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Professor in the Presbyterian College, Montreal.




GhapUr IX.
The Hittites in Eoyit (Contiuned) - - - 1

Chapter A'.
The Hittites in Ecypt {Cu^iclnded) - - - 28

Cliapter XL
The Hittites at the Tigkis and Eiphkates - - - 57

Chapter XII.
The Hittites at the Tigris and Euphrates (Continued) 81

Chapter XIII.
The Hittites at the Tigris ami Eiphrvtes (Goncbided) - - 109

Cltapter XIV.
The Hittites in Palestine and the Xeighbotking Countries

before the rise of the assyrian empire - - 13u

Chapter XV.
The Hittites in Palestine and the Neighkoukinc; Countries

liEEORE THE RiSE OF THE ASSYRIAN EmPIRE (Ci>liti uued) - 153

Chapter X]'I.
The Hittitks in Palestine and the NEKiHiiouKiN,; Countries

FJEKORE the RisE OK THE ASSYRIAN EmPIRE (C'liiii nVrd) - 181

Claipter XVII.

The Hittites in I'ai.kstune and the NKKiiip.ouRiM: Cointhif.s

liEFoitE tjie Rise of the Assyrian Emi'IRE (Cnwhidid) - 2(K5

chapirr xvm.

The HiiTFrEs in Con)'a( r with the Assviuan Emimkk 2l'7


Chapter XIX.
The Aryan Struggle for Supremacy over the Hittites of

Western Asia - - - - 256

Chapter XX.
The Western Dispersion of the Hittites - 277

Chapter XXI.
The Eastern Mkjration in Asia - - - 304

Chapter XXII.
The Hittites in America - . . . 340




The Hittites in Egypt (Continued).

ZoHETH had the good fortime to many Sherah, the <hiughter
of Beriah. She is said to have built Beth Horon, the nether and
the upper, and Uzzen Sherah. The Hebrew word, to build up,
is used to denote the founding of a family as well as of a house
or city, but ever since the days of Cain, who built a city and
called it after his son Enoch, the custom of commemorating the
birth of an illustrious child, by imposing its name on a town
continued to obtain, so that Beth Horon and ITzzen Sherah may
be taken to represent at least two of the sons of Zoheth and
Shei-ah. They are the Horus and Achencherses who iuniiedi-
ately follow Amenophis in Eusebius's version of Manetho's
eighteenth dynasty. To the name of Achencherses the note is
appended : " Under him Moses led the Jews in their Exodus
from Egypt." The wives of Seti Menephthali were Twea and
Tsire, the last being the Sherah of the Kenite record. Josephus
calls her Acencheres, but wrongly places her after Horus. although
two masculine Acencheres are placed after her. Uzzen Sherah
as Achencherses, Acencheres, Cencheres, Concharis, and in the annals Cingcris, is nlways connected with the Exodus of
Israel or sf)me singular calamity that belell E<:;;ypt. In Gi'eek
tradition he was Cenchi'ias son of l\)S('idon, and Cenchreae, the
])oi-t of Coi"inth on the Sai'onic gulf, commemorated him, while
the gulf itself, ]ik(; tlif Italian Surn-ntum and the Aurunei, bore
tlu- naiiH' of his t!ld('i' br(jtlicr Ibiroii oi- Choi'on. But the most
familiar (ii'i'ck form of his name was ('inyras. who liy \arious


writers is made the father or grandfather of Adonis, or is
identified with him. Adonis is the god Atin-re of the Stranger
Kings of Tell el Amarna in Egypt, among whom Eesa or Ishi
appears, and as a man represents his ancestor Othniel. He was
worshipped at Byblus in Phtenicia and m many parts of Greece,
his rites being celebrated by priests who shaved their heads after
the fashion of the Egyptian priests of Isis. Lucian says that the
ceremonies lasted two days.^ On the first all the people went
into mourning, coffins were placed before every door, and pro-
cessions filled the streets in which the images of Venus and
Adonis were carried to the sound of mournful music and the
loud wailing of their votaries. Many of these carried boxes or
vases in which they had reared half-grown herbs, emblematic of
the immature age of the god, and these gardens of Adonis they
carried at the close of the day to the neighbouring sea or stream,
into which they cast them amid great lamentation, to perish.
But tlie second day was one of rejoicing, in which they celebrated
the resurrection of Adonis from the dead. The story of the
death of Adonis is that he was a prince beloved by Venus, who,
in spite of her entreaties, exposed himself in the chase, until at
lenoth, having wounded a wild boar of unusual strength and
ferocity, the animal turned upon and slew him. This is supposed
to have happened at the Adonis river in Phoenicia, which in the
words of Milton :

'' Kan iurple to the sea, supposed with blood.
Of Thanimuz, yearly wounded."

The wild boar is a fable, for the fate of Adonis was always
associated with water. Not only was the river artificially
coloured by his priests so as to appear to flow with blood, but, as
has been told, the eml)Iematic gardens were thrown into the
water to die. Ludian also says that a head formed of papyrus,
or a vessul of papyrus containing a letter, was annually thrown
into the sea at Alexandria in Egj'pt and floated to Byblus, and
l)y its arrlNul there informed the women of Byl)lus that Adonis
wats ffjiind. Athenaeus and /Elian describe a fish called Adonis
which was e(jually at home in the sea and on land, spending half

' Luci;in, de Deii Syria.


its time on the shore, and the naturalist thought it was so called
because Adonis, the son of Cinyras, was in love with two
goddesses, one of the land, the other of the sea.- In another place
^^lian mentions a large lish found in the Red Sea which the
Arabians called Perseus.^ Now Cynurus was a son of the Greek
Perseus, so that all these particulars relate to the overthrow of
the Pharaoh of the Exodus in the Red Sea.'* The spectacle of the
Egyptians whom Israel saw dead upon the sea shore long dwelt
in the memor\" of the coast tribes, and, when the}^ saw the
singular lishes basking on the rocks or sandy beach from which
the waters had receded, it was but natural to name them after
the lord of the submerged host.

There is much confusion in the Greek accounts of Cinyras
and Adonis. Apollodorus places at the head of his genealogy
Cephalus.followed by Tithonus, Phaethon, Astinous and Sando-
chus the father of Cinyras, whose sons were Oxiporus and Adonis,
and whose three daughters died in Egypt.^ Tithonus is also
made a son of Laomedon, whose name as Ulam Bedan is repeated
in that of Phaethon. There is evidence of a union of the family
of Leophrah and that of Bedan the Zimrite in the Assyrian
record of the Patinians, some of whose kings are called Lubarna ;
and in the geographical nomenclature of Palestine, where the
transported Canaanitic Beth Horon the upper, was in the vicinity
of the tomb of liedan the Pirathonite. Astinous is, therefore, a
disguise of the name of Ishgi, who nnist have married a daughter
of Bedan. His wife's name on the monuments is Taia, of whom
M. Lenrrmant says : " This (jueen was not an Egyptian ; the
monuments represent her with light hair, blue eyes and rosy
cheeks, like the women of northern climates. An insci'iption
preserveil at the Cairo Museum mentions her fathe)' and mother
]y names which are not Egyptian, ami not even belonging to any
fortjiuii riiyal famil}'."'* Sandoclius the son of Astinous is Zolieth.
l^rot'es<or Sayee has exhilited the Ciliciaii eonnections of this
nann'. and the ( 'ilicians, le it remembere(l, are the Charashim

- At!i'-ti:fus, \iji. 5 ; Ailiaii, (!< Aiiiinaliiius, i\. 'M'>.

I >< Aniiiialilius, iii. l.'s.
* l'aw~aiii.-is, iii. 2.
A|..,!l.,'loru>, iii. 11, ;<.
' I.iiicpiiiiaiit, .\l,tini,-il, i. lil{S.


whose valley in Moab Josephus calls that of the Cilices.'^ Sandes
was a Cilician orod, and Sandochus is said to have e^one to Cilicia
from Syria and to have founded Celenderis there. On the
Assyrian Tnonuments two Cilician kings are mentioned, bearing
the names Sanda-sarvi and Sandu-arri.*^ Stephanus of Byzan-
tium states that Adana and Sarus founded the city Adana, and
that they were g'ods, along with Ostasus, Sandes, Cronus, Rhea,
Japhetus and Olymbrus. These are chiefly Ethnanite names,
Adana being Ethnan or Othniel ; Sarus, Seraiah ; Ostasus, Isghi
in an Astinous-like form: Sandes, Zolieth ; and Olymbrus,
Leophrah. The change of Zoheth to Sandes, Sandacus, Xanthus,
Zacynthus, is analogous to that which transformed Hod into
Hind and Bedad into Pandu and Pandion. Pausanias associates
Zacynthus with Eryx and Archon, who is Rakeni the uncle of
Bedan.-' The Irish annals also connect his father Ishgi jvitli that
Zimrite, making him as Ith the son of Breogan, and representing
Taia the wife of Ishgi by Tea the grand-daughter of Ith and wife
of HeremonJ" The Latin version mediates between Rakom and
Bedan by calling Ishgi or Acestes the founder of Segestae near
Eryx in Sicily, and representing him as the son of Egesta and the
river-god Crinisus ; while Egesta is the daughter of the Trojan
Hippotas who sent her away to Sicil}', lest the monster who
ravaged Ilium in the time of Laomedon should do her an injury.^^
Butes is called the son of Eryx, so that a marriage of Bedan with
the daughter of his uncle Rakem may reconcile all the accounts,
anfl this is confirmed by the statement of Pausanias that Lamedon
of Sicyon niari'ied Pheno the daughter of Clytius, which Clytius
as denoting the Gileadite family can have been no other than
his uncle Rakem. ^'-

Apollodorus gives to Sandochus in marriage Thanacea, or,
as some editions read, Pharnace, the daughter of Megessareus or
^legessaras, names which it is hard to connect with history, unless
Megessaras be an amplification of the name Sherah, and Thanacea

' Trans. Self. l')il). -Vi'cli. \u. 2sri : JoHeiilnis, .\nti<initirs, xiii. 15, 4.

* S'-c .Saycc, ^loiiuiucnts of t\w Hittites, Trans. Scic. Bib. Aix'li. \"ii. 28."i

'' Pausanias, viii. 24.

'" Kcatiiif,', 14(i.

" Virt^Hl, A\ni-\<\, \ar. Inc.

1- I'ausanias, ii. (i.


a corruption of Taliath, thus inverting the nomenchxture of the
Kenite and monumental lists. She was the mother of Cinyras,
who married Metharrae, daughter of Pygmalion of Cyprus, and
was by her the father of Oxiporus and Adonis. Panyasis, accord-
ing to Apollodorus, had a ditierent story which made Adonis the
son of Thoas king of Assyria and liis own daughter Myrrha.
This is the story that Ovid has versified, but he replaces Thoas
with Cinyras. From many sources Sir Lsaac Newton recon-
structed a stor}' of Cinj/^ras by which he attempted to explain
the fall of Vulcan from heaven.^^ Thoas married Calycopis,
daughter of Othreus king of Phrygia, and acquired the name of
Cinyras from his dexterity in playing on the lyre. Bacchus,
having entered his home and intoxicated the king, injured him in
his marital relations, but as a solatium made him lord of Byblus
and Cyprus, where he grew enormously rich and lived to the time
of the Trojan War. Adonis was the son of Calycopis. Here is a
plain confusion of Zoheth's union with Sherah and that of Hadar
with her cousin Mehetabel, for Othreus is Hadar. Much might be
reported of Cinyras, but the contradictory stories would only
confuse, and their contents are not to edification. He is not the
father of Adonis, but the same person, for Cinyras was a name of
that divinity.^* Thoas, who is called his father by Panyasis and
others, denotes not Tahath but Zoheth, and is thus the same
person as Sandoclms. His mother Sherah is a Pharaoh's daughter,
but Mehetabel, her cousin, whose father was Thothmes II., is the
saviour oii Moses. As Myrrlia Sherah appears to have been the
accomplice or victim in an act of the vilest incest, recalling the
story of the daughters of Lot. The Greek ti'aditions are only too
true. M. Lonormant says oi Rameses II.: "This Sun-king of
Egypt increased the royal harem to an unprecedented extent.
])urinLi: the sixty-seven years of his reign he had 170 children,
59 of tlioii sons. Considering himself superior to all moral
laws, Ik; (-ven went so far as to marry one of his own daughters,
t\\(' [iriiic(/ss Bcnt-Anat." '' Mr. Osbuni (|Uotes an inscription in
\\hich ;i Pharaoh, whom he calls Thothiiiosis, is styled the brother

'' ' 'l]i"ii'iliit(y of Aiiriciit Kini^'iluiiis.
' ' i ii/iiiaiit, Ri'li^fioii- ill' rAiiti(|uiti'-, ii. l."p.
F,'n"riii:ilit, .Maiiu:il, i. 2.")Ci.


of his mother, and between this Thothmosis and his father and
grandfather Mesphi-es Thothmosis he places the name Acencheres.^^
The same horrible story is told of the Indian Prajapati and his
daughter Sarawati, who, represented by a river, was said to flow
with blood ; it is repeated in Irish tradition, which makes Aongus
Tuirmheach the father and grandfather of Fiachadh Fearmara ;
and in the British legend of Vorti^ern.^" Professor Max Mtiller
has identified the Vedic Sai'anyu with the Greek Erin}-^, those
avengers of evil deeds who came to represent the remorse of an
accusing conscience.'^ The two Horons are their originals, Horon
the Tachatton and Horon the Elyon or Gelyon, whence came
Aurunca and Suessa Aurunca of the Italian Aurunci, the Hiranya
Aksha and Hiranya Casyapa of Indian mythology. Sons of the
injured Zoheth, they were the natural avengers of his honour and
their mother's shame. In the evils that befell Uzzen Sherah or
Acencheres, and for his sake fell upon all the land of Egypt, the
ancient world saw the hand of divine retribution and gave to it
the name of those most wronged.

Leaving the history of Zoheth and his sons for later consider-
ation, we must retrace our steps and take up the main Egyptian
line after the death or abdication of Mezahab. Taliath or Thoth-
mes II., who married his daugher Hatred and introduced the
Zoroastrian creed of which Mithra was the centre, does not seem
to have done any memorable deeds beyond commencing some
buildings in Ethiopia wdiich were completed by his successors.
We have seen that Saul or Osortasen III. and LeophvaU or Amen-
hotep II. were his contemporaries, the latter at Elephantine and
the former at Abydos and in Lowei" Egypt. When Saul died and
Ophrah met his fate, there was a time of anarchy. The Cymro-
Zerethite dynasty, which had powei'ful allies in Chaldea and
Mesopotamia, took possession of all Southern Palestine and
Ai'abia Petraea, and probably made common cause with the
representatives of the Ammonian line in Thebes. In Lycopolis
or Siout in Central Egypt the name of a king Rekamai has been

" Monunicntal ITistDi y of K^'vpt, ii. 302.

1" Muir's Sanscrit Texts, i. ; Keating : (ieotfrcy.

'** Chips ii. Coiniiarative Mj-tliDlogj'.

'" Ji>s<'iilins against Ajiion, i. 'J6.


found, who represents wliat was in the time of Jabez the vice-
regal family of Mareshah. The son of Mareshah was Chebron
or Hebron, who as Chebron or Chebros follows Amosis or Mesha,
with whom he was really contemporary, in the beginning of
Manetho's eighteenth dynasty. A son of Chebron was Rekem,
who maj'' be the Rekamai of Lycopolis, suppo.sed to be a Shepherd
king. The descendants of Rekem in succession were Shammai,
Maon or Magon, and Beth Zur. The latter name in Hittite was
Zur-vuna, and in geographical nomenclature was Saravcne in
Northern Commagene. It was probably the original of the divine
name Serapis, whose fanes in Greece Pausanias connects with the
Argive .Egyptus and with Alcon son of Hippocoon, who is
Rekem. The Serapium in Lower Egypt marks another stage in
the fortunes of Mareshah's family, and their* tinal stand in
Eg\'pt was made at the Serbonian marsh that extends almost to
the river of Egypt called Arish after Mareshah himself. Lycon
or Lycopolis may have received its name from Rekem, and the
facts that Zur-vuna was in Egypt and that the Deltite kingdom
of the Anubite Ammonites continued, are indicative of the support
that the obstinate Thebans received, not only in repelling the
three kings, but in retaking the short-lived empire of Saul.
Typhon had not yet taken refuge in the Serbonian bog. It was
the southern Pharaohs who tied, as .Tosephus tells us from
Manetho. His account is that Amenopliis collected the lepers
and impure people of the land (probably the Aadtous or Jahdaites
whoi^e name is translated, the impure), and set them to work in
the (juarries, at the same time granting at their re(|uest the city
of Avaris as their residence. There a priest of On or Heliopolis
united them and other ti'ibes in Egypt ami Canaan in a confeder-
acy. This Osarsiph, who may possibly l)e Zur-vuna, gave his
people new laws oppose<l altogether to those of tlie Egyptians,
requiring them to destroy the sacred animals, and ha\e no fellow-
ship with any tribes beyond the bounds of tlieii' oonl'ederation.
Marching .s(juthward to the number of 2()(),()0(), tlie\' i-a\aged the
countiy, setting towns on tire, profaning the temples, and making
the ])riests c<jok the sacre(l uiiimuls with the wooden idols, after
which th(;y stripjx-d them and drove them out ot" the land.
Amenopliis sent his son Sethos, surnaiiie(l llaiiieses, to a iVieiid of


his in Ethiopia, and marched against Osarsiph's host with
300,000 of the most warHke of the Egyptians. But his courage
failed him, and he retreated into Ethiopia without an engagement.
" For the king of Ethiopia was under an obHgation to him, on
which account he received him, and took care of all the multi-
tude that was with him, while the country supplied all that was
necessary for the foou of the men." Concerning the anarchy
and historical difficulties of this period, M. Lenormant writes :
" Everything shows us a time of trouble, of continual revolution,
and of civil discord. No doubt part of the disturbances, of which
the monuments bear traces, must have been contemporary with
Har-em-Hebi, and have lasted during the whole of his official
reign. In that period, we repeat, there are obscurities still
impenetrable in- the present state of knowledge, and which new
discoveries alone can dissipate." -'^

The Greek traditions confirm the statement of Josephus.
Tyndareus, who was now Hadar, tied from Tentyra and Abydos
to the representative of the line of Aphareus or Ophrah, and had
an asylum granted him in Talmis, opposite which a new
Dendur soon arose. x\nd Danae, with the infant Perseus, and
perhaps the aged Tahath his father, found their way also to the
court of Dictys. Thus the Elephantine kingdom became the
refuge of two monarchs, and its king Ishi, a third Amenhotep or
Amenopliis, might justly arrogate to himself the title of King of
Egypt. The same~ account is given in the Indian scriptures of
the Might of tlie royal line before the Kshattriyas or Achash-
tarites, and of the birth of Parasara, Parasu Rama and Urva, the
avengers of the slain in after years, in exile and deep distress.-^
Here, liowevei-, the real difficulty begins. Manetho's list of the
eighteenth dynasty is teri'ibly confused, yet he recognizes only
one Thotlniiosis and one Rameses, while modei-n workers among
the inoimments hud four Thothmes and three Rames(.'S. Mr.
Sharpe jtroves by monumental evidence that Thothmes II.
mairifd (^ueen Mytera or Nitocris, the successor of Menthesuphis,
in the language of the contemporary Kenite scribes, Matred,
laughtei- of Mezahab. This Mezahab is Har-em-hebi, the golden

Maiiiinl, i. L>40.

-Muir, Saii.-ci'it Texts, i.


Horns, father of Mutretem or Miitneteni, and M. Lenormant says
that Raineses I. was the grandson on the mother's side of Har-eni-
hebi." According to Mr. Sharpe, that gi"andson was Thothnies
III. - * According to Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Raraeses I. traced
his descent from Anienophis I., or the Kennezite Meonothai son of
Hathath and Abiezer.-^ The name Rameses, the son of the Sun, does
not occur in the Kenite list at all. It is probably a religious title
first niaile use of by Tahath or Thotlimes II. as the reviver of the
old Horite line of Ra, which descended to his son Beriah and to
Uzzensherah, the ofi'spring of that monarch. It is possible that
the second Tahath married into the family of Meonothai, and thus
counted his descent from the Amenophids, but the honour which
he accorded to Amun shows that he allied himself with the Jabez-
ites or Amenemes. It follows, however, that Thothmes III. and
Rameses II. are one and the same person,- and that the forty-seven
years of the former are included in the sixty of the latter-
Eusebius gives to Rameses a reign of sixty-eight years. According
to Josephus, the expulsion of the Shepherds took place in the
reign of Thothmosis, but the Bible statement that the captive
Jews built for Pharaoh the cities Pitliom and Raamses connects
liim with the latter name, for the Tahaths we)-e the descendants
of Etam, Atmos, or Pi Atum, after whom Pithom was called."
The name Rameses, although not a personal name, and thus
valueless in the comparative study of traditions, is useful as
indicating the point at which the old line of Ra regained Egyptian
sovereignty, and completely confirms the Bible story of Egyptian
rule and Israelite oppression. There were only two supreme
Pharaolis on the throne between the fall of the Hyesos and the
Exodus, the old king wlio died, and the young successor who
perislu'd in the waters of the Red Sea. The old king was the
Greek Perseus, the Indian Parasu Rama, and the Kgyptian
Thothmes III. and Rameses II. He was thus Mci'iah of the
Keniti' reeoi'd, who united two (l\'iiasties, being the son of

Tahath II.. the native Fliai'aoh, and of Matred the daughtei- of

Mezahi'.li, tli(^ last <if the 1 lycsos-Amiiioniaii line.

- .Manual, i. L'lO.

-' Hi~t..iv nf l':-v|>t. i. 17.

-' Rau litisiiir>'itns, apii. lik. ii. cli. \iii. (\i\tli <i\nasty).

' .[..-(Iilius a''aili>l .Xliioii, i. It; l'',\ii(lus, i. 11.


The monuments show that Mehetabel, the daughter of Tahath
II. and Matred, was much older than Beriah, thus discrediting
the romantic Greek legend of Danae which makes Perseus her
tirst-born. With her pai'ents she found refuge from the
tumultuary Hittites and Carians, who were ravaging Egypt to
the very borders of Nubia, in the kingdom of Ishgi. Although
this son of the great Leophrah had married a daughter of Bedan,
who even then it may be was acting as regent for his kinsman,
the youthful Baalhanan, and was thus associated with the ally
of the Egyptian spoilers, he courteously received the fugitives.
The descendants of Jabez and his son Mesha were sacred in his
eyes, for he called himself the tirst prophet of Ames and Isis, or
of Mesha and Hathath. Also the southern land which con-
stituted the kinofdom of the Tahaths seems to have been left
under his government, when the second of that name went to
Thebes to claim the empire that had been guaranteed to him with
his Theban spouse, for one of his officers, Necht-Ames, is termed
" superintendent of the double storehouse of all the gods in
Takahti and the god Ames in Xenti." At the court of Ishgi
another refugee from cruel enemies obtained shelter, Hadar the
son of Saul, and he succeeded in gaining Mehetabel for his. bride-
He thus became a fourth Thothmes, foi- the infant Beriah was
the third, and as such his consort's name is Mautemva, or, if the
boat-like Hieroglyphic at the foot of her cartouche be read hai'i,
the boat of the sun, Mautembari. Her Annnonite descent is clear,
for, assuming royalty as regent for her aged father and infant
brother, she wrote upon her monuments, " King Thothmes, she
has made this wo)-k for her father Amun." Hence .she is also
called by the TheV)an name Amun-nou-het. Still another name
borne by her is Thermuthis, which is the Egyptian Toer Maut or
great mother, out of which the Greeks made Andromache and
Andromeda. Homei- could not if he had tried been guilty of a
greater paradox than that which converted the chief enemy of the
Trojans into their protector Hector, the husband of Andromache,
for these are Hadar and Mehetabel. That Hadar's (pieen was as
warlike as himself cannot l>e averred, although her monuments
represent her d)'(;ssed as a man and engaging in foreign con(}uests,
for these representations may be attributions to the (jueen regent


of the acts of her warlike husband. It was indeed Adi-astus who
led the Epigoni back against Thebes. Prior to this conquest,
however, we learn from the stories of Ixion, Zohak, and Dictys,
that a struggle had taken place in the Elephantine kingdom.

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