John Campbell Campbell.

The lives of the lords chancellors and keepers of the great seal of England, from the earliest times till the reign of King George IV (Volume 3) online

. (page 1 of 58)
Online LibraryJohn Campbell CampbellThe lives of the lords chancellors and keepers of the great seal of England, from the earliest times till the reign of King George IV (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 58)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES



3 3433 08253716 2











.-WiMM






\s?Vv^




THE

N



LIVES



OF



THE LORD CHANCELLORS



AND



KEEPERS OF THE GREAT SEAL



OF



ENGLAND,



FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TILL THE REIGN OF

KING GEORGE IV.



BY

JOHN LORD CAMPBELL, LL.D. F.R.S.E.

IN SEVEN VOLUMES .

VOL III.



SECOND AMERICAN,
FROM THE THIRD LONDON EDITION



PHILADELPHIA:

BLANCHARD AND LEA.

1851.



CONTENTS



OF



THE THIRD VOLUME.



CHAPTER LXVIII.

LORD KEEPERS OF THE PARLIAMENTAR V GREAT SEAL DURING THE COMMONWEALTH
TILL THE FIRST APPOINTMENT OF LORD COMMISSIONER WHITELOCK.

Consternation of the Parliament when the Great Seal was carried to the King,
page 25. They send Writs to be sealed by Littleton, 25. Littleton's equivocal
Answer, 26. Proceedings in Parliament respecting Great Seal, 26. Ordinance
against Use of Great Seal by the King, 26. Despair of the Lawyers, 26. Plan
for new Great Seal, 27. Opposition to it, 27. Arguments for ir, 27, Resolu-
tions of the Commons rejected by the Lords, 27. Conferences, 28. Reasons of
Commons, 28. Commons order new Great Seal to be made, 29. New Great
Seal in Custody of Speaker, 29. Perplexity of Commons, 29, Prynne's "Open-
ing of Great Seal of England," 30. Committee of Commons, 30. Serjeant
Wilde, 30. The Lords consent to use of new Great Seal, 31, Ordinance, 31.
Parliamentary Commissioners of Great Seal, 31. Ceremony of swearing them
in, 32. Proclamation by the King, charging those concerned in making the new
Great Seal with High Treason, 32. Court of Chancery re-opened, 32. Origin
of " Suitors' Fund " in Chancery, 33. Activity of Serjeant Wilde, 33. Pro-
ceedings on Capture of King's Great Seal at Oxford, 33, Self-denying Ordi-
nance respecting the Great Seal passes Commons, 34. Rejected by the Lords,
34. Ordinance making the Speakers of the two Houses joint Keepers of the
Great Seal, 35. Authority of the Lords Commissioners defied by Judge Jell-
kins, 35.

CHAPTER LXIX.

LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF THE GREAT SEAL FROM THE FIRST APPOINTMENT OF
WHITELOCK TILL THE ADOPTION OF A NEW CREAT SEAL BEARING THE INSIGNIA
OF THE REPUBLIC.

Complaints against the two Speakers as Equity Judges, 37. Ordinance for appoint-
ing the Earl of Kent, Lord Grey de Werke, Whitelock, and Widdrington, Com-
missioners of Great Seal, 37. Reasons for writing Life of Lord Keeper White-



vi CONTENTS.

lock, 37. His Origin, 37. Education, 37. Called to Bar, 38. Circuit, 38. In-
troduction to Noy, the Attorney General, 3S. Manager of Masque to the Queen,
39.- Chairman of Quarter Sessions, 39. Takes popular Side, 39. His Modera-
tion, 39. Returned to Parliament, 40. His Maiden Speech, 40. One of the
Managers of Impeachment of Lord Strafford, 40. Whitelock doubts as to the
Side he ought to choose, 41. His Warning against Civil War, 41. Takes Arms
against the^King, 41. He renounces Arms, 42. A Lay Member of the West-
minster Assembly, 42. Whitelock Commissioner at Oxford to treat with King,
42. Charge against him of intriguing with King, 43. Whitelock takes part
against Cromwell, 43. But succumbs to him, 44. Whitelock's professional Suc-
cess, 44, He refuses the office of Recorder of London, 44. He is appointed
Commissioner of Great Seal, 44. Whitelock's Statement of this Transaction,
44. Whitelock and Widdrington sworn in, 45. Whitelock's Address to Ser-
jeant Wilde when made Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 46. Whitelock's Ad-
dress on a Call of Serjeants, 47. Pride's Purge, 48. Conduct of Lords Com
missioners, 49. Conference of Lords Commissioners with Cromwell, 49. The
King to be brought to Trial, 50. Arguments in favour of this Proceeding, 50.
Opposed by Whitelock, 50. Cromwell's Speech, 50. Resolution carried, 50,
The Lords Commissioners refuse to concur in the Trial of the King, 51. They
conceal themselves, 51. Ordinance for Grand Court of Justice to try the King,
51. Rejected by the Lords. 51. Commons vote that the Supreme Power was
exclusively in them, 52. New Great Seal with Republican Insignia ordered, 52.
Lords Commissioners refuse to sit in the High Court of Justice, 53. Difficulty
about adjourning the Courts in Westminster Hall pending the King's Trial, 53.
Proceedings in the Lords, 53. Messengers of the Lords refused Admittance by
the Commons, 54. The Commons vote the Lords useless, 54. Whitelock com-
pelled to draw an Ordinance for abolishing the Lords, 54. And an Ordinance for
abolishing the Office of King, 55, Great Seal with Royal Arms broken, 55.
Serjeant Widdrington refuses to serve as Lord Commissioner under new Gov-
ernment, 55. Trimming Conduct of Whitelock, 56. Major Lisle a Commis-
sioner of the Great Seal. 56. And Serjeant Keble, 56, Ordinance passes for
new Lords Commissioners, 56. Copy of Ordinance, 56. Preservation of Titles
in time of Commonwealth, 56, Speaker's Address to them, 57. Lord Commis-
sioner Whitelock's Answer, 57,

CHAPTER LXX.

LORDS KEEPERS FROM THE ADOPTION OF THE REPUBLICAN GREAT SEAL TILL CROM-



WELL BECAME " PROTECTOR."



Wbitelock as Equity Judge, 58. Ordinance to make Forgery of R publican Great
Seal Treason, 58. Ceremony of approving the Lord Mayor, 58. Precedence of
Lord Commissioner Whitelock at Lord Mayor's Dinner, 59. Whitelock's Ad-
dress to the Republican Judges, 59. His Merit in preserving Books and Works
of Art, 59. His noble Defence of the Profession of the Law, 60. Law Reform
supported by Whitelock, 61. Whitelock discourages Cromwell's Assumption of
the Crown, 61. Conference before Dissolution of the Long Parliament, 62. New
''Council of State," 63. Barebones' Parliament, 63. Resolution for total and
immediate Abolition of the Court of Chancery, 64. Difficulties in the Plan, 64,
Bill to suspend all Proceedings in Chancery, 64. Bill to abolish the Court, 64.
End of Barebones' Parliament, 65, Whitelock goos on an Embassy to Sweden, 65-

CHAPTER LXXII.

LORDS KEEPERS DURING THE PROTECTORATE OF OLIVER CROMWELL.

Cromwell installed as Protector, 65. Whitelock acknowledges Cromwell as Pro-
tector, 66. Lord Protector delivers Great Seal to Commissioners, 66. Crom-



CONTENTS. Vll

well's second Parliament, 66. Abruptly dissolved, 67. Cromwell's Ordinance
for Reform of Chancery, 67. Lords Commissioners refuse to obey it, 67. Lords
Commissioners summoned before the Council, 68. They are dismissed, 68,
Great Seal committed to the Keeping of a Colonel and a Major, 68. History of
Lord Commissioner Colonel Fiennes, 68, Judicial Conduct of the Colonel and
the Major, 69. Political Conduct of the Lords Commissioners, 70. Cromwell's
third Parliament, 70. Act for excluding the Stuarts, 70. Offer of the Crown to
Cromwell, 71. New Form of Government under "Petition and Advice, 71.
Cromwell creates Peers, 72. Lord Protector opens Session, 72. Reasons of
Summons declared by Lord Commissioner, 73. Proceedings in the House of
Peers. 73. Refusal of Commons to recognise the House of Peers, 73. Crom-
well dissolves his third and last Parliament, 74. High Court of Justice estab-
lished, 74. Whitelock refuses to be made a Viscount, 75. Death of Cromwell,
75.

CHAPTER LXXII.

LORDS COMiMISSIONERS OF THE GREAT SEAL FROM THE DEATH OF CROMWELL TILL

THE RESTORATION.

proclamation of Richard as Lord Protector, 75. Fiennes and Lisle confirmed as
Keepers of Great Seal, and Whitelock joined with them, 76. Opening of Par-
liament, 76. The three Commissioners of the Great Seal sit in the Upper House
as Peers, 76. Commons refuse to acknowledge them, 77.. Parliament dissolved,
77. Lord Whitelock again in the House of Commons, 77. New Great Seal or-
dered by Rump, 77. Ordinance for new Great Seal, 77. Act for reforming
Court of Chancery, 78. Bradshaw, Terryll, and Fountain, r new Commissioners
of Great Seal, 78. Oath administered to them, 78. Commission for hearing
Causes, 78. Rump again expelled, 79. Whitelock invited to join the Council
of Officers, 80. Whitelock sole Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, 80. He hears
Causes at Whitehall, 80, Proclamation for new Parliament, 81. Dialogue be-
tween Lord Keeper and a Military Officer on the Vices and Merits of Lawyers,
81. Project of \\ hitelock to carry the Great Seal to the King at Breda, 82.
Fleetwood consents to join in Restoration of Charles, 82. But is deterred, and
the Scheme is abandoned, 83. Its probable Consequences, 83. Lord Keeper is-
sues Writs for new Parliament. 83. Rump restored. 83. Alarm of Whitelock,
84. Whitelock sends the Great Seal to the Speaker, and conceals himself, 84.
His Treatment at the Restoration, 84. Charles II.'s Speech to Whitelock, 84.
Whitelock's Death, 85. His Character, 85. His writings, 86. His Sons, 86.
Great Seal in Custody of Speaker, 86. Delivered to Widdrington, Terryll, and
Fountain, 86. Act for dissolving Long Parliament, 87. Lords Commissioners
issue Writs for the Convention Parliament, 87. Lords elect Earl of Manchester
Speaker, 88. He is added as a Commissioner of the Creat Seal, 88. Difficulty
about use of Republican Great Seal, 89. Approach of King Charles II., 89. Re-
publican Great Seal broken, 89. Restoration, 89. Plan for adopting the Mosaic
Law, 90. Cromwell's rude Notions of Law Reform, 90. Enlightened Law Re-
formers under the Commonwealth, 91. Their Measures, 91. Parliamentary
Reform, 92. Cromwell appoints good Common-law Judges, 92. Equity ill-
administered during the Commonwealth, 92. Desire of Lenthall, Master of the
Rolls, to be a Peer, U3. Orders and Ordinances improving Chancery Practice,
94, Comparison between Republicans in England and in France, 94,

CHAPTER LXXIII.



LIFE OF LORD KEEPER HERBERT.



Reasons for writing Life of Lord Keeper Herbert, 95. Charles II.'s Great Seal,
95. Lost at Battle of Worcester, 95. New Great Seal in France, 95. Struggle
between Hyde and Herbert, 96. Herbert Lord Keeper, 96. His Birth, 96.



Vlll CONTENTS.

Practice at Bar, 96. Strong Prerogative Lawyer, 96. Made Solicitor General,
97. His Difficulties at Commencement of the Long Parliament, 97. Made At-
torney General, and leaves House of Commons, 98. His irksome Position in
the House of Lords, 98. He is ordered by the King to prosecute Lord Kimbol-
ton and the Five Members for Treason, 98. He imprudently obeys, 99. Prose-
cution against the Attorney General, 99. King's Letter acquitting him of all
Blame, 99. Serjeant Wilde conducts Prosecution as Manager for the Commons,
99. Serjeant Wilde's Notions of Parliamentary Privilege, 100. Dastardly Be-
haviour of the Attorney General's leading Counsel, 100. Attorney General's
Defence, 101. He is found guilty, and imprisoned, 101. Being liberated, he
joins the King at York, 101. Resides at Oxford. 101. Goes into Exile, 102.
Hated by Hyde, 102. Instance of his courteous Behaviour to Hyde, 102. Charge
against him by Hyde of Breach of Confidence and breeding Strife, 102. Decla-
ration on Accession of Charles II., 102. Herbert accompanies Duke of York
to Lorraine, 103. Herbert joins Charles II. at Paris, 103. Clarendon's Account
of Herbert receiving the Great Seal, 103. Herbert while Lord Keeper, 103.
Said to have originated Charge against Clarendon of corresponding with Crom-
well, 104. His Charge against Clarendon for abusing the King, 104. Charles's
noble Conduct on this Occasion, 105. Herbert dismissed from Office of Lord
Keeper, 105. His Grief, 105. The inglorious Termination of his Career at
Paris, 105. His character, 105. His Descendants, 106.

CHAPTER LXX1V.

LIFE OF LORD CHANCELLOR CLARENDON FROM HIS BIRTH TILL THE EXECUTION OF

LORD STRAFFORD.

His Family, 106. His Birth, 107. His Education, 107. At Oxford, 107. Studies
Law at Middle Temple, 107. Associates with dissolute Company, 107. Sent
as Marshal on the Circuit, 108. Marries for Love, 103. Death of his first Wife,
108. Gets into good Society, 108. His Friendship with Lord Falkland, 109.
His second Wife, 109. Death of his Father, 109, Devotes himself to Profes-
sion of the Law, 109. His Success, 110. Manager of the Masque to the Queen,
110. Happy Period of his Life, 110. His liberal Opinions, 111. Introduced
to Archbishop Laud, 111. The " Short Parliament," 111. Hyde attacks Earl
Marshal's Court, 112. Supports the Supply, 112. Tries to prevent the Disso-
lution, 113. Conversation with St. John on the Dissolution, 113. Arbitrary
Measures of the Government, 114. Long Parliament, 114. Hyde gives up his
Practice at the Bar, 114. Procures the Suppression of Earl Marshal's Court,
114. He assists in the Proceedings against the Judges, 115. Attacks Court of
the North, 115. Tries to raise a Loan for the Government, 116. Strenuously
supports the Prosecution against Lord Strafford, 116. Proofs of this Fact, 117.
Hyde supported Bill of Attainder against Lord Strafford, 1 18. Contrary Evi-
dence, 1 18. Question upon the Propriety of proceeding capitally against Straf-
ford, 118.

CHAPTER LXXV.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HE WAS SENT TO BRISTOL

WITH THE CHARG-E OF PRINCE CHARLES.

Dangerous Bill to prevent a Dissolution of the Parliament supported by Hyde, 119.
Alarm of Hyde when this Bill had passed, 119. He goes over to the Royalist
Side, 120. Designs of some popular Leaders, 120. Hyde opposes Exclusion of
Bishops from Parliament, 120. Bill for abolishing Episcopacy, 121. Hyde's
first Interview with Charles L, 121. Hours and Habits during Long Parliament.
121, Q,. as to Part then to betaken by a good Citizen? 121, " Remonstrance"
by Parliament, 122. Hyde's maiden State Paper, 122. He refuses Office of So-
licitor General, 122. Hyde. Member of Inner Cabinet, 123. Fatal Step of the



CONTENTS. IX

Impeachment of Lord Kimbolton and the Five Members, 123. Hyde sent by
Parliament on a Deputation to the King, 124. The King leaves London for the
North, 124. Militia Ordinance, 125. Hyde joins the King at York, 125. Pro-
positions of the Parliament to the King, 125. King's Answer, 126. Commence-
ment of Civil War, 126. Erection of the Royal Standard, 126. Hyde present
at Battle of Edge Hill, 127. Treachery of the King, 127. Hyde made Chan-
cellor of the Exchequer and knighted, 128. Battle of Newbury, 128. Death of
Lord Falkland, 128. Hyde disliked by the Royalists, 129. King's Proposal to
dissolve the Parliament at Westminstsr, 130. Parliament at Oxford, 130. Treaty
at Uxbridge, 130.

CHAPTER LXXVI.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HIS RETURN FROM THE

EMBASSY TO MADRID.

Prince Charles to be sent to the West, 131. Hyde appointed Head of his Council.
131. They proceed to Bristol, 132. Order from the King for the Prince to re-
tire to France, 132. Hyde and the Prince arrive in Scilly, 133. Hyde and the
Prince arrive in Jersey. 133. Prince Charles quits Jersey, 134. Hyde's Misfor-
tunes leads to his Celebrity, 134. His Residence in Jersey, 134. Writes his
History of the Rebellion, 134. His Applications for Assistance, 135. His Let-
ter to Colepeper, 135. His Correspondence with Charles I. 135. His Mode of
Life in Jersey, 136. He leaves Jersey, 137 At Rouen, 137. Taken by Pirates,

138. Joins Prince Charles at the Hague, 138. His Rivalry with Herbert, after-
wards Lord Keeper, 138. Embassy to Spain, 139. Hyde's Journey to Spain,

139. Hyde's Treatment at the Court of Spain, 139 Assassination of Ascham,

141. Ordered to leave Madrid, 142, Little Sympathy in Europe for the Stuarts,
or Enmity to the English Republic, 142. Hyde's destitute Condition at Madrid,

142. Lord Cottington, his Colleague, settles permanently in Spain, 143.
Hyde's Audience of Leave, 143.

CHAPTER LXXVII.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF CLARENDON TILL THE GREAT SEAL WAS DE-
LIVERED TO HIM AT BRUGES.

Hyde leaves Madrid, 143. Resides at Antwerp, 144. Summoned to Paris, 144.
Hyde's Bigotry, 144. Lucy Walters, 145, Dissipation of Charles, 145. Plan
for marrying Charles and the Duke of York, 146. Intrigues in ihe Court, 146.
Financial Difficulties, 146. Hyde's Dismay when the Great Seal was given to
Herbert, 148. Hyde's joy at Herbert being deprived of the Great Seal, 148.
His Interview with the Queen Dowager, 149. His Residence at Cologne, 149.
His Daughter Anne becomes Maid of Honour to the Princess of Orange, 150.
Treachery and Execution of Manning, 150. Q. Truth of the Story of Hyde now
trying to reconcile himself to Cromwell'? 151. Charles removing to Bruges,
Hyde left at Cologne to pay the Debts of the Crown, 152. Negotiation with
Sexby, 153. Plan for the Appointment of a Lord Chancellor, 153. Duplicity
of Hyde, 153. His Appointment as Lord Chancellor, 154.

CHAPTER LXXVIII.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF CLARENDON TILL THE RESTORATION OF

CHARLES II.

Occupations of the new Lord Chancellor at Bruges, 155. Illness and Death of
Cromwell, 155. Hyde's Plan of Action for the Royalists in the new Parliament,
156. Disso lution of Richard's Parliament, 157. Hyde at Brussels, 157. Pro-



X CONTENTS .

posal that Charles should marry the Daughter of General Lambert, 158. Hyde's
Intrigues with different Parties in England, 158. General Monk, 159. Hyde's
Difficulty in managing the Royalists, 160. Facility of obtaining Conditions from
Charles, 161. Sir Matthew Hale's Motion negatived, 161. Hyde composes the
Declaration from Breda, 161. Journey to the Hague, 162. "Embarkation for
England, 162. Restoration, 162.

CHAPTER LXX1X.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL THE MEETING OF THE

FIRST PARLIAMENT OF CHARLES II.

Clarendon enters on the Discharge of the offici.il Duties as Chancellor, 163. Takes
his Seat in the Court of Chancery, 163. His Unfitness to act as an Equity Judge,
163. Attempt to exclude him from the Office, 164. His discreet Conduct as a
Judge, 165. He refuses to give up the Great Seal to be ostensibly as well as re-
ally Prime Minister, 165. He appoints a Cabinet, 166. Bill of Oblirion, 167.
Clarendon discourages the Settlement of an independent Revenue on the Crown,

167. Abolition of military Tenures, 168. Compensation to the Crown unfairly
thrown from the Land on the public Revenue, 168. Disbanding of the Army,

168. Trial of the Regicides, 169. Exhumation of Cromwell and Blake, 169.
Clarendon's conduct in the Convention Parliament 170. He dupes the Presby-
terians, 170. Sir Matthew Hale's Bill for mitigated Episcopacy, 171. Sir Mat-
thew Hale made Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 171. Bill thrown out, 171.
Dissolution of the Convention Parliament, 171. Marriage of the Chancellor's
Daughter with the Duke of York, 173. Clarendon's hypocritical conduat on
this occasion, 173. Sir Charles Berkeley's false charge against Anne Hyde, 174,
The King reconciled to the Match, 174. Duchess of York's forgiveness of Sir
Charles Berkeley, 175. The Chancellor created Earl of Clarendon, 175.

CHAPTER LXXX.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HIS ACQUITTAL WHEN

IMPEACHED BY THE EARL OF BRISTOL.

First Parliament of Charles II., 176. Clarendon's designs against the Presbyteri-
ans, 176, Resolution of the Commons to expel Dissenters, 177. Bill for re-
storing Bishops to the House of Lords, 177. Corporation Act, 177. Act of Uni-
formity, 178. King's Marriage with Catharine of Braganza, 178. Clarendon
tries to persuade the Queen to receive the King's Mistress as one of her Ladies
of Honour, 179. Clarendon's ungenerous Reflections on the Queen, ISO. Cla-
rendon refuses a private Bribe from France, 181. But encourages the King to
receive Bribes from France, 182. Sale of Dunkirk, 182, The King estranged
from Clarendon, 183, Question of " Indulgence," 184. Bill to dispense with
Subscription to Doctrine and Discipline of Established Church, 184. Slate of
the Court, 184. Clarendon impeached by the Earl of Bristol, 185. His De-
fence, 186. Clarendon being acquitted, again in Powes, 186.

CHAPTER LXXXI.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HIS FALL.

The King's Declaration that he would not be bound by the Triennial Act, 187.
The Conventicle Act and The Five Mile Act 187. The Dutch War, 188. Con-
ferences at Worcester House, 188. Appropriation of Supplies, 188. Clarendon
resists Superintendence of Parliament over public Expenditure. 189. Clarendon
supports FreeTiade with Ireland, 190. Disgraceful conduct of the Dutch War,
191. Public Calamities, 191. Unpopularity of the Chancellor, 191. Clarendon



CONTENTS. XI

mimicked at Court, 193. La Belle Stuart, 193. Death of Lady Clarendon,

194. Intrigues against Clarendon, 195. Clarendon's Interview with the King,

195. Curiosity of the Courtiers, 196. Lady Castlemaine's Reproaches to the
King for not dismissing Clarendon, 197. Clarendon dismissed, 197.

CHAPTER LXXXII.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON TILL HIS BANISHMENT.

Clarendon's Firmness on his Fall, 197. The King's Behaviour to him, 198. Be-
haviour of others, 198. The King joins in his Persecution, 198. Articles of
Impeachment against him, 198. The King's Speech alluding to Clarendon's
Dismissal, 199. Address of the two Houses, 199. Motion for Impeachment,
199. 'Futility of the Charges, 200. Fury of the Commons, 201. General Im-
peachment preferred, 201. Lords refuse to commit on this general Charge, 201.
Quarrel between the two Houses, 202. Attempts to induce Clarendon to fly,
202. Clarendon's undignified Letter to the King, 203. The King's Advice that
he should fly, 204. Advice of the Duke of York, 204. Clarendon flies, 204.
Embarks for France, 204. Impolicy of his Flight, 205. Clarendon's Letter to
the House of Lords, 205. Letter voted Scandalous and Seditious, 206. Order-
ed to be burnt by the Common Hangman, 206. Bill for the Banishment of Cla-
rendon, 207. Bill receives Royal Assent, 207.

CHAPTER LXXXIII.

CONCLUSION OF THE LIFE OF LORD CLARENDON.

Clarendon's Adventures' after embarking for France, 207, At Roueu, 208. At
Calais, 209. Prevented by Illness from returning to England in time to prevent
his Banishment, he resolves to live at Avignon, 209, His great peril from Eng-
lish Sailors at Evereux, 210. He proceeds to Avignon, 210. Settles at Mont-
pellier, 211. His bodily Debility, 211. His literary Occupations, 212. Con-
version of his Daughter to Popery, 212. His Letter to her, 212. Her Death,
213. He retires to Moulins, 213. Charles II. refuses leave to Clarendon to re-
turn to England, 213. Works written by him at Moulins, 214. Removes to
Rouen, 214. His renewed Application to be allowed to return to die in England
refused, 214. His last Will, 214, His Death, 215. His Funeral, 215. His
Character, 215. His laudable Conduct before his Elevation to Power, 215. His
Errors when in Power, 216. His Merits as Minister, 216. As a Judge, 215.
He made good Judges, 219. He encouraged Law Reform, 219. Illegal Procla-
mations issued by him, 220. Improper Prosecution of Twyn, 220. Clarendon's
Speeches, 220. His " History of the Rebellion," 220. His Autobiography, 222.
His other Writings, 222. His Letters, 222. He assisted in the Formation of the
Koyal Society, 222. Chancellor of the University of Oxford, 222, His Man-
ners, 223. His Mode of Living, 223. Clarendon House, 223. Cornbury, 224.
Glory of his Exile, 224. His Descendants, 224.

CHAPTER LXXXIV.

LIFE OF LORD KEEPER BRIDGEMAN.

Sir Orlando Bridgeman, Lord Keeper, 225. His Birth and Education, 225, Call-
ed to the Bar, 225. A strong Royalist, 225. His services at Chester at the
breaking out of the Civil War, 225. He is expelled from the House of Com-
mons, 226. Attends the Convention at Oxford, 226. Titular Attorney General
to the Court of Wards, 226. Commissioner for the King at Uxbridge, 226. He
practises as Chamber Counsel during the Commonwealth, 227. On Restoration
made Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 227. Presides at the Trial of the Regi-
cides, 227. Made a Baronet and Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 228. His



Xll CONTENTS.

great Fame as a Common-law Judge, 228. His Hostility to Parliamentary Privi-
lege, 229. His Judgment that removing the Court of Common Pleas to a Re-
cess from Westminster Hall would be contrary to MAGNA CHARTA, 229. He
abstains from Politics, 230, He is sworn in Lord Keeper, 230. His Installation
in Westminster Hall, 231. A bad Equity Judge, 231. His Conduct to Lord Cla-
rendon, 232. Not implicated in the profligate Measures of the CABAL, 233. He
was prevailed upon to put the Great Seal to the " Declaration of Indulgence,"
233, Shutting up of the Exchequer, 234. Bankers apply for Injunctions, 234.
Shaftesbury and the King try to prevail on the Lord Keeper to grant the Injunc-
tions, 236. Lord Keeper refuses Injunctions, 236. And is dismissed from his
Office, 236. Supposed .additional Ground for Bridgeman's Dismissal, 236. His
Death, 236. His Character, 236. His Descendants, 236.

CHAPTER LXXXV.

LIFE OF LORD CHANCELLOR SHAFTESBURY FROM HIS BIRTH TILL THE RESTO-
RATION OF CHARLES II.

Sudden Transition from Bridgeman to Shaftesbury, 237. Shaftesbury's probable



Online LibraryJohn Campbell CampbellThe lives of the lords chancellors and keepers of the great seal of England, from the earliest times till the reign of King George IV (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 58)