John C. (John Church) Hamilton.

History of the republic of the United States of America : as traced in the writings of Alexander Hamilton and of his contemporaries (Volume 07) online

. (page 1 of 81)
Online LibraryJohn C. (John Church) HamiltonHistory of the republic of the United States of America : as traced in the writings of Alexander Hamilton and of his contemporaries (Volume 07) → online text (page 1 of 81)
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" Neque enim est ulla res, in qua propius ad Deorum numcn virtus accedat humana
quam civitates aut condere novas, aut conservare jam conditas." Cic. de Repub.







ENTEEED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, by

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New York.




Adams Inaugural Address His conflicting feelings Dislike of Wash
ington s Cabinet Washington and Hamilton called jugglers Tem
per of the Cabinet A commission to France Cabot to be one
suggested Adams proposes mission to Jefferson and nomination
of Gerry, Madison, and Pinckney Adet urges mission of Jeffer
son Adams tirade against Jefferson and Pinckney Notion of the
Vice-Presidency Prejudice against France ; her military successes ;
arrogant policy ; insulting deportment toward Pinckney ; refusal
to receive a minister until redress of grievances by U. S. Overture
of Pinckney disregarded Refusal to confer with him Decree vio
lating the treaty with U. S. announced Public reception of Mon
roe, who commends the constitution of France Reply of Barras, w*
assailing the American Government and extolling the people
Pinckney to leave France Democratic presses defend the insults by
France Defence of U. S. by Pastoret and censure of French cap
tives, .


Hamilton to Pickering Advice as to measures of Government Reply of
Pickering Hamilton urges Tracy to propose a commission, includ
ing Jefferson or Madison His advice to McHenry Efforts to pre
serve peace Preparations for war An internal invasion Final
preservation of peace Pickering s statement of treatment of Pinck-



ney Hamilton dissuades its publication again urges a commission
Madison objected to Distrust of Adams False rumors circulated
France vindicated by Democrats Adams eulogized Hamilton
calumniated Jefferson s insidious letter to Gerry Writes to Madison
as to France Hamilton again urges commission to France, includ
ing Jefferson or Madison Advises arming of merchant vessels and a
provisional army Austria forced to peace Congress meets Speech
of Adams embracing Hamilton s policy Hostile decree of France
Senate accords with President Opposition in House partly prevails
Giles opposes demand of compensation by France Smith vindi
cates it Gallatin s hesitating vote Address passes House Jeffer
son censures manly policy of the Government, and suggests a land-
tax contingent on State quotas as to a consolidated Government
View of Gerry Pinckney Dana and Marshall appointed envoys to
France Washington denounces the Democratic leaders Dana de
clining, Gerry is substituted Hamilton as to policy adopted, disap
proving violence His suggestions as to taxes and a loan Specific
taxation Bill prohibiting privateering Bill to prevent exportation
of arms Bill to augment corps of engineers and artillerists Bill to
man and equip frigates, and to purchase and fit other ships Hamil
ton s plan of defence proposed Fortifying ports and harbors
Resolution to complete frigates Constitution, Constellation, and
United States, passed Right of employing convoys questioned by
Democrats Authority to arm merchant vessels refused Stamp and
Salt taxes proposed Gallatin s motion to adjourn rejected Raising
of a regiment defeated Bill to prevent enlistments in foreign ser
vice resisted, but passed Giles opposes printing all the documents
as to depredations, which was ordered Urges an adjournment
Urges employment of frigates to be confined within jurisdiction of the
U. S. Gallatin opposes a navy Nicholas denounces it Giles ad
verse to U. S. becoming a maritime power Bill to complete the
frigates passed Foundation of a navy laid by Federalists, in u Act
providing for a Naval Armament " Stamp Act opposed, but passed
Gallatin proposes a si amp on every certificate of debt Rejected
Increased duty on salt Licenses for retailing wines and liquors
defeated Loan authorized, . .16




Commission to run boundary between U. S. and Spain obstructed in their
operations by the Spaniards Proclamation by Carondolet delaying
the Boundary Commission Excitement of Western inhabitants
Spanish agent employed to prepare severance of Western territory
from the Union Plan defeated Democratic press advocates Louis
iana and Floridas being acquired by France Attempt on Canada
discovei ed and defeated Ira Allen s participation McLean sent to
Canada by Adet Detected and hung Blount opens negotiation with
British ambassador Overtures rejected by British minister Blount
impeached and expelled Senate, Jefferson dissenting Spanish diplo
macy subservient to France Correspondence of De Yrugo and Pick
ering De Yrugo appeals to the American people Proposes transfer
of negotiation with Spain to Paris, and complains of treaty with
Great Britain Jefferson s correspondence with his partisans, being
Washington s personal enemies Calumniates Washington Wash
ington s earnest condemnation of Democrats Letter under assumed
name addressed to him by a nephew of Jefferson Jefferson s letter
to Mazzei published in the U. S. Its previous approval in " Moni-
teur" Jefferson called upon to disavow it Consults Monroe and
Madison The former advises its avowal The latter dissuades it
Jefferson is silent Is conspicuous at a public dinner to Monroe
Gives toast to success of France Monroe demands of Pickering an
explanation of his being recalled It is refused Pickering offers to
state it unofficially Monroe refuses Intercepted letter of Monroe to
Logan Base attack upon Hamilton His vindication and exposure
of it Present of Washington to Hamilton Monroe, in conjunction
with Jefferson, write his vindication Washington s comments, . 54


Buonaparte Successes of, in Italy Venice, Genoa, and Lombardy suc
cumb Peace concluded with Austria Conferences at Lisle Revo
lution in France Talleyrand Minister of Foreign Affairs A mili
tary despotism established Defended by Democratic press in U. S.
Confidence of Directory in her influence in U. S. Speech of
Adams Advises prosecution of measures of defence against France
and Spain Condemns pending systems and loans, and advises imme
diate taxes Contrast by Madison of Washington and Adams Insi-



dious efforts by France to paralyze action of U. S. Government Pro
posed repeal of Stamp Act rejected by Senate Mission of J. Q.
Adams to Berlin censured Proposed reduction of the diplomatic corps
to Jefferson s standard Gallatin urges the discontinuance of all di
plomatic functionaries Contends that Legislature had power to con
trol diplomatic appointments by resisting appropriations Question
discussed Proposed reduction defeated System for conducting im
peachments framed in Senate Trial by jury proposed and approved by
Jefferson, but rejected Jefferson s hostility to judiciary of U. S., and
advises enactment by Virginia of a prcemunire against all citizens
attempting to carry causes before other than State Courts, of causes
over which they had not jurisdiction Denunciatory resolutions pass
her House of Delegates Conferences at Lisle approaching a success
ful issue are broken off by France Efforts to infringe treaty of
Leoben defeated, and treaty of Campo Formio concluded Treaty
with Portugal declared void, and intention to invade England pro
claimed American Commissioners arrive in Paris Preparatory
publications to excite French hostility Adams transmits to Con
gress a message of French Directory, declaring as good prize neutral
ships laden with productions of England, or of her possessions, and
closing ports of France against vessels touching at English ports,
unless in distress No hope of success to the mission Circular to
French diplomatists and agents, announcing intended descent upon
England, and stimulating a league against her Measures of effectual
defence proposed in Congress, vhich remains quiescent Democratic
exultation at downfall of England An invasion of her denounced by
Bonaparte as " a barbarous invasion " Jefferson approves the
hostile decree of France, 85


Questions as to policy of Administration submitted to Hamilton His
opinion communicated to Secretaries of War and State Measures to
be adopted Suspension of treaty with France Pickering favors an
abrogation of treaties Consults as to Louisiana Hamilton averse
to an immediate alliance with Great Britain Policy as to her
Acceptance of Louisiana from Spain absolutely or conditionally
Message of Adams urging active measures of defence Condemned
by Jefferson Advises legislative prohibition of arming Looks to
invasion of England Pennsylvania rejects a resolution against arm-



ing Senate for measures of defence Resolutions in House against
war with France, and for restriction against arming Washington to
McHenry, as to machinations of Democrats Baldwin, Gallatin,
Nicholas, and Giles oppose policy of Hamilton Harper in reply
Hamilton advises a solemn communication by Adams on state of
affairs His speech on territorial controversy of New York and Con
necticut Writes " The Stand " Its character and purport De
spatches from envoys at Paris Demands of douceurs by U. S.
Talleyrand and Gerry Refusal of envoys to pay money Declaration
of confidence in their French party in U. S. Threats of ravaging
American coasts Spirit of the American people aroused, . . 104


Hamilton urged to accept the appointment of Secretary at War Jay pro
poses to appoint him Senator He declines, reserving himself to a
greater emergency Jefferson speculates on defection of people
Deprecates Hamilton s genius Solicits subscriptions for the Aurora
Denounces the President Talleyrand to Jefferson Urges Madi
son to reply to Hamilton Madison s inconsistency Attack upon
Jay Jefferson alarmed at public feeling Timorously urges Monroe
to take a seat in Congress He does not comply Burr moves memo
rial against England s policy Unfriendly conduct of England
Hamilton as to her injurious conduct Kosciusko sent on secret mis
sion by Jefferson to France, and obtains passport for him under an
assumed name Further despatches from envoys, giving violent de
cree of France as to neutrals Findley and Gallatin oppose their
publication, and prevail Senate orders their publication Giles
retreats from Congress Jefferson excuses the Directory Comment
by Hamilton Senate authorizes an additional naval armament
Permission to convoy refused Bill to increase navy passes "De
partment of Navy " established Cabot appointed its head A
regiment added to army Authority given to purchase cannon and
ammunition After much opposition a provisional army voted
Act to accept volunteers passed Hamilton s caution as to proposed
power to President to employ ships of war, offensively Advises an
appeal to Congress Bill authorizing reprisals passes, . . . 125




New demand of a reply by envoys New requisitions of money by France
Volney, messenger from Jefferson, sails for France Mission of
Logan by Jefferson His conferences in Europe His memorial to
Talleyrand Continued exactions by France Commercial intercourse
with her suspended, and treaties with her declared void Proposal to
issue letters of marque rejected Presents of armed vessels to the
United States accepted Merchant vessels authorized to defend them
selves and capture their assailants Supplementary Naturalization
Act Proposed amendment of Constitution, eligibility of public

officers Hamilton s more liberal view New indignities by France

Marshall returns Public honors paid him Talleyrand s specification
of injuries of the United States toward France Disproofs thereof
Disposition of France to treat with one of the envoys deemed most
friendly to France Answer of envoys Gerry remains in Paris after
Marshall s and Pinckney s departure Livingston s resolution for an
address requesting President to instruct Gerry to negotiate and con
clude a treaty with France, rejected Addresses to and indiscreet re
plies of President The black cockade Correspondence from France
with leading Democrats Violent schism between envoys at Paris
Foreign emigrants devoted to Jefferson Irish emigrants, their
character American Society of United Irishmen Act concerning
aliens Moderate view of Hamilton, and Alien Law modified Collot
sails for France Incendiary presses conducted by foreigners
Adams prompt measure against them, and Sedition Act passed
Hamilton objects to its severity and deprecates its impolicy Sedi
tion Act modified, limiting punishment and authorizing truth to be
given in evidence in prosecutions for libels Tax plan of Wolcctt
Direct tax and tax upon slaves Loans authorized Provisional
army authorized Its general staff Volunteers to be accepted, . 145


Humilton early proposes a Federal navy Policy of Cabinet Wayward
ness of Adams Jealousy of Washington Declares against further
attempts at negotiation Hamilton s comment upon him His fluctu
ating conduct Hamilton intimates to Washington a journey through
Virginia and North Carolina to stay the apprehended influence of
Democrats, suggesting his taking command of army Washington s



reply French partisans Inquiries whether Hamilton would enter
the army, as a preliminary to his own course Hamilton s reply
Hamilton to King State of public opinion Misconduct of England-
Answer of King Pickering to Hamilton Hamilton contemplated as
commander of new army Adams hostility to Hamilton His letter
to Washington contemplating his service in army Washington s
reply, stigmatizing democratic leaders McIIenry to Washington
Replies, stating as condition of his acceptance of the command, the
selection hy himself of the general staff Adams nominates him
Lieutenant-General, and states to him his motives for this procedure.
Washington states to Secretary of War the condition of his accept
ance, giving list of officers, placing Hamilton at head of the general
staff Accepts commission of Lieutenant-General Adams assails
Pinckney Jealousy of Treasury department Pickering to Wash
ington, urging Hamilton as second to him and chief in his absence
Hamilton to Washington, urging his acceptance of chief command,
and proposes a visit by him to seat of Government Washington to
Pickering, as to importance of Hamilton s services Washington to
Hamilton His selection of him, doubts as to Pinckney s consent to
be his subordinate His regard to and course as to Knox Pickering
urges Hamilton s acceptance of a commission Reply, stating his
views Answer Jay urges Hamilton s appointment, . . .166


Adams conduct as to general staff appointments Action of Senate
Hamilton to Washington; is willing to submit his pretensions to
rank, and waive the preference Adams leaves Philadelphia with
out informing his Cabinet Declines calling the generals into service
until rank is settled ; unless Knox and Pinckney precede Hamilton
Opinions of Washington by Adams and Jefferson Washington to
Knox ; his opinion of Hamilton Knox claims preferential rank
Washington to Hamilton, who avows readiness to facilitate any ar
rangement Adams insists upon right to rank according to antece
dent services, thus placing Hamilton lowest Self-contradiction by
him Objects to a reference to Washington, and imputes intrigue
Hamilton s delicate conduct Secretaries of War and State to Wash
ington, averring public preference of Hamilton Adams obstinacy
Wolcott to Adams, as to Hamilton s priority of rank Similar view
presented by Cabot Washington s determination avowed to Secre-



tary at War Urges Hamilton to suspend his decision Cabot s dis
trust of Adams Hamilton s disinterestedness Washington s decisive
letter to Adams, and high commendation of Hamilton; demanis
Adams final determination Adams submits to Washington s will
Knox declines an appointment Pinckney accepts Hamilton called
into service Letter to Knox Burr in view as Quartermaster- Gene
ral ; Washington s utter distrust, 186


Bonaparte sails for Toulon Anxiety of Europe Various opinions as to
his purposes Insurrection of Ireland premature Conferences at
Rastadt Austria s alliance with Russia Continued hostility of
France toward United States Corps of consuls in their ports an
nounced Negotiations with Gerry, who favors a loan to France
Pinckney s opinion of Gerry Conferences with him terminated by a
peremptory order for his return to United States France recedes
from her pretensions Revokes decree for capture of American vessels,
and also her embargo King to Hamilton, stating the subtle policy of
France Hamilton as to public mind and the character of Adams
Hamilton s view of policy of United States Looks to conquest of Lou
isiana and liberation of colonies of Spain His resolution as to navi
gation of Mississippi Essential to the unity of empire Dangers
of British acquisition of Louisiana and Floridas Washington regards
as sole motive of war by France the acquisition of Louisiana-
Hamilton regards the acquisition of Louisiana and the Floridas as
essential to the permanency of the Union Miranda discloses to
Hamilton his views as to liberation of South America Hamilton
points to an ascendant of United States in American affairs Miran
da and Pitt as to South America Montaigne, Montesquieu, and
Brissot look to liberation of South America Miranda proceeds to
London and meets commissioners from Southern America Plan
proposed by them, embracing cession of Louisiana and Floridas to
United States Terms arranged with Pitt Miranda addresses
Adams, and also Hamilton and King King announces the purpose
of England Hamilton again, in an official station, approves the
plan Hostile position of Spain toward United States Hamilton
incloses, through King, a letter to Miranda, stating his participation
must be patronized by the Government States his plan of coopera
tion with Great Britain His plan approved by England Adams
jealousy Discountenances the projected measures, . . . 205




Hamilton as to defence of New York Meeting of "Washington, Hamil
ton, and Pinckney, at Philadelphia Questions propounded by Wash
ington Answers drawn by Hamilton Topics stated Hamilton s
papers embrace a large view of military administration Fluc
tuations of Adams Asks advice of Cabinet as to his speech Is
a declaration of war against France expedient ? Shall he state his
intention to receive a minister from France ? Knox as to probable
invasion by France Jay apprehends her domination comprehends
America, North and South Hamilton elated with public firmness
and union Nearer view of temper of Adams His vanity and ca
price Urges obliteration by Pickering of censure of Gerry Offend
ed honesty of Pickering Adams to Gerry Murray to Adams,
announcing wish of Talleyrand a new envoy be sent to France
Secretary at War urges Adams presence at Philadelphia, who pleads
the indisposition of his wife Gerry and Logan repair to him
Adams convenes his Cabinet His speech Firm tone of replies by
Congress Senate remarks indignity of Directory, passing by agents
of Government and impeaching its integrity through unauthorized
agents Adams undignified answer His note to Pickering The
speech chiefly in language of Hamilton Madison s and Jefferson s
comments Bill punishing citizens of United States usurping office
of treating with foreign countries Law suspending commercial in
tercourse with France reenacted, with provisional authority to re
open it Great Britain recognizes people of Hayti as an independent
nation Discretionary power to reopen intercourse opposed by Nicho
las and Gallatin; defended by Otis and by Pinckney Edict of
Directory, a pirate every person forming part of a British crew
voluntarily or by impressment Retaliatory bill passed Bill grant
ing bounty on French vessels captured by private armed vessels of
United States defeated Gallatin opposes a navy Hamilton to Gunn ;
reply Hamilton advises postponement of actual augmentation of
regular army, except of two troops Increase of cannon authorized ;
increase of provisional army ; provision for clothing the militia, and
a loan No reduction of existing force Suppression of internal dis
ordersRevival of act authorizing 80,000 militia ; fortification of a
few cardinal points, ..... . 221




Army of United States, its progressive increase Military establish
ment fixed on Hamilton s plan Provisional army Act to augment
the army Hamilton s plan for reorganizing the army adopted The
rank of " General " created ; also subordinate generals His aim a
fundamental arrangement The military power of the President de
fined Plan for organizing the militia Trade with Indians Manu
factories of arms Regiment of sergeants proposed Plan for issuing
military supplies Recruiting system Duelling discouraged Power
of President in appointing officers Special law authorizing filling
vacancies by President Stoddert Secretary of Navy His report for
its augmentation Bill passed to augment it Laws for establishment
of naval docks Purchase of timber and government of navy Gal-
latin attempts to limit interest on the loan to six per cent. ; is de
feated Jefferson s comment Hamilton recommends treasury notes
Loan raised at eight per cent. Jefferson absents himself from
Philadelphia until after Washington s departure His letters dis
seminating distrusts Taylor contemplates a severance of Union
Jefferson dissuades extreme measures; stigmatizes the Yankees;
denounces his opponents Jefferson s confidence in unpopularity of
taxation Would take from Government the power of borrowing
Advises for the present declaring alien and sedition laws void Cor
respondence with other States Kentucky resolutions Right and
remedy of nullification Committee of conference and correspondence
Nicholas falls short of Jefferson s plan Jefferson, at a late period,
under an injunction of secrecy acknowledges himself author of these
resolutions Jefferson afraid of being prosecuted, .... 246


Virginia resolutions presented by Taylor ; drawn by Madison Asserts
the right and duty of the States to interpose Declares alien and
sedition Acts unconstitutional Washington charges their advocates
with a determination to subvert the Constitution The hostility of
France encouraged by them Washington s denunciation of Jeffer-
6on Approves the alien law Again stigmatizes the Democrats as
" the curse of their country " Again charges the design of subvert
ing the Government Washington \\rges Patrick Henry to aid in
opposing the Virginia leaders Henry chosen to her Legislature



His death Madison to Jefferson, as to Virginia resolves Washing
ton to Marshall Hamilton to Lafayette, dissuading his return to
United States Desires amicable termination of difficulties with
France Hamilton to Sedgewick ; charges Virginia leaders with a
conspiracy to overturn the Government Advises a condemnatory
report of their resolves by Congress, and efforts to enlighten people
of Virginia Resolutions of inexpediency to repeal the laws against
aliens and those respecting the defence and revenue of the United
States Resolutions vindicating the Government defeated by substi
tutes of Nicholas Hamilton to D ay ton, suggests measures for pro
tecting the General Government, and enlarging its powers ; subdivi
sion of States Urges vigor in conduct of Executive, . . . 266


Jefferson urges Madison to publish the secret debates of the Federal Con
vention Madison does not accede Copy of Hamilton s first plan of
Constitution placed in hands of Callender for publication Jefferson
to Monroe, as to disposition of France Condemns commerce with
St. Domingo As to a political subscription Jefferson to Gerry;
states a falsehood as to his employment of Logan, and urges him to
violate his official secrecy His letter to be secret Washington s
interview with Logan Indignation at Directory England, her tone
firm Naval victories Austria firm Directory alarmed Hamilton
advises, if negotiation with France unsuccessful at a fixed period, a
declaration of war, power to Executive to occupy the Floridas and

Online LibraryJohn C. (John Church) HamiltonHistory of the republic of the United States of America : as traced in the writings of Alexander Hamilton and of his contemporaries (Volume 07) → online text (page 1 of 81)