John C. (John Cresson) Trautwine.

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two projecting lugs, at A, A, screwed into the bars. Stirrups provided near
ends of beams. Beams kept wet, but tested dry.



EXPERIMENT AND PRACTICE.



1175



For abbreviations, symbols and references, see p 947 L




Fig 16. Ductility.

Results. Stretch per unit of length at instant of first cracking of cone:

Cone, under
tension, max
0.00050
0.00040
0.00038



Bars 10 mm (0.39") diam = 0.4 %
" 16 " (0.63") " =1.0%
" 22 " (0.86") " = 1.9 %



Steel
0.00042
0.00033
0.00030



81 g. Steel and concrete stresses, p 97.
Specimens. Flat reinforced beams, Fig 17.



f >0


s ^ x


t '\




nT""^^


i 1 t


~2iS=.


1


?








i< ' 31




\








t< *24. J >




J. ! : I


AancLB, 6 beams


! 1 1 1 1


t

10



-4, 3 beams B, 3 beams

Fig 17. Stresses,

Bendg mom constant betw loads. Mix 1 : 4. Length, 2.2 m; span 2 m.
Results. Failed by crushing of cone near and betw the 2 loads.
Steel, 10 mm diam.

Unit stresses, s, in steel, and c, in cone, in Ibs/Q", deduced under
the assumption of n = E 8 /E C = 15.

After appearance

of first cracks At rupture



Age Steel s c


8


c


3 beams A Fig 17 13 mo 1.4 % 22300 1315
3 " B " 17 13 " 3.3 % 20900 2250


54000
39100


3180
4210


3 " A " 17 2 " 1.4% 18600 1095


44800


2630


3 " B " 17 2 " 3.3 % 17000 1820


28000


3000


i , " i


60


J


1 V3U 2__ |






!__. . , . s . . . . .^_^. . .,



IQ



25



Fig 18. Shear.

81 h. Shear in beams. 12 specimens, each consisting of a flat
plate with two similarly reinfd ribs, Fig 18. Ribs of 2.7 m span normal to
the paper, Der Eisenbetonbau, p 158.



1176



CONCRETE.



For Directory to Experiments, see pp 1135-9.

Types of web reinforcement, neglecting slight variations.
Fig 19, and 3d col of table below.



See



a

1,2,3



C

4,6,?, 10, 12



d

5,8,9,11



IT!





Fig 19. Shear.

Stirrup** : 4th col, table below: a, thruout span; b, in one half of span;

c, no stirrups.

Bars: diam in mm: a, 18; b, 16; c, 3 bars 15, and 1 bar 18; d, 2 bars
15, and 2 bars 16. Beam No. 3 had 3 straight Thacher bars, 18 mm diam.
Ends; 6th col, table below: a, hook; b, plain; c, 3 bars 45, 1 hooked ;

d, 2 bars bent, 2 hooked; e, 3 bars 45, 1 plain.

In No. 2 the webs were 0.28 m wide; in No. 8, 0.10 m; in the others,
0.14m.

Age, about 3 mos. Heidelberg cem 1 : 4.5 (72 % Rhine sand 0-7 mm;
28 % gravel, 7-20 mm).

Results.

Cracks developed, following, in general, the curves convex upward, Fig 20.



Stresses, in
s = tensile
at support.

K a 3


Ibs
in


/D".
steel ; c = comp, in cone ; a

At appearance of
diagonal cracks
which lead to


= adhesion;


v = shearing,


T) S

5 a


H S


m rupture

T3


At rupture


i


Id




rt oj

02 PQ


a


s


a


V


c


s


a


V





;3


la


b a


a


17900


123


149


540


29300


198


239


i




S 2 a


b a


a


34300


234


142


824


44800


302


183


2


s


o 3 a


b ..


b


19500


103


132


398


27800


146


187


3


c


*a ; 4


c c


c


36600


382


309


881


46300


476


384


4


^


g 5 d


b d


d


17900


205


146


686


37000


418


299


5


,


6 c


a c


e




232


186


795


42000


432


348


6




41

S 7 c


a b


c








924


48600


448


318


7


"


8 8 d


b b


d


issoo


i52


i52


676


34800


324


324


8





9 d


b b


d


22500


216


141


742


38200


352


251


9




S
























<N






















N


llOc


b b


c








1100


55000


362


257


10


S


a 11 d


c b


d








1180


54000


357


255


11


C


8 12 c


c b


e




...




1060


53200


348


249


12


8



* The positions of the 2 concentrated loads divided span into 3 equal parts.



EXPERIMENT AND PRACTICE. 1177

For abbreviations, symbols and references, see p 947 1.




Fig 20. Diagonal Stresses.

- 82 -

82. San ford E. Thompson. A S T M, Procs, '08, Vol 8, p 500.
82 a. Permeability. Effect of admixture of slacked lime.

Specimens. Cylindrical blocks, 20" diam, 16" thick; Lehigh cem,
good av bank sand, conglomerate rock resembling trap in character; a
h as would be adopted in construction." Pine Cone



Lime stated in % of wt of dry cem. Mixtures



soft, mushy mix, such
lime from Rockland, Me.
as follows:

1:2:4 cone with %, 4 %, 7 % and 10 % lime; 8 % preferred;
1 : 2.5 : 4.5 " " %, 6 %, 10 % " 14 % " ; 12 % ;

1:3:5 " " %, 8 %, 14 % " 20 % " ; 16 %
Treatment. Water, under pres, introduced into cen of block.
Results, 1:2:4 and 1 : 3 : 5, see Fig 21. 1 : 2.5 : 4 gave results inter-
mediate betw the other two.



"0 5 10 15 20

Percentage of hydrated lime to weight of cement.

Fig 21. Permeability; Lime.

82 b. Coarser sand requires more lime, and vice versa.

82 c. If pressure is to be applied within a month, it

will be better to use say 10 %, 15 % and 20 % respectively, instead of 8 %,
12 % and 16 % as recommended under Expt 82 a.

82 d. Lime paste occupies about 2% times the bulk of paste made with
equal wt of Port cem, "and is therefore very efficient in void filling." The
cost of large waterproof work may be reduced by using,
with lime, a leaner cone than would otherwise be suitable.

83

83. Richard I*. Humphrey, plain cone beams, cubes and cylinders,
comp and transv strgths and the elas relations. "The Strgth of Cone
Beams," U S G S Bull No. 344, '08. Tests to determine the effect, upon
transverse and compressive strength, of (1) age of specimen,
(2) consistency of mix, (3) character of aggregate.

83 a. Specimens. Unreinfd cone beams, cubes and cyls. Cem, a mix
of 9 Port cems. Meramec R sand, "composed of flint grains having com-
paratively smooth surfs." "The granulometric analysis, p 1178, shows the
sand to be rather finer than desirable,"



1178



CONCRETE.



For Directory to Experiments, see pp 1135-9.



Properties of sand ai



id aggregates used.

Meshes per inch of screen



Size of mesh, ins



200 100 50 30 10 \i Y* % 1%
Sp Ibs/ voids Percentage passing sieve or screen

gr cuft % . %

Cinders 1.53 47 51 2.84 4.17 6.5 10.5 21.1 37 60 81 100

Granite 2.59 95 41 1.59 2.29 3.2 4.4 8.5 20 58 99 100

102 33 00 1.0 43 79 95 100



Gravel 2.45

Limestone 2.49

Sand 2.60



98 37 2.96 3.48 4.2 5.2 10.7 29 61 96 100
101 38 0.20 1.30 13.9 64.0 97.0 100

Proportions, 1 : 2 : 4, by vol, except the cinder conc.which was nearer
1:2:5. All cone mixed in a mortar-driven cu-yd mixer, equipped with
charging hopper. Mixed 2 mins dry, 3 mins wet; then dumped on cem
floor, shoveled into barrows and wheeled to molding floor. Each batch
sufficient for 2 beams, 8" X 11", 12 ft span, two 6" cubes and 2 cyls, 8" dia,
16" long.

*' Wet : " smooth and somewhat viscous immedy before dumping.
Flows back from ascending side of mixer without tendency to break at top.
When dumped, shows neither voids nor individual stones. Splashes when
tamped. When finished, water stands %" to W deep over surf of mold.

" Medium " ; smooth, but tending to lump. Flows less smoothly than
"wet," part flowing back smoothly and part breaking over in lumps. When
dumped, looks somewhat lumpy, showing stones, but no voids. Stones
evenly coated with mortar. No water collects on surf in mold. Surf
easily finished with trowel.

"Damp"; granular. But little tendency to lump. Carried to top
of mixer on ascending side; falls in individual stones and fragments of mor-
tar. When dumped, shows stones and voids. Resists tamping. Compacts
under hand tamping. Cannot be finished smooth with trowel.

Cone placed in oiled steel molds, in 3 nearly equal layers, and hand-
tamped. "Great care was taken to tamp all the cones in the same manner. "

Treatment. All molds were removed at end of 24 hrs, and pieces trans-
ferred to moist room. Sprinkled 3 times daily. ,

The beams were so supported, just prior to test, that the sums of moments
and stresses, then existing in the measd length, were equalized, so that all
fibers, in that length, then had same length as when unstressed, and the
deformations, within the measd length, were thus measd from zero.




"0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

t> 1.000 x Deformation per unit oflength.

Fig 22. Stress-stretch curves for different aggregates.

Results.

Stretches and comp stresses as in Fig. 22. Medium consistency.



EXPERIMENT AND PRACTICE. 1179

For abbreviations, symbols and references, see p 947 2.

Strength of Concrete.
Results, in general, averages of 3 specimens.

Beams,
8" X 11", 12 ft span Max comp strgth, lbs/Q"



Cylinders

Neut Rupt modf 6 in cubes 8" dia, 16" long

Water axis* < > < * " >

% 100m 4wks 26wks 4wks 26 wks 4wks 26 wks

Cinder

Wet 219 43.3 175 246 1,256 2,320 1,081 2,021

Medm . ..20.6 39.9 198 277 1,191 2,765 1,201 2.203

Damp 18.9 38.2 198 250 1,378 2,488 1,118 1,945

Granite

Wet . 9.0 49.9 375 539 3,156 4,753 2,683 3,966}:

Medm 8.3 47.2 475 566 4,089 4,949 3,480 3,972*

Damp 7.0 48.3 499 618 4,518 5,465 4,000 3.969J

Gravel

Wet 9.7 49.9 391 435 2,299 3,814 2060 3,486

Medm . . . . 8.9 48.4 451 520 3,547 4,808 2,961 3,9721

Damp 7.9 47.5 426 496 4,612 4,884 3,407 3,969*

Limestone

Wet 10.9 48.8 422 507 5,141 3,460 3,072 3,216

Medm 10.0 50.7 458 566 2,975 3,896 2.910 3,691

Damp 8.5 48.1 537 589 4,367 5,025 2,894 3.942J

- 84

84. R. G. Clark, Inst C E, Procs, Vol 171, '08, p 115.

84 a. Time of setting increased by aeration and by addition
of agg. A cem, which, neat, sets in an hr, will make a cone requiring
4 or 5 hrs to set.

85

85. Hanisch and Spitzer, Morsch, Der Eisenbetonbau, '08, pp
32-33.

85 a. Rupture modulus, 6 M fb d 2 , and direct compressive
and tensile strength.
Specimens.

Cone, 1 : 3.5. Six plates, 268 days old, 60 cm (24") wide, 7.8 to 11 cm
(3 to 4.5") thick; span, 150 cm (60").

Treatment. Plate broken transversely; comp and tension test pieces
made from the fragments.

Results. Stresses in Ibs / Q".

Rupture modulus compression tension

max ...775 5000 412

mean 682 4380 356

min 614 3640 284

Comparison of the values for tension with the rupture modulus shows that
the formula, rupture mod = 6 M / b d 2 , is not applicable to materials in
which, as in cone, the elas mod varies widely, and that the rupture moduli,
obtained by means of the formula, are to be used only as a means of compari-
son.

86

86. Richard I,. Humphrey and Wm. Jordan, Jr., U S G S,

Bull No. 331, '08. Results of Tests made at the Structural-Materials Test-
ing Laboratories, St. Louis, '05-7.

86 a. Gravel screenings. In general the tensile and comp strgths
of mortars seem to increase with density of screenings.

*m = (depth of neut ax below top of beam) -r- (total depth of beam),
t "Rupture modulus" = 6 M /fed 2 , Ibs / D"; M = moment under max
load.

J Cylinder did not break.

78



1180



CONCRETE.



For Directory to Experiments, see pp 1135-9.

86 b. Stone screenings. In general, strgth of mortar was greatest with
screenings most nearly uniform in grading. The strength of the stone
itself, from which the screenings are derived, has an important bearing on
the strgth of the resulting mortar.

86 c. Density of mortars is greatest with densest sand.

86 d. Sand mortars. Tensile, compressive and transverse strengths
were invariably much greater with dense sands than with those
having a larger percentage of voids.

86 e. Greatest strgth obtained when sand is uniformly graded.

86 f. A "typical mix" of 7 Port cems, like the separate brands,
reached max tensile strength in 90 days. Like the best of these, it
maintained this max to 180 ds, and its subsequent loss, at one yr and later,
was no greater than for the best of the separate brands.

86 g. Age of briquet. Tests after 180 days showed greater uni-
formity than at 90 days and shorter periods.

86 h. After the 180 and 360 day tests, the strgthsof all the sand nrortars
were reasonably close to one another, showing that considerable variation
in early strength does not seriously affect the later strength.



1000




180
Age,. Day*.

Fig 24.

86 i. Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Portland
< <-m< u I Mortars, neat and 1 : 3 standard Ottawa sand. See Figa 23 and
24. Each curve represents an av of 10 tests.



EXPERIMENT AND PRACTICE.



1181



For abbreviations, symbols and references, see p 947 /.

Specimens. The cem was a mixture of equal parts of 7 diff brands.
See Expts 86 f , 86 g and 86 h.

Test pieces, in molds, stored in moist closet 24 hrs; then kept in running
water, abt 70 F, until tested. Tension briquets 1 sq inch section. Com-
pression specimens, 2" cubes.

Results as in Figs 23 and 24.

87

87. W. KT. Willis, South & Western R. R. E R, '08, Jan 18;
E N, '08, Feb 6, p 145.

87 a. Mica; water required; strength.
Specimens.

Sieve No 10 20 50 100

% of mica passing, 100 29 10 4.5

Sand, Ottawa standd. Mortar 1 : 3 sand, or 1 : 3 sand and mica by wt.
Results.

Mica ; % of weight of sand 5 10 15 20

Voids. % in Ottawa sand 37 67

Relative sp gr of Ottawa sand 100 80

Mixing Water required; relative. . 100 300

Tensile strength, 6 mos, relative . 100 64 62 59 40
The smoothness of surf of the mica particles renders their adhesion low.



88



for



i y , imDeuuea in
Medium steel rods



88. Prof J. r.. Van Ornnm, Washington Univ, St. Louis;
Reinforced Concrete Constr Co., St. Louis. E N, '08, Feb 6, p. 142.
88 a. Adhesion.

Specimens. Plain round steel rods, diams, J^ to 1 M", imbedded in
12" X 12" prismatic blpcks of 1 : 2 : 4 cone, 90 days old.
imbedded 25 diams; high carbon steel rods, 40 diams.

Results. See table below, in which,

for Steel :

s = Ult strgth, in thousands of lbs/D";

s c = Elastic limit, in thousands of Ibs/Q";

e = Elongation, %;

E = Elastic mod, in millions of lbs/D".

for Steel and concrete:

a = Area of imbedded surf, Q";

B = Adhesion, Ibs/D" of a;

F = Friction after slipping, Ibs/Q".



Steel



Steel



Steel and Cone.

B F 1T/B



Medium

Max ........ 60.9 40.5 29.0 29.9 126.8 460 380 0.826

Av , 58.6 39.1 26.1 29.5 62.1 408 342 0.838

Min '. '. '. ......... 55.6 38.4 22.5 28.6 21.7 370 310 0.838

High Carbon

Max ............ 109.6 60.7 20.7 30.6 198.3 470 280 0.596

Av . . 92.6 56.1 17.6 29.8 92.1 392 240 0.613

Min ............ 83.9 53.1 15.7 28.9 32.7 330 200 0.606

In all cases, the total pull which overcame the adhesion exceeded that

which brought the steel to its elas lim.

- 89 -



Engrs' Club of Phila., Procs, Vol 25, No 3, p 290,

Top



89. W. S. Reed.

'08, Jul.

89 a. Friction of sand. Exp by More and Harris Tabor.
pres, lbs/U", reqd to give 10 Ibs/Q" at bottom of box.



1182



CONCRETE.



For Directory to Experiments, see pp 1135-9.



Depth of sand, ins
2.5 5 7.5 10

Top pressure, Ibs / D"

17.5 34 42
26



Exp by Prof Heinrich



Box

4" X 4" 12.5

6" X 6" 11.5

89 to. Fusing? point of quartz sands

Ries, Cornell Univ. 3254 F.

9O

90. Ens News,708, Aug 27, p. 238.

9Oa. Sea water. Charlestown, Mass, Navy Yard.

Nonreinforced arches, built '01, by Bureau of Yards and Docks
Tidal salt water, not highly polluted, but often freezing; range of
tide 10 ft. Specification called for "continuous construction from pier to

S'er of the arch rings." 3" mortar face, 1:1. Mass cone 1 : 2 : 4 for 2 ft
ick from face, 1:3:6 interior; "a standd cem and a local gravel."
Probably porous. No special effort toward density or waterproofing. Specfn
provided: "The contractor must furnish satisfactory evidence of the dura-
bility in sea water of the brand of cem he proposes to furnish." The show-
ing spandrel walls were built after completion of arch ring. Dry, well-
tamped. Serious disintegration. Damage mainly betw H W and L W.
Cone backing considerably affected.

91

91. II. James Nicholas, Melbourne, Victoria. E N, '08, Dec 24,
P710.

91 a. Electrolysis in cement mortars.

Specimens. 16 cylinders, 8" diam, 8" high. Standd Port cem ; coarse
sand, voids 51 %. Mortar tamped in 1 y^' layers until a little water flushed
to surf. Positive electrode, normally a 1" steel pipe, 12" long, lower end
corked, immersed, in axis of cyl, to depth of 5" in cone.

Treatment. Cyls set in fresh water < 28 days. 8 cyls tested with
constant current of about 0.1 ampere; 5 with constant potential
of about 115 volts (higher currents, one with reversed current); 3 not sub-
jected to current. For current, cyls placed in 3 % salt solution in separate
metal pails (which normally formed the negative electrodes), and con-
nected in series. Cyls from 29 to 57 days old at beginning of test.

Results.

All cylinders, under current, cracfced. Cracks attributed to accumu-
lation and pres of liberated gases. Cracks at first hair-like, exuding mois-
ture, which dampened adjacent surf. Cracks widened under continued
current. With constant current, cracks appeared when resistance reached
max. Resistance in general inversely proportional to percentage of
sand. Cyls Nos 1 and 2 easily pried open. In Nos 2 and 9, steel pipe
was rusted and pitted on outside, adjacent to crack. With (const
potential) reversed current (No 12), no rust or pitting.

Cyls not subjected to current were not cracked. They reqd
about 20 blows, with heavy hammer and cold chisel, to break them. No
rust.





Constant Current, 0.1 ampere
No of Specimen.


Constant Potential,
115 volts
No of Specimen.


1


2


9

1 :1
50
10


10


13


14


5


6


3


11


12


15


7


Mix ..
Sand,% .
Days* . .
Mins* . .
Ohmst .


1 :3

75

7

80


1:3
75

7


1 :1
50
16


'#

15


'#

15


1 :0


28


1:0


15


1:3
75


1 :1
50


1:1
50


'#


1:0


'9'
190


5
120


19
130


20
240


9
163


90


420


270


230


270


2900


1080



* To first crack.



t Approximate maximum resistance.



EXPERIMENT AND PRACTICE.



1183



For abbreviations, symbols and references, see p 947 1.

- 92 -

92. " H," of Lafayette, Ind. Letter in E N, '08, Dec 31, p. 751.

92 a. Clay. In cone for cols, gravel contained 5 % clay, which floated



to top in churning, and left



of worthless material near top of col.
93



93. A. Q,. Campbell, Ogden, Utah. E N, '08, Dec 31, p 751.

93 a. Grading- and impermeability. Finish. 2 million

rl rectangular reinfd cone water tank, 20 ft deep. Floor, 6" thick; walls
to 18". 1 cem, 2 ordinary sand, 4 stone (quartzite boulders, porphyry
and flinty limestone) crushed to 1", with dust; "a heavy percentage of
crushed dust and sand" ; machine mixt; "consistency that would almost
pour." Floor laid in blocks about 15 ft sq, "allowing a half-lap of 2 ft;"
walls in continuous 20" layers. Finish of 1 : 1 cem and crusher dust,
applied with ordinary broom trimmed short. Clear water. No perceptible
checking in surf. Apparently no seepage.

94

94. John C. Trautwine, Jr. '09.

94 a. Density of sand ; shape of rain. 100 measures of rounded
sand grains, or of angular crushed quartz grains, poured very slowly into
60 measures of water. Exps N9& 1 and 2 were made with sand grains; Nos
3 and 4 with crushed quartz grains. The left side of each diagram, Fig 25,
represents the bottom of the vessel; and the numerals, 94, 121, etc., show
the elevations of the surfs of sand and of water respectively, after the sand
grains had been poured into the water.

94 121











^


n|










98












^














106111












10










96


111










1


"III



20 40 60 80 100 120

Elevation of sand and water surf aces above bottom of vessel.
Fig 25.

In No 4, the crushed quartz, in the water, was stirred, from time to time,
during the pouring, in order to liberate any air which, in spite of the slowness
of pouring, might have been carried into the water with the sand grains.
The fact that the water stands at practically the same ht in 4 as in 3, indi-
cates that no more air was carried down in 3 than in 4, and that the stirring
merely brought the grains into closer contact than when left to themselves.



1184 CONCRETE.

DIGEST OF SPECIFICATIONS, ETC.

FOR GENERAL, CONCRETE WORK,

Pages 1186 to 1201.
LISTS OF SPECIFICATIONS, ETC, USED.

Alphabetical last.

See Classified List, p 1185.
(For additional abbreviations, see also p 947 I.)

AH, Algoma Harbor, Wis., Caisson breakwater, etc, U. S. Engrs, '08,

Jan 24.
BB, Breakwater, Buffalo, N. Y., Emile Low, U. S. Engrs A S C E, Trans,

'04, Jun, Vol 52, p 73.
BR, Black Rock Harbor and Channel, Buffalo, N. Y. Ship lock walls.

U. S. Engrs, '07, Dec 19.

Bn, Burlington, Vt., Mechanical filter plant, Hering and Fuller, '07.
Ch, Chicago, '08; proposed amendments to Building Code of '05-6.
Ci, Cincinnati, O, Geo. H. Benzenberg;

a, Filters, etc, '05; b, Head-house, etc, '06.
Co, Columbus, O, John. H. Gregory;

a, Filters, etc, '05; b, Pumping station and intake, '06.
CR, Columbia River impvmts, Ore. and Wash., Canal. U. S. Engrs, '08,

Augl.
CS, Concrete-Steel Engineering Co., Edwin Thacher, genl specfns; Melan,

Thacher and von Emperger patents, '03.
F, Wm. B. Fuller, Filters, specification received, '08.
FP, Pensacola, Fla., repair and protection of sea walls. U. S. Engrs, 08,

Apr 18.

FW, Fort Williams, Me., Wharf, Ship Cove. U. S. Engrs, '08, April 14.
O, General practice.

Hb, Harrisonburg, La., Lock and dam No. 2. U. S. Engrs, '08, May 13.
IM, Illinois & Mississippi Canal, Locks, Eastern Section. U. S. Engrs, Jas.

C. Long, Western Soc of Engrs, '01, Apr, Vol 6, No. 2, p 132.
JC, Recommendations in Report of Joint Comm of A S C E, A S T M, Am Ry

Eng & M W Assn, and Assn of Am Port Gem Mfrs, '09, Jan.
I< 9 Louisville, Ky., Building Ordinance, '07.
L.p, Liverpool Harbor Improvement, Geo Cecil Kenyon, A S C E, Trans, '04,

Jun, Vol 52, p 36.

tv, Louisville, Ky., Southern Outfall Sewer, '07.
Me, McCall Ferry dam, Susquehanna River, Pa., '08.

Mh, Manhattan, Borough of , Regulations of Bureau of Bldgs, '03, Sep.
Ms, Massachusetts Legislature, Acts and Resolves of the , '07.
NO, New Orleans, La., Water Purification Stations, '06, Sep 5.
JfY, New York. Building Code approved '99, Oct 24, with amendments to

'06, Apr 12.
O, Ohio R below Pittsburg, Pa., Dam No. 19, Abutment. U. S. Engrs,

'08, Jul 25.
Pli, Philadelphia. Regulations of Bureau of Bldg Inspection, approved

'07, Oct 8. Engrs' Club of Phila., Oct '07, Vol 24, No 4.
SE, Superior Entry, Wis., South Pier, Clarence Coleman, Asst Engr. Report,

Chief of Engrs, U. S. A., '04, Part 4, pp 3779, etc.
TR, Tennessee R, below Chattanooga, Tenn., River wall. U. S. Engrs, '08,

May 27.
TAT, Taylor and Thompson, "Concrete, Plain and Reinforced," publisht

by John Wiley and Sons, New York, '05, pp 33-37.
Un, Underwriters, National Board of Fire , Building Code recommended,

New York, '07.

WH, Waddell and Harrington, general specifications, received '07, Dec.
Wv. Wellsville, O., Navigation pass, Dam No. 8, near . U. S. Engrs, '08,

Feb 27.
Yo, Yonkers, N. Y., covered masonry filters, '07.



CONCRETE SPECIFICATIONS.



1185



U. S. Govt work, AH, BB, BR, CR, FP,

Breakwaters, AH, BB, SE.

Sea walls, FP, SE, TR.

Locks and canals, BR, CR, Hb, IM.

Harbor improvement, I*I>, SE.

Wharves, FW, tp.

Dams, Hb, MC, OI>, Wv.

Pumping stations, etc, Ci b, Co b.

Filter plants, Bu, Ci a, Co a, F, K"O, Yo.

Sewers, I.V.

Bridges, CS.

Building codes, Ch, I., Mh, Ms, XY, Ph,

General, CS, JC, T fc T, WH.



Classified 1,1st.

See Alphabetical List, p 1184.

FW, Hb, IM, SE, Wv.



Outline of Contents.



Subject Parag.

Cement 1

Brand 1

Requirements 2

Shipment 3

Storage 4

Sand 5

Size 6

Screenings 7

Aggregate 8

Kind 8

Requirements 9

Sizes 10

Storage 11

Cinder concrete 12

Large stones 15

Proportions, see p 1086.

Measurement of ingredients .... 21

Consistency 22

Mixing 28

Hand vs machine 28

Forms 34

Lagging 34

Tie rods 36

Placing, churning & ramming . . 37

Layers 40

Joints 46

Under water 52

During rain 54

During freezing weather 55

Moistening 59

Forms, removal 61

Freezing weather 65

Surface finish, etc 66

Waterproofing 78

Artificial stone 80

Strength, etc required 81

Ultimate compressive 81

Ultimate shearing 82

Max allowable loads 83

Compression 84

Tension 91

Shear 92

Elastic modulus 93

Adhesion, see p 1111, and p
1196, 1f 113.



Subject



Parag.



Safety factors 95

Reinforcement 96

Bars, condition 96

Shape 97

Twisted 98

Round, corrugated, etc 99

Iron and steel, requirements. .100

Ult tensile strength 102

Ult compressive strength .... 103

Fracture 104

Elastic limit 105

Elastic modulus 106


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