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3 3433 08253485 4





THE



L I V E S



or



THE LORD CHANCELLORS



AND



KEEPERS OF THE GREAT SEAL



OF



ENGLAND,



FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TILL THE REIGN OF
KING GEORGE IV.



JOHN LORD CAMPBELL, A.M. F.R.S.E.



THE FIRST SERIES, IX THREE VOLUMES,

TO THE REVOLUTION OF 1688.

-

VOL. III.



LONDON:
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE







PUBLIC

26352B

ASTOR, LBNOX AND

T1U)EN FOUNDATIONS

It 1U39 L



LONDON :

Printed l>y A. SPOTTISWOOI>E,
New- Street-Square.



CONTENTS



OF



THE THIRD VOLUME.



CHAPTER LXVIII.

I,ORD KEEPERS OF THE PARLIAMENTARY GREAT SEAL DURING THE COMMONWEALTH,
TILL THE FIRST APPOINTMENT OF LORD COMMISSIONER WHITELOCK.

Consternation of the Parliament when the Great Seal was carried to the King, Page 1.
They send Writs to be sealed by Littleton, 2. Littleton's equivocal Answer, 2.
Proceedings in Parliament respecting Great Seal, '2. Ordinance against Use of
Great Seal by the King, 3. Despair of the Lawyers, 3. Plan for new Great
Seal, 3. Opposition to it, 3. Arguments for it, 4. Resolutions of the Commons
rejected by the Lords, 4. Conferences, 4. Reasons of Commons, 5. Commons
order new Great Seal to be made, 6. New Great Seal in Custody of Speaker, 7.
Perplexity of Commons, 7. Prynne's " Opening of Great Seal of England," 7.
Committee of Commons, 8. Serjeant Wilde, 8. The Lords consent to use of
new Great Seal, 9. Ordinance, 9. Parliamentary Commissioners of Great
Seal, 9. Ceremony of swearing them in, 10. Proclamation by the King,
charging those concerned in making the new Great Seal with High Treason, 11.
Court of Chancery re-opened, 1 1. Origin of" Suitors' Fund " in Chancery, 1 1.
Activity of Serjeant Wilde, 12. Proceedings on Capture of King's Great Seal
at Oxford, 12. Self-denying Ordinance respecting the Great Seal passes
Commons, 13. Rejected by the Lords, 13. Ordinance making the Speakers
of the two Houses joint Keepers of the Great SealJ 14. Authority of the Lords
Commissioners defied by Judge Jenkins, 15.



CHAPTER LXIX.

LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF THE GREAT SEAL FROM THE FIRST APPOINTMENT OF WHITE-
LOCK TILL THE ADOPTION OF A NEW GREAT SEAL BEARING THE INSIGNIA OF THE
REPUBLIC.

Complaints against the two Speakers as Equity Judges, 17. Ordinance for appoint-
ing the Earl of Kent, Lord Grey de Werke, Whitelock, and Widdrington, Com-
missioners of Great Seal, 17. Reasons for writing Life of Lord Keeper
Whitelock, 18. His Origin, 18. Education, 18. Called to Bar, 19. Cir-
cuit, 19. Introduction to Noy, the Attorney General, 19. Manager of
Masque to the Queen, 20. Chairman of Quarter Sessions, 20. Takes popular
Side, 21. His Moderation, 2]. Returned to Parliament, 21. His Maiden
Speech, 21. One of the Managers of Impeachment of Lord Stratford, 21.
Whitelocke doubts as to the Side he ought to choose, 22. His Warning against
Civil War, 23. Takes Arms against the King, 23. He renounces Arms, 24

A 2



39X677



v CONTENTS.

A Lay Member of the Westminster Assembly, 24. Whitelock Commissioner at
Oxford to treat with King, 24. Charge against him of intriguing with King, 25.
Whitelock takes part against Cromwell, 26. But succumbs to him, 27. White-
lock's professional Success, 27. He refuses the Office of Recorder of London, 27.
He is appointed Commissioner of Great Seal, 27. Whitelock's Statement of this
Transaction, 27. Whitelock and Widdrington sworn in, 29. Whitelock's
Address to Serjeant Wilde when made Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 29.
Whitelock's Address on a Call of Serjeants, 30. Pride's Purge, 33. Conduct
of Lords Commissioners, 33. Conference of Lords Commissioners with Crom-
well, 34. The King to be brought to Trial, 34. Arguments in favour of this
Proceeding, 34. Opposed by Whitelock, 35. Cromwell's Speech, 35. Reso-
lution carried, 35. The Lords Commissioners refuse to concur in the Trial of
the King, 35. They conceal themselves, 36. Ordinance for Grand Court of
Justice to try the King, 36. Rejected by the Lords, 37. Commons vote that
the Supreme Power was exclusively in them, 37. New Great Seal with Re-
publican Insignia ordered. 38. Lords Commissioners refuse to sit in the High
Court of Justice, 38. Difficulty about adjourning the Courts in Westminster
Hall pending the King's Trial, 39- Proceedings in the Lords, 39. Messengers
of the Lords refused admittance by the Commons, 40. The Commons vote the
Lords useless, 40. Whitelock compelled to draw an Ordinance for abolishing
the Lords, 40. And an Ordinance for abolishing the Office of King, 41. Great.
Seal with Royal Arms broken, 41. Serjeant Widdrington refuses to serve as
Lord Commissioner under new Government, 41. Trimming Conduct of White-
lock, 41. Major Lisle a Commissioner of the Great Seal, 42. And Serjeant
Keble, 43. Ordinance passes for new Lords Commissioners, 43. Copy of
Ordinance, 43. Preservation of Titles in Time of Commonwealth, 43. Speaker's
Address to them, 44. Lord Commissioner Whitelock's Answer, 44.



CHAPTER LXX.

LORDS KEEPERS FROM THE ADOPTION OF THE REPUBLICAN GREAT SEAL TILL CROMWELL

BECAME " PROTECTOR. "

Whitelock as Equity Judge, 46. Ordinance to make Forgery of Republican Great
Seal Treason, 46. Ceremony of approving the Lord Mayor, 46. Precedence
of Lord Commissioner Whitelock at Lord Mayor's Dinner, 47. Whitelock's
Address to the Republican Judges, 47. His Merit in preserving Books and
Works of Art, 48. His noble Defence of the Profession of the Law, 48. Law
Reform supported by Whitelock, 50. Whitelock discourages Cromwell's As-
sumption of the Crown, 50. Conference before Dissolution of the Long Parlia-
ment, 51. Dissolution of the Long Parliament, 52. New " Council of State,"
52. Barebones' Parliament, 53. Resolution for total and immediate Abolition
of the Court of Chancery, 53. Difficulties in the Plan, 54. Bill to suspend all
Proceedings in Chancery, 54. Bill to abolish the Court, 54. End of Bare-
bones' Parliament, 55. Whitelock goes on an Embassy to Sweden, 55.



CHAPTER LXXI.

LORDS KEEPERS DURING THE PROTEC'TORATE OF OLIVER CROMWELL.

Cromwell installed as Protector, 56. Whitelock acknowledges Cromwell as Pro-
tector, 56. Lord Protector delivers Great Seal to Commissioners, 57. Crom-
well's second Parliament, 57. Abruptly dissolved, 57. Cromwell's Ordinance
for Reform of Chancery, 57. Lords Commissioners refuse to obey it, 58. Lords
Commissioners summoned before the Council, 59. They are dismissed, 59.
Great Seal committed to the Keeping of a Colonel and a Major, 60. History of
Lord Commissioner Colonel Fiennes, 60. Judicial Conduct of the Colonel and



CONTENTS. v

the Major, 61. Political Conduct of the Lords Commissioners, 62. Act for
excluding the Stuarts, 63. Offer of the Crown to Cromwell, 63. New Form
of Government under " Petition and Advice," 64. Cromwell creates Peers, 6-4.
Lord Protector opens Session, 65. Reasons of Summons declared by Lord
Commissioner, 65. Proceedings in the House of Peers, 66. Refusal of Com-
mons to recognise the House of Peers, 66. Cromwell dissolves his third and last
Parliament, 67. High Court of Justice established, 67. Whitelock refuses to
be made a Viscount, 68. Death of Cromwell, 69.



CHAPTER LXXII.

T.ORDS COMMISSIONERS OF THE GREAT SEAL FROM THE DEATH OF CROMWELT, TILL

THE RESTORATION.

Proclamation of Richard as Lord Protector, 70. Fiennes and Lisle confirmed as
Keepers of Great Seal, and Whitelock joined with them, 70. Opening of Par-
liament, 70. The three Commissioners of the Great Seal sit in the Upper House
as Peers, 71. Commons refuse to acknowledge them, 71. Parliament dissolved,
71. Lord Whitelock again in the House of Commons, 72. New Great Seal
ordered by Rump, 72. Ordinance for new Great Seal, 72. Act for reforming
Court of Chancery, 73. Bradshaw, Terryll, and Fountain, new Commissioners
of Great Seal, 73. Oath administered to them, 73. Commission for hearing
Causes, 73. Rump again expelled, 74. Whitelock invited to join the Council
of Officers, 74. Whitelock sole Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, 75. He hears
Causes at Whitehall, 76. Proclamation for new Parliament, 76. Dialogue be-
tween Lord Keeper and a Military Officer on the Vices and Merits of Lawyers,
77. Project of Whitelcck to carry the Great Seal to the King at Breda, 77.
Fleetwood consents to join in Resioration of Charles, 78. But is deterred, and
the Scheme is abandoned, 79. Its probable Consequences, 79. Lord Keeper
issues Writs for new Parliament, 80. Rump restored, 80. Alarm of Whitelock,

80. Whitelock sends the Great Seal to the Speaker, and conceals himself, 81.
Charles II. 's Speech to Whitelock, 81. Whitelock's Death, 81. His Character,

81. His Writings, 83. His Sons, 83. Great Seal in Custody of Speaker. 83.
Delivered to Widdrington, Terryll, and Fountain, 84. Act for dissolving Long
Parliament, 85. Lords Commissioners issue Writs for the Convention Parlia-
ment, 85. Lords elect Earl of Manchester Speaker, 85. He is added as a Com-
missioner of the Great Seal, 85. Difficulty about Use of Republican Great Seal,
86. Approach of King Charles II., 87. Republican Great Seal broken, 87.
Restoration, 88. Plan for adopting the Mosaic Law, 88. Cromwell's rude
Notions of Law Reform, 88. Enlightened Law Reformers under the Common-
wealth, 89. Their Measures, 89. Parliamentary Reform, 9(). Cromwell ap-
points good Common-law Judges, 91. Equity ill-administered during the
Commonwealth, 91. Desire of Lenthall, Master of the Rolls, to be a Peer, 93.
Orders and Ordinances improving Chancery Practice, 93. Comparison between
Republicans in England and in France, 93.



CHAPTER LXXIII.

LIFE OF LORI) KEEPER HERBERT.

Reasons for writing Life of Lord Keeper Herbert, 95. Charles II.'s Great Seal,
95. Lost at Battle of Worcester, 95. New Great Seal in France, 95. Struggle
between Hyde and Herbert, 96. Herbert, Lord Keeper, 96. His Birth, 96.
Practice at Bar, 96. Strong Prerogative Lawyer, 96. Made Solicitor General,
97. His Difficulties at Commencement of the Long Parliament, 97. Made
Attorney General, and leaves House of Commons, 98. His irksome Position in
the House of Lords, 98. He is ordered by the King to prosecute Lord Kim-

A ?,



VI CONTENTS

bolton and the Five Members for Treason, 98. He imprudently obeys, 99.
Prosecution against the Attorney General, 99- King's Letter acquitting him of
all Blame, 100. Serjeant Wilde conducts Prosecution as Manager for the Com-
mons, 101. Serjeant Wilde's Notions of Parliamentary Privilege, 101. Das-
tardly Behaviour of the Attorney General's leading Counsel, 102. Attorney
General's Defence, 102. lie is found guilty, and imprisoned, 103. Being
liberated, he joins the King at York, 103. Resides at Oxford, 103. Goes into
Exile, 104. Hated by Hyde, 101. Instance of his courteous Behaviour to
Hyde, 104. Charge against him by Hyde of Breach of Confidence and breeding
Strife, 104. Declaration on Accession of Charles II., 105. Herbert accompanies
Duke of York to Lorraine, 105. Herbert joins Charles II. at Paris, 105.
Clarendon's Account of Herbert receiving the Great Seal, 106. Herbert while
Lord Keeper, 106. Said to have originated Charge against Clarendon of cor-
responding with Cromwell, 106. His Charge against Clarendon for abusing the
King, 1O6. Charles's noble Conduct on this Occasion, 107. Herbert dismissed
from Office of Lord Keeper, 107. His Grief, 108. The inglorious Termination
of his Career at Paris, 10S. His Character, 109. His Descendants, 109.



CHAPTER LXXIV.

LIFE OF LORD CHANCELLOR CLARENDON FROM HIS BIRTH TILL THE EXECUTION OF

LORD STRAFFORD.

His Family, 11O. His Birth, 111. His Education, 111. At Oxford, 111.
Studies Law at Middle Temple, 111. Associates with dissolute Company, 111.
Sent as Marshal on the Circuit, 112. Marries for love, 112. Death of his first
W T ife, 113. Gets into good Society, 113. His Friendship with Lord Falkland,
114. His second Wife, 114. Death of his Father, 114. Devotes himself to
Profession of the Law, 114. His Success, 115. Manager of the Masque to the
Queen, 115. Happy Period of his Life, 116. His liberal Opinions, 116. In-
troduced to Archbishop Laud, 116. The "Short. Parliament," 117. Hyde
attacks Earl Marshal's Court, 117. Supports the Supply, 118. Tries to pre-
vent the Dissolution, 119. Conversation with St. John on the Dissolution, 119.
Arbitrary Measures of the Government, 120. Long Parliament, 120. Hyde
gives up his Practice at the Bar, 120. Procures the Suppression of Earl Mar-
shal's Court, 121. He assists in the Proceedings against the Judges, 121.
Attacks Court of the North, 123. Tries to raise a Loan for the Government,

123. Strenuously supports the Prosecution against Lord Strafford, 123. Proofs
of this Fact, 123. Hyde supported Bill of Attainder against Lord Strafford,

124. Contrary Evidence, 125. Question upon the Propriety of proceeding
capitally against Strafford, 126.



CHAPTER LXXV.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HE WAS SENT TO BRISTOL
WITH THE CHARGE OF PRINCE CHARLES.

Dangerous Bill to prevent a Dissolution of the Parliament supported by Hyde, 1 27.
Alarm of Hyde when this Bill had passed, 127. He goes over to the Royalist Side,
128. Designs of some popular Leaders, 128. Hyde opposes Exclusion of Bishops
from Parliament, 128. Bill for abolishing Episcopacy, 129. Hyde's first Inter-
view with Charles I., 129. Hours and Habits during Long Parliament, 129.
Q. as to Part then to be taken by a good Citizen ? 1 30. " Remonstrance" by
Parliament, 131. Hyde's maiden State Paper, 131. He refuses Office of Soli-
citor General, 131. Hyde, Member of Inner Cabinet, 132. Fatal Step of the
Impeachment of Lord Kimholton and the Five Members, 132. Hyde sent by
Parliament on a Deputation to the King, 133. The King leaves London for the
North, 134. Militia Ordinance, 135. Hyde joins the King at York, 135. Pro-



CONTENTS. vii

positions of the Parliament to the King, 136. King's Answer, 136. Com-
mencement of Civil War, 136. Erection of the Royal Standard, 137. Hyde
present at Battle of Edge Hill, 138. Treachery of the King, 138. Hyde made
Chancellor of the Exchequer and knighted, 138. Battle of Newbury, 139.
Death of Lord Falkland, 139. Hyde disliked by the Royalists, 139. King's
Proposal to dissolve the Parliament at Westminster, 140. Parliament at Oxford,
140. Treaty at Uxbridge, 142.



CHAPTER LXXVI.

CONTINUATION OF LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HIS RETURN FROM THE EMBASSY TO

MADRID.

Prince Charles to be sent to the West, 144. Hyde appointed Head of his Council,
144. They proceed to Bristol, 144. Order from the King for the Prince to
retire to France, 145. Hyde and the Prince arrive in Scilly, 146. Hyde and
the Prince arrive in Jersey, 147. Prince Charles quits Jersey, 147. Hyde's
Misfortunes lead to his Celebrity, 148. His Residence in Jersey, 148, Writes
his History of the Rebellion, 148. His Applications for Assistance, 149. His
Letter to Colepepper, 149. His Correspondence with Charles I., 150. His Mode of
Life in Jersey, 150. He leaves Jersey, 152. At Rouen, 152. Taken by Pirates,
152. Joins Prince Charles at the Hague, 153. His Rivalry with Herbert, after-
wards Lord Keeper, 153. Embassy to Spain, 154. Hyde's Journey to Spain,
155. Hyde's Treatment at the Court of Spain, 156. Assassination of Ascham,

157. Ordered to leave Madrid, 158. Little Sympathy in Europe for the Stuarts,
or Enmity to the English Republic, 158. Hyde's destitute Condition at Madrid,

158. Lord Cottington, his Colleague, settles permanently in Spain, 159. Hyde's
Audience of Leave, 159.



CHAPTER LXXVI I.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF CLARENDON TILL THE GREAT SEAL WAS DELIVERED TO HIM

AT BRUGES.

Hyde leaves Madrid, 161. Resides at Antwerp, 161. Summoned to Paris, 161.
Hyde's Bigotry, 162. Lucy Walters, 163. Dissipation of Charles, 163. Plan
for marrying Charles and the Duke of York, 164. Intrigues in the Court, 164.
Financial Difficulties, 1 65. Hyde's Dismay when the Great Seal was given to
Herbert, 167. Hyde's joy at Herbert being deprived of the Great Seal, 168.
His Interview with the Queen Dowager, 168. His Residence at Cologne, 169.
His Daughter Anne becomes Maid of Honour to the Princess of Orange, 169.
Treachery and Execution of Manning, 170. Q. Truth of the Story of Hyde now-
trying to reconcile himself to Cromwell ? 1 70. Charles removing to Bruges,
Hyde left at Cologne to pay the Debts of the Crown, 172. Negotiation with
Sexby, 173. Plan for the Appointment of a Lord Chancellor, 174. Duplicity
of Hyde, 175. His Appointment as Lord Chancellor, 175.



CHAPTER LXXVIII.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF CLARENDON TILL THE RESTORATION OF CHARLES II.

Occupations of the new Lord Chancellor at Bruges, 176. Illness and Death of
Cromwell, 177. Hyde's Plan of Action for the Royalists in the new Parliament,
177. Dissolution of Richard's Parliament, 179. Hyde at Brussels, 180. Pro-
posal that Charles should marry the Daughter of General Lambert, 181. Hyde's
Intrigues with different Parties in England, 181. General Monk, 181. Hyde's
Difficulty in managing the Royalists, 183. Facility of obtaining Conditions from

A 4



Till CONTENTS.

Charles, 183. Sir Matthew Hale's Motion negatived, 184. Hyde composes the
Declaration from Breda, 184. Journey to the Hague, 185. Embarkation for
England, 185. Restoration, 186.



CHAPTER LXXIX.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL THE MEETING OF THE FIRST

PARLIAMENT OF CHARLES II.

Clarendon enters on the Discharge of the official Duties as Chancellor, 187. Takes
his Seat in the Court of Chancery, 188. His Unfitness to act as an Equity Judge,
188. Attempt to exclude him from the Office, 188. His discreet Conduct as a
Judge, 190. He refuses to give up Great Seal to be ostensibly as well as really
Prime Minister, 190. He appoints a Cabinet, 191. Bill of Oblivion, 191.
Clarendon discourages the Settlement of an independent Revenue on the Crown,
192. Abolition of military Tenures, 193. Compensation to the Crown un-
fairly thrown from the Land on the public Revenue, 193. Disbanding of the
Army, 193. Trial of the Regicides, 194. Exhumation of Cromwell and Blake,
195. Clarendon's Conduct in the Convention Parliament, 195. He dupes the
Presbyterians, 196. Sir Matthew Hale's Bill for mitigated Episcopacy, 197.
Sir Matthew Hale made Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 197. Bill thrown out,
198. Dissolution of the Convention Parliament, 198. Marriage of the Chancel-
lor's Daughter with the Duke of York, 1 98. Clarendon's hypocritical Conduct
on this Occasion, 199. Sir Charles Berkeley's false Charge against Anne Hyde,
200. The King reconciled to the Match, 201. Duchess of York's Forgiveness of
Sir Charles Berkeley, 202. The Chancellor created Earl of Clarendon, 203.



CHAPTER LXXX.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HIS ACQUITTAL WHEN IMPEACHED

BY THE EARL OF BRISTOL.

First Parliament of Charles II., 204. Clarendon's Designs against the Presbyte-
rians, 204. Resolution of the Commons to expel Dissenters, 205. Bill for re-
storing Bishops to the House of Lords, 205. Corporation Act, 205. Act of
Uniformity, 206. King's Marriage with Catherine of Braganza, 207. Clarendon
tries to persuade the Queen to receive the King's Mistress as one of her Ladies of
Honour, 207. Clarendon's ungenerous Reflections on the Queen, 209. Cla-
rendon refuses a private Bribe from France, 210. But encourages the King to
receive Bribes from France, 211. Sale of Dunkirk, 212. The King estranged
from Clarendon, 214. Question of "Indulgence," 214. Bill to dispense with
Subscription to Doctrine and Discipline of established Church, 215. State of the
Court, 215. Clarendon impeached by the Earl of Bristol, 216. His Defence,
217. Clarendon being acquitted, again in Power, 218.



CHAPTER LXXXI.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HIS FALL.

The King's Declaration that he would not be bound by the Triennial Act, 219.
The Conventicle Act, 22O. The Five Mile Act, 220. The Dutch War, 221.
Conferences at Worcester House, 222. Appropriation of Supplies, 222. Cla-
rendon resists Superintendence of Parliament over public Expenditure, 223.
Clarendon supports Free Trade with Ireland, 223. Disgraceful Conduct of the
Dutch War, 225. Public Calamities, 225. Unpopularity of the Chancellor,
Clarendon mimicked at Court, 227. La Belle Stuart, 228. Death of



CONTENTS. ix

Lady Clarendon, 229. Intrigues against Clarendon, 229. Clarendon's Inter-
view with the King, 230. Curiosity of the Courtiers, 231. Lady Castlemaine's
Reproaches to the King for not dismissing Clarendon, 232. Clarendon dis-
missed, 233.



CHAPTER LXXXII.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HIS BANISHMENT.

Clarendon's Firmness on his Fall, 234. The King's Behaviour to him, 234. Be-
haviour of others, 234. The King joins in his Persecution, 235. Articles of
Impeachment against him, 235. The King's Speech alluding to Clarendon's
Dismissal, 236. Address of the two Houses, 236. Motion for Impeachment,
236. Futility of the Charges, 237. Fury of the Commons, 238. General
Impeachment preferred, 239. Lords refuse to commit on this general Charge,
239. Quarrel between the two Houses, 240. Attempts to induce Clarendon to
fly, 241. Clarendon's undignified Letter to the King, 241. The King's Advice
that he should fly, 242. Advice of the Duke of York, 243. Clarendon flies,
243. Emharks for France, 243. Impolicy of his Flight, 244. Clarendon's
Letter to the House of Lords, 244. Letter voted Scandalous and Seditious,
245. Ordered to be burnt by the common Hangman, 246. Bill for the Banish-
ment of Clarendon, 246. Bill receives Royal Assent, 247.



CHAPTER LXXXIII.

CONCLUSION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON.

Clarendon's Adventures after embarking for France, 248. At Rouen, 249. At
Calais, 250. Prevented by Illness from returning to England in time to prevent
his Banishment, he resolves to live at Avignon, 251. His great Peril from
English Sailors at Evereux, 251. He proceeds to Avignon, 252. Settles at
Montpellier, 253. His bodily Debility, 253. His literary Occupations, 253.
Conversion of his Daughter to Popery, 254. His Letter to her, 254. Her
Death, 255. He retires to Moulins, 255. Charles II. refuses Leave to Claren-
don to return to England, 256. Works written by him at Moulins, 256. Re-
moves to Rouen, 257. His renewed Application to be allowed to return to die
in England refused, 257. His last Will, 257. His Death, 258. His Funeral,
258. His Character, 258. His laudable Conduct before his Elevation to
Power, 259. His Errors when in Power, 259. His Merits as Minister, 260.
As a Judge, 261. He made good Judges, 263. He encouraged Law Reform,
263. Illegal Proclamations issued by him, 263. Improper Prosecution of
Twyn, 264. Clarendon's Speeches, 264. His " History of the Rebellion," 265.
His Autobiography, 266. His other Writings, 267. His Letters, 267. He
assisted in the Formation of the Royal Society, 267. Chancellor of the Uni-
versity of Oxford, 267. His Manners, 267. His Mode of Living, 268. Cla-
rendon House, 268. Cornbury, 269. Glory of his Exile, 269. His Descend-
ants, 269.



CHAPTER LXXXIV.

LIFE OF LORD KEEPER BRIDGEMAN.

Sir Orlando Bridgeman, Lord Keeper, 271. His Birth and Education, 271.
Called to the Bar, 271. A strong Royalist, 272. His Services at Chester at
the breaking out of the Civil War, 272. He is expelled from the House of
Commons, 272. Attends the Convention at Oxford, 272. Titular Attorney



: < ONTENTS.

General to the Court of Wards, 273. Commissioner for the King at Uxbridge,
273. He practises as Chamber Counsel during the Commonwealth, 273. On
Restoration made Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 274. Presides at the Trial of
the Regicides, 274. Made a Baronet and Chief Justice of the Common Pleas,

276. His great Fame as a Common-law Judge, 276. His Hostility to Parlia-
mentary Privilege, 276. His Judgment that removing the Court of Common
Pleas to a Recess from Westminster Hall would be contrary to MAGNA CHARTA,

277. He abstains from Politics, 278. He is sworn in Lord Keeper, 278. His
Installation in Westminster Hall, 279. A bad Equity Judge, 279. His Con-
duct to Lord Clarendon, 280. Not implicated in the profligate Measures of the
CABAL, 281. He was prevailed upon to put the Great Seal to the " Declaration
of Indulgence," 282. Shutting up of the Exchequer, 283. Bankers apply for
Injunctions, 283. Shaftesbury and the King try to prevail on the Lord Keeper
to grant the Injunctions, 284. Lord Keeper refuses the Injunctions, 284. And
is dismissed from his Office, 284. Supposed additional Ground for Bridgeman's
Dismissal, 285. His Death, 286. His Character, 286. His Descendants,
286.



CHAPTER LXXXV.

LIFE OF LORD CHANCELLOR SHAFTESBURY FIIOM HIS BIRTH TILL THE RESTORATION



Online LibraryJohn Campbell CampbellThe lives of the Lord Chancellors and keepers of the great seal of England, from the earliest times till the reign of King George IV → online text (page 1 of 59)