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di spirito. Sonatas ; Concertos for various
instruments ; Six English canzonets ; Solos ;
Songs. He published, also : " Studio di
inusitM pnitica e teorica " ; " Aneddoti,"
etc. (London, 1830) ; and other treatises.
Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel.

in Venice, died there young, Aug. 14, 1845.
Dramatic composer. Works : Maria d' In-
ghilterra, given at La Scala, Milan, 1840 ;
Saffo, Venice, Teatro Fenice, 1841 ; C'andi-
ano IV., Florence and Milan, 1842 ; Gli
ultimi giorue di Suli, Venice, 1843. Fetis ;

Genoa in 1824, died there, March 31, 1885.
Pianist, organist, and dramatic composer ;
pupil of Bevilacqua, Serrn, and Sciorati in
Genoa, and later of Mandaniei in Milan.
Engaged as maestro concertatore in Am-
sterdam, he wrote the music of an opera,
Catiliua, which has never been produced.
On his return to Italy he became director
of singing in several of the theatres, and
produced an opera, Don Carlo, at the Carlo-
Felice Theatre, Genoa, in 1853 ; he rewrote
this opera later, and produced it as Filippo
H., but it was not so successful as at first.
Works : Pipele, opera buffa ; II matrimouio
per coucorso, do., Venice, 1858 ; II menes-
trello, do., Genoa, Teatro Paganiui, 1861 ; H
cadetto di Guascogna, do., ib., Teatro Carlo-
Felice, 1864 ; Several masses ; Some songs,
among which are, La croce della Mamma,
and a mazurka, Fiori d' Aprile ; Delia,
ballet, about the same time. Fetis, Suppk' -
nient, i. 246 ; Mendel, Erganz., 79.

FERRARO, Padre ANTONIO, born at
Polizzi, Sicily, in the second half of the
IGth century. Church composer, Carmelite

1 monk, and organist of his monastery at Ca-
tania. Works: Sacra? cantiones, collection
of 32 motets for 1-4 voices (Rome, 1617) ;
Ghiiiauda di sacri fiori (Palermo, 1623).
Fetis ; Mendel.

FERRER, MATED, known as Matenet,
born at Barcelona, Feb. 25, 1788, died
there, Jan. 4, 1864. Organist of great re-
nown, pupil of Francisco Queralt ; having
studied several instruments from his earli-
est youth, he became organist of the cathe-
dral at Barcelona when quite young, and
soon after assumed also the functions of
maestro de capilla. At the same time he
played in the orchestra of the Teatro de
Santa Cruz, and in 1827 was appointed its
conductor. By one of his biographers he
is praised as one of the greatest contrapuut-

I ists of the century. Fetis, Supplement, i.

FEHRETTI, GIOVANNI, born in Venice
about 1540, died ('?). He was a prolific
composer of madrigals and of cauzoni alia
napolitana, which, says Fetis, are full of
originality and worthy of more repute.
Wi n-l;s : 5 books of five-part canzoui (Ven-
ice, 1567-91) ; 2 books of six-part cauzoni
(ib., 1576-86); 1 book of five-part madri-
gals (ib., 1588). His madrigal, Siat' avvertiti,
for five voices, is in Webb's madrigals. Ft'-
tis ; Grove ; Mendel.

FERROUD, J. DENIS, born in France
about 1810, still living, 1889 (?). Pupil at
the Conservatoire, Paris, of Reicha and Fe-
tis ; in 1846 he was settled at Bordeaux, as
professor of harmony and composition, and
left that city in 1856, since when nothing
has been heard of him. Works : L'ficos-
sais, comic opera ; Several ballets ; Clovis,
ode symphony, Bordeaux, Grand Theatre,
1853 ; Jerusalem, ode-symphony ; Cantata ;
Stabat Mater ; Le papillon, chorus ; Le
retour aux moutagnes, do.; Choruses for the
synagogue of Bordeaux. Fetis, Supple-
ment, i. 327.

Carlsruhe, May 22, 1820, died at Bruns-
wick, Feb. 22, 1849. Dramatic composer



and pianist, son of Friedrich Ernst Fesca ;
pupil of Marx on the pianoforte, then at
Brunswick of Kapellmeister Wiedebein in
theory, and from 1834 in Berlin of Rungen-
hagen, August Wilhelni Bach, and Johanu j
Julius Schneider in harmony and composi-
tion, and of Taubert on the pianoforte. He
returned to Carlsruhe in 1838, made con-
cert tours through Germany, Austria, and
Hungary in 1839-40, was made chamber
virtuoso to Prince Fiirstenberg in 1841, and
settled at Brunswick in 1842. His songs
were, and still are, popular in Germany.
Works Operas : Marietta, given at Carls-
ruhe, 1839 ; Die Franzosen in Spanieu, ib.,
1841 ; Der Troubadour, Brunswick, 1847 ;
Ulrich von Hutten, five acts, Brunswick,
1849 ; 2 septets for pianoforte and string
instruments, op. 2 and 28 ; Sextet for do.,
op. 8 ; 6 trios for do. ; 3 quartets for strings ;
Duos for pianoforte and violin ; Grand so-
nata for do., op. 40 ; Fantasias, rondos,
etc., for pianoforte ; Songs (collection of j
48, Brunswick, Litolff, 1872). Allgem. d.
Biogr., vi. 722 ; Fetis ; Ledebur, Ton-
kunstler Lexikon Berlins, 151 ; Mendel ;
Weech, Badische Biogr., i. 243.

Magdeburg, Feb. 15,
1789, died at Carls-
ruhe, May 24, 1826.
Violinist, pupil in
Magdeburg of Lohse
on the violin, and of
Zacharia and Pitterlin
in theory ; went to
Leipsic in 1805 to
study under August
Eberhardt Muller and

Matthai, and also entered the Gewandhaus
and Theater orchestras. In 1806 he became
a member of the ducal orchestra at Olden-
burg, in 1808 solo violinist at Cassel, in
1814 visited Vienna, and in 1815 was called
to Carlsruhe as first violin and later as
Conzertmeister. Though ill several years
before his death, some of his last works
were among his best. Opinions differ as to

the merit of his compositions ; while they
show no peculiarly original style, they are
evidently the work of an earnest student of
classic models and of a master of technique.
Works : Cautemira, opera, 1819 ; Omar und
Leila, romantic opera in three acts, Carlsruhe,
1823 ; 20 quartets ; 5 quintets ; 3 symphonies ;
4 overtures ; 4 violin pot-pourris ; Vater Uu-
ser for soli, chorus, and orchestra ; and sev-
eral psalms and songs. A complete edition
of his 25 quartets and quintets has been
published in Paris (Rimbault). Allgeiu. d.
Biogr., vi. 722 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxviii.
545, 701 ; xxxii. 215 ; xxxix. Ill ; vii.-xlvii. ;
Fetis ; Mendel ; Rochlitz, Fiir Freuude der
Tonkunst, iii. 73 ; Schilling ; Weech, Ba-
dische Biogr., i. 240.

FESCH. See Defesch.

in Paris, Oct. 18, 1804, died there, Nov. 30,
1856. Pianist and organist, pupil in 1813
at the Conservatoire ; studied the organ
under Benoist, taking 1st prize in 1834.
He was organist of 1'Assomptiou, Paris, and
chef-d'orchestre successively of the concerts
of the rue Vivienue, of the Theatre Lyrique,
and of the Theatre du Cirque. Works : Or-
gan music ; Pianoforte music ; and L'Or-
ganiste fran9ais. Fetis ; Mendel.

FESTA, COSTANZO, born, probably in
Rome, near the close of the 15th century,
died there, April 10, 1545. He was elected
a member of the Pontifical Choir in 1517,
and afterwards appointed maestro at the
Vatican. It is more than probable that he
studied under a Netherlandish master. He
ushered in the great epoch of Italian music
which culminated in Palestrina, and may be
called the first great composer of the Ro-
man school. His compositions consisted
of church music a cappella, and madrigals.
Most of his published pieces are in the col-
lections published in Venice by Gardane
and Scotto about the middle of the 16th
century. His madrigal, " Quando ritrovo
la rnia pastorella " (Down in a flowery vale),
is very popular in England. Works : 1.
Madrigali a tre voci, libro primo (Venice,



Ant. Gardane, 2d ed., 1556 ; 3d, 1559) ; 2.
Motetti a 3 voci (Venice, 1543) ; 3. Litanise
Deiparse Virginis Marias (Munich, Adam
Berg, 1583). Separate pieces are found in
collections published in Venice and else-
where during the IGth century. Ambros,
iii. 565 ; Schelle, Die sixtiuische Capelle
(Vienna, 1872), 259 ; Eitner, 550.

Tram, Naples, in 1771, died at Naples, April
7, 1839. Violin virtuoso, pupil of Giardini
and Lolli on his instrument, and of Gar-
gano and Fenaroli in counterpoint ; accom-
panied Lord Hamilton, the English ambas-
sador, to Constantinople about 1799, and
after his return lived for a time at Milan.
In 1802 he became maestro di cappella at
Lodi, but returned to Naples in 1805 and
entered the orchestra of the Teatro San
Carlo as first violinist ; in 1812 he visited
Paris for about eight months, and after his
return to Naples was appointed maestro di
cappella at the Teatro San Carlo, in 1816,
and soon after also of the royal chapel and
of the king's private orchestra. Among his
compositions for the violin are 3 works of
duos and 2 works of quartets, published by
Girard at Naples. Fetis ; Mendel.

FESTGESANG (Festival Song), Schil-
ler's poem, "Au die Kiinstlcr," for male
voices and brass, by Mendelssohn, op. 68,
written for the opening of the first German-
Flemish Vocal Festival at Cologne.

FESTGESANG, for male chorus and
orchestra, by Mendelssohn (no opus No.),
written for the festival of the fourth cen-
tennial celebration of the art of printing,
Leipsic, June 24 and 25, 1840. The words
of the hymn, which was sung at the un-
veiling of the statue of Guttenberg in the
public square, on the morning of the 24th,
were written by Adolphus Prulss, a teacher
in the Freiberg Gymnasium. The work is
sometimes called the Guttenberg Fest-Can-
tate. Upton, Standard Cantatas, 263.

born in London (?) about 1680, died there,
July 24, 1752. Violinist, pupil of Richard

Jones and of Geminiani. He became a
member of the King of England's private
orchestra and first violinist of the Philhar-
monic Society of London ; and was made
musical director of Ranelagh Gardens at
their opening in 1742. He was one of the
founders of the London Society of Musicians
and its secretary for many years. Works :
Violin solos ; Symphonies, concertos, and
' sonatas ; Ode on the return of the Duke of
Cumberland in 1745 ; Addison's Ode for
St. Cecilia's Day ; Milton's Song on May
morning ; Cantatas and songs. Grove ;
Fotis ; Gerber ; Schilling.

FESTKLANGE (Festival Sounds), No. 7
of Liszt's SymphonischeDichtangen, written
at Weimar, 1856. Published, score and
parts ; also, two pianofortes, and pianoforte
four hands, by Breitkopf & Hiirtel.

FEST-MARSCH (Festival March), for or-
chestra, by Franz Liszt, written for Goethe's
birthday. Published, score and parts ; also,
pianoforte, two and four hands (Schu-

nung der hundertjiihrigen Gedenkfeier der
Unabhaugigkeits-Erklarang der vereinig-
ten Staaten von Nordamerika, for grand or-
chestra, by Richard Wagner. Written for,
and first played at the National Centennial
Exhibition, "Philadelphia, May 10, 1876,
whence called also Centennial March. The
stipulated price for this work was 5,000,
but Wagner received, through the efforts of
American admirers, double that sum, when
he needed the money for the first Baireuth

FEST-OUVERTURE (Festival Overture),
for orchestra, by Otto Nicolai, written for
the jubilee of the University of Kiinigsberg,
1844. Its theme is Luther's " Em' feste
Burg ist unser Gott."

FEST-OUVERTURE, for orchestra, in A,
by Joachim Raff, op. 117. In it, also, " Ein'
feste Burg " is used as a theme. Published
by Kistner.

FEST-VORSPIEL (Festival Prelude), for
orchestra, by Franz Liszt, written for the


Schiller and Goethe Festival, Weimar, 1857.
Published in score (Hallberger).

FETE DU VILLAGE, LA, opera in one
act, test by Desfoutaiues, music by Gossec,
represented at the Academic Royale de
Musique, Paris, May 26, 1778. Au opera-
comique in oue act, of the same title, text
by Etienne, music by Nicolo Isouard, was
given at the Opera Comique, March 31,
1811. La fete du village voisiu, opera-
coniique in three acts, text by Sewrin,
music by Boieldieu, was produced at the
Theatre Feydeau, March 5, 1816.

CHUS, LES, pastorale in three acts, with
prologue, text by Moliure, Beuserade,
Quinault, etc., music by Lulli, represented
by the Academic Royale de Musique, at the
Theatre du Bel-Air, Paris, Nov. 15, 1672.
This work, reproduced six times between
1672 and 1738, was the beginning of the
composer's successful career. It was first
published by J. B. Christophe Ballard
(Paris, 1727), Fetis being incorrect in speak-
ing of an edition of 1679.

born in Paris, Aug. 20, 1820, died there,
March 20, 1873. Dramatic composer, son
of Francois Joseph Fetis, pupil at the Con-
servatoire at Brussels, then in Paris of
Henri Herz on the pianoforte, and of Halevy
in composition. After his return to Brus-
sels he was put in charge of a course in har-
mony for young ladies at the Conserva-
toire ; for several years he taught harmony
and the pianoforte at Brussels and Ant-
werp, and in 1856 settled in Paris. Works :
Le major Schlagmann, operetta given at
the Bouffes Parisiens, 1859 ; several comic
operas ; Les legendes des siecles, morceaux
de salon, for pianoforte ; Romances sans
paroles, for do. ; 2 caprices d'etude, do. ;
Grand polka et redowa, do. ; Morceaux,
for harmonium and violoncello ; Album de
1861, melodies for 1 and 2 voices, with pi-
anoforte. Fetis.

Mons, Belgium, March 25, 1784, died in j

Brussels, March 25, 1871. The son of an
organist at Mons, he learned to play at an
early age the violin,
pianoforte, and or-
gan. He finished
his studies at the
Paris Conservatoire,
where he was the
pupil on the piano-
forte of Pradher
and Boieldieu, tak-
ing the prize for har-
mony in 1803, and,
for the second time, the second prize in com-
position in 1807. In 1806 he married ; on the
loss of his wife's fortune, in 1811, he retired
to the Ardennes. In 1813 he was appointed
organist and professor of music at Douai.
In 1821, on Eler's vacating the post, he was
made professor of counterpoint and fugue
at the Paris Conservatoire and librarian in
1827. In 1833 he was appointed director of
the Brussels Conservatoire and maitre de
chapelle to the King of the Belgians. He
wrote several ruemoires for the Belgian
Acade'nrie Royale. Fetis was a learned
harmonist and contrapuntist, and was a
noted champion of the old Italian, pure con-
trapuntal style. His operas, and chamber
and orchestral music, have now passed into
oblivion, and most of his church music is
unpublished. His most noteworthy com-
position is his Requiem (1850), written for
the funeral of the Queen of Belgium. But
he won his greatest fame as a musical the-
orist, historian, and teacher. His Treatise
on Counterpoint and Fugue is unquestion-
ably the best and most exhaustive text-
book on the subject in existence ; his Trea-
tise on Harmony, in spite of some incon-
sequences and now obsolete views, is still
one of the most remarkable theoretical
works in musical literature. As an histo-
rian he was voluminous, but not always
trustworthy ; his historical works are,
moreover, stained with an uncompromising
dogmatism. His Biographie universelle
des Musiciens (continued after his death by



Arthur Pougin) is still a standard book
of reference. Works Operas : L'amanfc et
le mari, given at the Opera Comique, Paris,
1820 ; Les soeurs jumelles, ib., 1823 ; Marie
Stuart en Ecosse, ib., 1823 ; Le bour-
geois de Reims, ib., 1824 ; La vieille, ib.,
1826 ; Le mannequin de Bergame, ib.,
1832 ; Phidias, not represented. Instru-
mental music : Overtures for orchestra ;
Sonatas ; Sextets ; Quintets ; Duos for piano-
forte and violin. Vocal music : Cauzonette ;
Masses ; Vespers, and much other church
music still in MS. Historical and didactic
works : Methode eleuieutaire d'harmonie
et d'accompagnement (1824, 183G, 18-11,
translated into English and Italian) ; Traite
de la fugue et du contrapoint (1825, 1846) ;
Traite de 1'accompagnement de la partition
(1829) ; Solfeges progressifs precedes de
1'exposition raisouue des priucipes de la
musique (1827) ; La musique mise a la
portee de tout le moude (1830) ; Curiosites
historiques de la musique (1830) ; Bio-
graphie universelle des musiciens et biblio-
graphie generale de la musique, 8 vols.
(1835-44; 2d ed., 1860-65; Supplement,
Pougin, 1878-80) ; Manuel des priucipes de
musique, etc. (1837) ; Traite du chant en
cho3ur, etc. (1838) ; Manuel des jeunes com-
positeurs, des chefs de musique militaire et
des directeurs d'orchestre (1837) ; Methode
des methodes do piano (1837) ; Methode
des methodes de chant ; Esquisse de 1'his-
toire de 1'harniouie, etc. (1840) ; Methode
clementaire du plain-chant (1843) ; Traitu
complet de la theorie et de la pratique de
1'harmonie (1844, 6th ed., 1857); Notice
biographique de Nicolo Pagauini, etc.
(1S51) ; Traite elemeutaire de musique, etc.
(1851-1852) ; Antoine Stradivari, etc. (1856);

Histoire generale de la musique depuis les
temps les plus anciens jusqu'a nos jours
(1869-76 ; finished only as far as the 15th

century). He left other works and treatises
unpublished. His eldest son, Edward Louis
Francois (born at Bouvignes, May 16, 1812),
is a professor in Brussels. He succeeded
his father as editor of the Revue musicale
in 1833-35, edited the fifth volume of
" Histoire generale de la musique," and has
published " Les musiciens beiges " (Brus-
sels, 1848), and other works. Louis Alvin,
Notice sur F. J. Futis (Brussels, 1874) ; Am-
bros, Buute Blatter, i. 141.

FEUER-SYMPHONIE (Fire Symphony),
by Joseph Haydn, written in 1770. It is
probably the overture to the opera Die
Feuersbrunst, an unrepresented work by
the composer.

FEUILLETS D' ALBUM (Album Leaves),
3 songs with pianoforte accompaniment, by
Hector Berlioz, op. 19. Jullien, Hector
Berlioz (1888), 378.

FEVTN, ANTOINE, born, probably at
Orleans, France, about 1490, died cer-
tainly before 1510. Little or nothing is
known of his life, but his compositions (in
spite of his early death) point to his having
been one of the greatest geniuses between
Josquin Despres and Orlando Lasso. His
reputation, during and after his life, was im-
mense. The opinion that he was a Span-
iard is rejected by the best authorities.
Works : 3 Masses, Saucta Trinitas, Mente
tota, and Ave Maria, from a book of Masses
(Petrucci, Fossombrone, 1515 ; only known
copy in British Museum) ; 3 Masses ; Ave
Maria, Mente tota, and De feria (-'Liber
quindecim Missarum," Rome, 1516 ; copy
in Mazariu Library, Paris) ; 6 motets from
"Motetti della corona" (Petrucci, 1514);
Motet, Descende in hortum rueum, and a
fugue, Quse es ista (" Cautiones selectfe ul-
tra centum," Augsburg, 1540) ; 2 Lamenta-
tions, Migravit Juda, and Recordare est,
(" Recueil de Lamentations de Jeremie,"
Paris, 1558) ; Detached movements from
masses in Eslava's Lira sacro-hispana ; Mag-
nificat in Attaignant's 5th book for four
voices, and 2 motets in his llth book (Paris,
1534) ; Chansons francaises iu "Biciuia gal-



lica, latiiia et germanica " (Wittenberg,
1545) ; 3 masses in the Ambraser Messen,
Vienna, and 3 motets in MS. in the same
library. A mass in MS., Salve sancta pa-
rens, the only copy, is in the Munich Li-
brary. A song of his, " Je le 1'airray," is in
the Haiieian MSS., and fragments of two
masses are in Burney's Musical Extracts ;
both in the British Museum. Ambros, iii.
274 ; Grove ; Fetis ; Burney, Hist, of Mus.,
ii. 530 ; Mendel.

FEVIN, KOBERTUS, born at Cambrai,
latter part of the 15th century, died after
1515. A contemporary of Antoiue Fevin, but
of another family. He was maitre de chapelle
to the Duke of Savoy. According to Fetis
his only known composition is a Mass for
four voices on the French chanson, Le vi-
lain jaloux, printed in " Missse Autonii de
Feviu" (Petrucci, Fossombroue, 1515) ; but
Van der Straeten mentions a Mass and an-
other church composition in the catalogue
of the Sixtiue Chapel music (1868), in which
he is called Robiuet Feviu. Fetis ; Van der
Straeten, vi. 463, 471, 474 ; Gerber ; Men-
del ; Schilling.

FEVRE. See Le Fibre.

FIALA, JOSEPH, born at Lobkowitz,
Bohemia, in 1749, died at Douaueschingen
in 1816. Oboist and violoncellist. Origi-
nally a serf, he taught himself the oboe, and
became a member, in Vienna, of Prince Wal-
lenstein's baud. In 1777 he went to Mu-
nich, and was engaged by the Elector Max
Joseph for the Electoral Chapel, and subse-
quently served in that of the Prince Bishop
of Salzburg, where he made the acquaint-
ance of Mozart, and through his influence
went to Vienna in 1786. After residing sev-
eral years in Russia, in the service of Count
Alexis Orloff, he returned to Germany,
and in 1792 became Kapellmeister to
Prince Fiirstenberg at Donaueschiugen.
Works : 2 sets of quartets for violin (Frank-
fort and Vienna, 1780, 1786) ; 6 duos for vio-
lin and violoncello (Augsburg, 1799) ; 2 sets
of trios for flute, oboe, and bassoon (Ratisbon,
1806). Grove ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Wurzbach.

FIANCEE, LA, opera-comique in three
acts, text by Scribe, music by Auber, first
represented in Paris, Jan. 10, 1829 ; in Ber-
lin, as Die Braut, Aug. 26, 1829. It treats
of bourgeois life. It was revived in Paris,
Feb. 10, 1858. Published by Breitkopf
& Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1829), with pianoforte
accompaniment ; Schott's Suhneu (Mainz,

opera-comique in three acts and six tab-
leaux, text by Scribe and Saint-Georges,
music by Auber, represented at the Opera
Comique, Paris, Jan. 11, 1864. The sub-
ject is from a tale by Boccaccio, put into
verse by La Fontaine. An opera-coiuique
of the same title, in three acts and four ta-
bleaux, text by Dennery and Chabrillat, mu-
sic by Henri Litolff, was given at the Folies
Dramatiques, Paris, Oct. 29, 1874. Subject
also from Boccaccio.

operetta, music by Edmond Audran, repre-
sented at the Menus Plaisirs, Paris, Nov.
8, 1887.

FIBICH, ZDENKO, born at Seborschitz,
Bohemia, Dec. 21, 1850, still living, 1889.
Dramatic composer, studied music first at
Prague, then at the Leipsic Conservatorium
(1865), and under Viucenz Lachner. In
1876 he became second Kapellmeister at
the National Theatre in Prague, and in 1878
choir-director of the Russian church. He
is one of the most prominent among the
young Czech composers. Works : Buko-
win, Czech opera, given at Prague about
1875 ; Blauik, do, ib., Nov. 26, 1881 ; The
Bride of Messina, do., 1883 ; Othello, Zaboj
and Slavoj, Toman and the Nymph, Vesna,
symphonic poems ; Two symphonies ; Sev-
eral overtures ; Two string quartets ; Melo-
dramas, choruses, songs, and pianoforte
pieces. Riemann.

FIBY, HEINRICH, born in Vienna, May
15, 1834, still living, 1889. Vocal composer
and violinist, pupil at the Couservatorium,
Vienna ; became in 1853 solo violin and
conductor of the orchestra at the theatre in



Laybach, Carniola, and in 1857 city music
director at Zuaim, Moravia, where be bas
done niucb towards tbe regeneration of mu-
sical life and tbe reorganization of churcb
music. He is most favourably known by
bis cboruses for male voices ; and bas com-
posed also three operettas. Mendel, Er-
giinz., 104.

FIDELIO, oder die ebeliche Liebe (Con-
jugal Love), German opera in two acts, text
by Joseph Sonuleithner, music by Beethoven,
first represented at the Theater an der "\Vieu,
Vienna, Nov. 20, 1805. The libretto is an
adaptation from the French of Jean Nico-
las Bouilly's " Lvonore, ou 1'amour conju-
gal," which had twice before been set to
music : by Gaveaux, as Leonore, ou 1'a-
niour conjugal, given at the Opera Co-
niique, Paris, Feb. 19, 1798 ; and by PaOr,
as Leonora, ossia 1' amore coujugale, given
at Dresden, Oct. 3, 1804. Beethoven re-
ceived the text in the winter of 1804-5, and
composed his score at Hetzeudorf during
the following summer. The opera, originally
in three acts, was produced under discour-
aging circumstances, the French having just
taken possession of the city, which was de-
serted by the court and nobility, and after
three representations (Nov. 20, 21, 22) it
was withdrawn. The work proving too
long, three numbers were dropped from it
and the libretto was reduced to two acts by
Stephen Breuning. In this form it was
given at the Imperial private theatre, March
29 and April 10, 1806, and again withdrawn.
In 1814 the libretto was again revised by
Friedrich Treitschke, and Beethoven re-
wrote and rearranged a considerable part of
the music. In this last form it was pro-
duced at the Karuthuerthor Theater, May
23, 1814. Beethoven wished the opera
called Leonore, but he was overruled by the
management of the theatre, and it was al-
ways announced under its present name.
Four overtures were written for it : 1. Leo-

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