennox Cleland was
appointed Medical Officer to the Parkside Lunatic Asylum,
succeeding to the post of Colonial Surgeon to South Australia
in 1896. He also held the position of Lecturer in Materia
Medica at the Adelaide University for many years, in 1902
resigning this to assume the duties of Lecturer in Insanity
and Medical Jurisprudence. He was also for many years
Secretary to the Royal Society of South Australia, President
of it for the years 1898-1900, and afterwards a Vice-President.
In 1890 he was President of the South Australian Branch of
the British Medical Association, and in 1900 was President
of the Section of Mental Science and Education at the Aus-
tralasian Association for the Advancement of Science.
Mattie Burton, wife of William Lennox Cleland, was the
third daughter of Dr. John Hill Burton, Historiographer
Royal for Scotland, and Isabella Lauder, his wife. Dr. Hill
Burton was a well-known and distinguished literary man of
Edinburgh between the years 1840 and 1880, when he died.
He was author of " The Book-Hunter, " " History of Scotland,"
" Scot Abroad," " Life of Simon, Lord Lovat," etc., and edited
the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland. He was a
friend of Professor Spalding, Lord Cockburn, Lord Jeffrey,
Cosmo Innes, and many other Edinburgh worthies, and corre-
sponded with Macaulay and Thomas Carlyle. His father had
been a Lieutenant William Burton, and his mother a Miss
Paton, of the Patons of Grandholm, near Aberdeen. This
Miss Paton's mother was a Miss Lance, a descendant of the
52 THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF CLE LAND.
Lances, Temples and Nelsons. Dr. Hill Burton's first wife,
Isabella Lauder, was a daughter of Captain Lauder.
Walter Cleland (81). ā Died young.
Mary Cleland (82). ā Died young.
George Fullerton Cleland (83). ā Second surviving son
of John F. Cleland. Born in England in 1852. Married
Miss Amy Giles, daughter of Henry Giles of Adelaide, mer-
chant, in 1878. As a young man he assisted his uncle, Samuel